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Technical Paper

A Study into the Impact of Engine Oil on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance through a Real-World Fleet Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-0299
Increasingly stringent vehicle emissions legislation is being introduced throughout the world, regulating the allowed levels of particulate matter emitted from vehicle tailpipes. The regulation may prove challenging for gasoline vehicles equipped with modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology, owing to their increased levels of particulate matter production. It is expected that gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) will soon be fitted to most vehicles sold in China and Europe, allowing for carbonaceous particulate matter to be effectively captured. However, GPFs will also capture and accumulate non-combustible inorganic ash within them, mainly derived from engine oil. Studies exist to demonstrate the impact of such ash on GPF and vehicle performance, but these commonly make use of accelerated ash loading methods, which themselves introduce significant variation.
Technical Paper

Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Durability – A Study of LSPI in Fresh and Aged Engine Oils

2018-04-03
2018-01-0934
Downsized gasoline engines, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) and turbocharging, have provided an effective means to meet both emissions standards and customers’ drivability expectations. As a result, these engines have become more and more common in the passenger vehicle marketplace over the past 10 years. To maximize fuel economy, these engines are commonly calibrated to operate at low speeds and high engine loads – well into the traditional ‘knock-limited’ region. Advanced engine controls and GDI have effectively suppressed knock and allowed the engines to operate in this high efficiency region more often than was historically possible. Unfortunately, many of these downsized, boosted engines have experienced a different type of uncontrolled combustion. This combustion occurs when the engine is operating under high load and low speed conditions and has been named Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). LSPI has shown to be very damaging to engine hardware.
Journal Article

Optimizing Engine Oils for Fuel Economy with Advanced Test Methods

2017-10-08
2017-01-2348
Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the world have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist to improve fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to the cost of implementation. One system that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Because of differences in engine design and architecture, some engines respond more to changes in oil viscosity or friction modification than others. For example, an engine that is designed for an SAE 0W-16 oil may experience an increase in fuel economy if an SAE 0W-8 is used.
Journal Article

Unique Needs of Motorcycle and Scooter Lubricants and Proposed Solutions for More Effective Performance Evaluation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0708
The operating conditions of a typical motorcycle are considerably different than those of a typical passenger car and thus require an oil capable of handling the unique demands. One primary difference, wet clutch lubrication, is already addressed by the current JASO four-stroke motorcycle engine oil specification (JASO T 903:2011). Another challenge for the oil is gear box lubrication, which may be addressed in part with the addition of a gear protection test in a future revision to the JASO specification. A third major difference between a motorcycle oil and passenger car oil is the more severe conditions an oil is subjected to within a motorcycle engine, due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities. Scooters, utilizing a transmission not lubricated by the crankcase oil, also place higher demands on an engine oil, once again due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screening Test Development

2006-10-16
2006-01-3271
The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper, we will describe a split-mu vehicle test and the development of a split-mu screening test. The screening test uses the SAE#2 friction test rig and shows how results from this test align with those from actual vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Lubricant and Fuel Derived Sulfur Species on Efficiency and Durability of Diesel NOx Adsorbers

2004-10-25
2004-01-3011
Global emission legislations for diesel engines are becoming increasingly stringent. While the exhaust gas composition requirements for prior iterations of emission legislation could be met with improvements in the engine's combustion process, the next issue of European, North American and Japanese emission limits greater than 2005 will require more rigorous measures, mainly employment of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. As a result, many American diesel OEMs are considering NOx adsorbers as a means to achieve 2007+ emission standards. Since the efficacy of a NOx adsorber over its lifetime is significantly affected by sulfur (“sulfur poisoning”), forthcoming reductions in diesel fuel sulfur (down to 15 ppm), have raised industry concerns regarding compatibility and possible poisoning effects of sulfur from the lubricant.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of the Sequence IIIG by the Study of Oil Consumption

2004-06-08
2004-01-1893
The Sequence IIIG is a newly developed 100 hour test used to evaluate the performance of crankcase engine oils in the areas of high temperature viscosity increase, wear, deposits, pumpability, and ring sticking for the North American GF-4 standard. Data from the ASTM Precision Matrix, completed in the spring of 2003, along with early reference data from the Lubricant Test Monitoring System (LTMS) showed unexpected test results for selected oils and indicated that percent viscosity increase and pumpability were highly correlated with oil consumption. This correlation led to an intensive study of the factors that influence oil consumption and an attempt to compensate for non-oil related oil consumption through a model based adjustment of the results. The study and scrutiny of the IIIG data has led to more uniform oil consumption in the test and improved test precision, and has eliminated the need for a correction equation based on non-oil related oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Over a Decade of LTMS

