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Technical Paper

The Development of Predictive Models for Non-Acidic Lubricity Agents (NALA) using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR)

This study describes the use of Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) to develop predictive models for non-acidic Lubricity agents. The work demonstrates the importance of separating certain chemical families to give better and more robust equations rather than grouping a whole data set together. These models can then be used as important tools in further development work by predicting activities of new compounds before actual synthesis/testing.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Passenger Car Motor Oils on Emissions Performance

Throughout the evolution of the automobile, passenger car motor oils have been developed to address issues of wear, corrosion, deposit formation, friction, and viscosity stability. As a result, the internal combustion engines are now developed with the expectation that the lubricants to be used in them will deliver certain performance attributes. Metallurgies, clearances, and built-in stresses are all chosen with certain expectations from the lubricant. A family of chemicals that has been universally used in formulating passenger car motor oils is zinc dithiophosphates (ZDPs). ZDPs are extremely effective at protecting highly stressed valve train components against wear failure, especially in engine designs with a sliding contact between cams and followers. While ZDPs' benefits on wear control are universally accepted, ZDPs have been identified as the source of phosphorus, which deactivates noble metal aftertreatment systems.
Technical Paper

The Role of Engine Oil Formulations on Fluid Diagnostics

Historically, vehicle fluid condition has been monitored by measuring miles driven or hours operated. Many current vehicles have more sophisticated monitoring methods that use additional variables such as fuel consumption, engine temperature and engine revolutions to predict fluid condition. None of these monitoring means, however, actually measures a fluid property to determine condition, and that is about to change. New sensors and diagnostic systems are being developed that allow real time measurement of some lubricant physical and/or chemical properties and interpret the results in order to recommend oil change intervals and maximize performance. Many of these new sensors use electrochemical or acoustic wave technologies. This paper examines the use of these two technologies to determine engine oil condition and focuses on the effects of lubricant chemistry on interpreting the results.
Technical Paper

The KA24E Engine Test for ILSAC GF-3 Part 1: Engine Design, Operating Conditions and Wear Mechanisms

The Nissan KA24E engine test is designated to replace the Ford Sequence VE engine test as the low temperature valve train wear requirement for ILSAC (International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee) GF-3. The KA24E (recently designated the Sequence IV A) represents much of the current world-wide material and design technology while retaining the sliding cam/follower contact found in earlier engine designs. The work presented here is the first of two reports. In this first report, the physical and chemical environment the KA24E engine presents a lubricant is characterized and compared to those of the Sequence VE engine. Valve train materials and wear modes are investigated and described. Although chemical analysis of drain oils indicate the KA24E procedure does not degrade the lubricant to the extent seen in the Sequence VE test, valve train wear appears to proceed in a similar manner in both tests.
Technical Paper

The KA24E Engine Test for ILSAC GF-3.Part 2. Valve Train Wear Response to Formulation Variables

The work presented here is the second of two papers investigating the KA24E engine test. The first paper characterized the KA24E engine in terms of the physical and chemical operating environment it presents to lubricants. The authors investigated oil degradation and wear mechanisms, and examined the differences between the KA24E and the Sequence VE engine tests. It was shown that while the KA24E does not degrade the lubricant to the extent that occurs in the Sequence VE, wear could be a serious problem if oils are poorly formulated. This second paper examines the wear response of the KA24E to formulation variables. A statistically designed matrix demonstrated that the KA24E is sensitive to levels of secondary zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDP), dispersant and calcium sulfonate detergent. This matrix also showed that the KA24E appears to have good repeatability for well formulated oils and is a reasonable replacement for the wear component of the Sequence VE.