2004-06-08
2004-01-1891
The Lubricant Test Monitoring System (LTMS) is the calibration system methodology and protocol for North American engine oil and gear oil tests. This system, administered by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Test Monitoring Center (TMC) since 1992, has grown in scope from five gasoline engine tests to over two dozen gasoline, heavy duty diesel and gear oil tests ranging from several thousand dollars per test to almost one-hundred thousand dollars per test. LTMS utilizes Shewhart and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control charts of reference oil data to assist in the decision making process on the calibration status of test stands and test laboratories. Equipment calibration is the backbone step necessary in the unbiased evaluation of candidate oils for oil quality specifications.
Technical Paper

Developing a Precision and Severity Monitoring System for CEC Performance Tests

2004-06-08
2004-01-1892
The Coordinating European Council, CEC, develops performance tests for the motor, oil, petroleum, additive and allied industries. In recent years, CEC has moved away from using round robin programmes (RRP's) for monitoring the precision and severity of test methods in favour of regular referencing within a test monitoring system (TMS). In a TMS, a reference sample of known performance, determined by cross-laboratory testing, is tested at regular intervals at each laboratory. The results are plotted on control charts and determine whether the installation is and continues to be fit to evaluate products. Results from all laboratories are collated and combined to monitor the general health of the test. The TMS approach offers considerable benefits in terms of detecting test problems and improving test quality. However, the effort required in collating data for statistical analysis is much greater, and there are technical difficulties in determining precision from TMS data.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Effects on Friction and Wear Using 2.2L Direct Injection Diesel Engine Components for Bench Testing Part 2: Tribology Bench Test Results and Surface Analyses

2004-06-08
2004-01-2005
The effects of lubricating oil on friction and wear were investigated using light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine components for bench testing. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity, friction modifier level and chemistry, and base stock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Among all engine oils used for bench tests, the engine oil containing MoDTC friction modifier showed the lowest friction compared with the engine oils with organic friction modifier or the other engine oils without any friction modifier. Mineral-based engine oils of the same viscosity grade and oil formulation had slightly lower friction than synthetic-based engine oils.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Degradation of Viscosity Modifiers in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Lubricants in Field Service

2003-10-27
2003-01-3223
Modern multi-grade engine lubricants are formulated to “stay in grade” during field service. Viscosity loss during the early stages of lubricant life is commonly believed to be caused by mechanical degradation of the viscosity modifier in the engine [1]. The Kurt Orbahn shear stability bench test (ASTM D 6278, 30 cycles) has been the industry standard predictor of viscosity loss due to polymer shear in heavy duty diesel engine lubricants. However, the Engine Manufacturers' Association (EMA) has expressed some concern that it underestimates the degree of polymer shear found in certain engines in the field, such as the Navistar 6.0L HEUI (Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector) Power Stroke engine; a more severe bench test would serve to improve correlation with this and other similar engine designs. This paper offers a new approach for critically examining the relationship between the bench test and field performance.
Technical Paper

Counteracting detrimental EGR effects with diesel fuel additive

2003-05-19
2003-01-1915
A new generation of fluid technology using novel diesel fuel detergent/dispersant chemistry provides a multitude of beneficial effects to the diesel engine, especially the latest model designs. In addition to improved injector, valve and combustion chamber deposit removal, the additive restores power, fuel economy, performance and emission levels1. Positive observations have also been documented along with improved performance concerning crankcase lube viscosity, soot loading and TBN retention. An even greater added benefit is the inherent capability of the fuel additive to deal with several EGR issues now prominent with the introduction of new engines. Recent research, reported herein, has uncovered the extensive efficacy of this chemistry for piston durability and neutralization of ring corrosion phenomena. All of the beneficial additive attributes are further enhanced with increased oxidative and thermal fuel stability and no loss of filterability.
Technical Paper

The Development of CVT Fluids with Higher Friction Coefficients

2003-05-19
2003-01-1978
The development of new transmission designs continues to affect the vehicle market. Continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) remain one of the more recent designs that impact the vehicle market. A desire for high belt-pulley capacity has driven studies concentrating on metal-on-metal (M/M) friction as a function of the CVT fluid. This paper describes the statistical techniques used to optimize the fluid friction as a function of additive components in a bench-scale, three-element test rig.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Passenger Car Motor Oils on Emissions Performance

2003-05-19
2003-01-1988
Throughout the evolution of the automobile, passenger car motor oils have been developed to address issues of wear, corrosion, deposit formation, friction, and viscosity stability. As a result, the internal combustion engines are now developed with the expectation that the lubricants to be used in them will deliver certain performance attributes. Metallurgies, clearances, and built-in stresses are all chosen with certain expectations from the lubricant. A family of chemicals that has been universally used in formulating passenger car motor oils is zinc dithiophosphates (ZDPs). ZDPs are extremely effective at protecting highly stressed valve train components against wear failure, especially in engine designs with a sliding contact between cams and followers. While ZDPs' benefits on wear control are universally accepted, ZDPs have been identified as the source of phosphorus, which deactivates noble metal aftertreatment systems.
Technical Paper

Reducing Deposits in a DISI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2660
Direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technology offers tremendous potential advantages in fuel savings and is likely to command a progressively increasing share of the European passenger vehicle market in the future. A concern is its propensity to form deposits on the inlet valve. In extreme cases, these deposits can lead to poor drivability and deteriorating emission performance. This inlet valve deposit build up is a well-known phenomenon in DISI engines since even additised fuel cannot wash over the back of intake valves to keep them clean. Two lubricants and two fuels were tested in a four car matrix. One of the lubricants was a fluid specifically developed by Lubrizol for DISI technology; the other was a baseline oil meeting Ford lubricants requirements and was qualified to ACEA A1/B1/ ILSAC GF2 performance level. Similarly, a baseline fuel was tested against an additised system.
Technical Paper

Use of Virtual Tests in Establishing BOI/VGRA

2002-10-21
2002-01-2675
The Engine Oil Industry Base Oil Interchange (BOI) and Viscosity Grade Read Across (VGRA) guidelines developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) provide a means to significantly reduce the time to market for current technology oils. The guidelines also allow conversion of a fraction of the millions of dollars spent each year on engine testing in pursuit of API engine oil licensing into research testing and the development of fundamental knowledge. In the past, guidelines have been developed based upon a general assessment of minimal engine test data. Recently, however, regression models have been used to assess Base Oil and Viscosity Grade effects. The use of statistical regression models and Virtual Tests in determining effects to establish BOI and VGRA has several advantages. These advantages, demonstrated through an example and a case study, include volume of data and breadth of data.
Technical Paper

Using Cloud Point Depressants Opportunistically To Reduce No.2 Diesel Fuel Cloud Point Giveaway

2001-05-07
2001-01-1927
Diesel fuel is a blend of various middle distillate components separated at the refinery. The composition and characteristics of the diesel fuel blend changes daily if not hourly because of normal process variation, changing refinery processing conditions, changing crude oil diet or changing diesel fuel and kerosene market conditions. Regardless of the situation going on at the refinery or the market, the resultant diesel fuel must consistently meet established cloud point specifications. To consistently meet the cloud point specifications, refiners are forced to blend their diesel fuels in such a way that the resultant blend is always on the low side of the cloud point specification even when the refining process adversely changes the fuel characteristics. This practice has the effect of producing several degrees of cloud point “giveaway” when the refinery is not experiencing adverse swings in product quality.
Technical Paper

The Virtual Engine Test

2001-05-07
2001-01-1905
In API engine oil licensing, a candidate oil must meet the performance requirements of category defined engine tests. The reason for the engine tests is to assess the capability of the candidate oil in field performance. Unfortunately, due to the time consuming and expensive nature of most engine tests, a candidate oil is typically run only once or twice in an attempt to meet the performance requirements. Given that the results from most engine tests have large amounts of variability, the assessment of the candidate oil in several tests, although adequate, is obviously not perfect or inexpensive. The Virtual Engine Test is a process in which the time and expense of category defined engine tests may be reduced while maintaining, or even improving, the assessment of the candidate oil capability.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling of Soot Reduction in Diesel and Alternate Fuels using CHEMKIN®

2001-03-05
2001-01-1239
A new gas phase kinetic model using Westbrook's gas phase n-heptane model and Frenklach's soot model was constructed. This model was then used to predict the impact on PAH formation as an indices of soot formation on ethanol/diesel fuel blends. The results were then compared to soot levels measured by various researchers. The ignition delay characteristics of ethanol were validated against experimental results in the literature. In this paper the results of the model and the comparison with experimental results will be discussed along with implications on the method of incorporation of additives and alternative fuels.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection and Port Fuel Injection Vehicles: Part II - Lubricant Oil Performance and Engine Wear

1999-05-03
1999-01-1499
Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection (GDI) and two with port fuel injection engines (PFI) were tested in a designed experiment to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant type on engine wear and engine oil performance parameters. Fuel types were represented by an unadditised base fuel meeting EEC year 2000 specifications and the same base fuel plus synthetic deposit control additive packages. Crankcase oils were represented by two types (1) a 5W-30 API SJ/ILSAC GF-2 type engine oil and (2) a 10W-40 API SH/CF ACEA A3/ B3-96 engine oil. The program showed that specific selection of oil additive chemistry may reduce formation of intake valve deposits in GDI cars.. In general, G-DI engines produced more soot and more pentane insolubles and were found to be more prone to what appears to be soot induced wear than PFI engines.
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