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Technical Paper

A Study into the Impact of Engine Oil on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance through a Real-World Fleet Test

Increasingly stringent vehicle emissions legislation is being introduced throughout the world, regulating the allowed levels of particulate matter emitted from vehicle tailpipes. The regulation may prove challenging for gasoline vehicles equipped with modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology, owing to their increased levels of particulate matter production. It is expected that gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) will soon be fitted to most vehicles sold in China and Europe, allowing for carbonaceous particulate matter to be effectively captured. However, GPFs will also capture and accumulate non-combustible inorganic ash within them, mainly derived from engine oil. Studies exist to demonstrate the impact of such ash on GPF and vehicle performance, but these commonly make use of accelerated ash loading methods, which themselves introduce significant variation.
Journal Article

Impact of Lubricating Oil Condition on Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

Limited technical studies to speciate particulate matter (PM) emissions from gasoline fueled vehicles have indicated that the lubricating oil may play an important role. It is unclear, however, how this contribution changes with the condition of the lubricant over time. In this study, we hypothesize that the mileage accumulated on the lubricant will affect PM emissions, with a goal of identifying the point of lubricant mileage at which PM emissions are minimized or at least stabilized relative to fresh lubricant. This program tested two low-mileage Tier 2 gasoline vehicles at multiple lubricant mileage intervals ranging from zero to 5000 miles. The LA92 cycle was used for emissions testing. Non-oxygenated certification fuel and splash blended 10% and 20% ethanol blends were used as test fuels.
Technical Paper

The Use of Life Cycle Assessment with Crankcase Lubricants to Yield Maximum Environmental Benefit – Case Study of Residual Chlorine in Lubricant

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a methodology used to determine quantitatively the environmental impacts of a range of options. The environmental community has used LCA to study all of the impacts of a product over its life cycle. This analysis can help to prevent instances where a greater degree of environmental harm results when changes are made to products based on consideration of impacts in only part of the life cycle. This study applies the methodology to engine lubricants, and in particular chlorine limits in engine lubricant specifications. Concern that chlorine in lubricants might contribute to emissions from vehicle exhausts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), collectively called PCDD/F, led to the introduction of chlorine limits in lubricant specifications. No direct evidence was available linking chlorine in lubricants to PCDD/F formation, but precautionary principles were used to set lubricant chlorine limits.
Technical Paper

Are the Traditional Methods for Determining Depletion of Total Base Number Providing Adequate Engine Protection?

With the increasing use of modern, EGR-equipped, heavy-duty diesel engines and the use of lower sulfur and alternate fuels, such as biodiesel, lubricants are being exposed to a range of different compositions of acids. To complement the traditional detergent bases, todays lubricants have evolved to include a higher proportion of basic materials from amine-derived sources to aid in oxidation and soot control. This paper explores the impact of the different sources of acids, some of the issues they create and how they can be addressed, exemplified in a prototype CJ-4 lubricant formulation.
Technical Paper

Low Volatility ZDDP Technology: Part 2 - Exhaust Catalysts Performance in Field Applications

Phosphorus is known to reduce effectiveness of the three-way catalysts (TWC) commonly used by automotive OEMs. This phenomenon is referred to as catalyst deactivation. The process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) decomposes in an engine creating many phosphorus species, which eventually interact with the active sites of exhaust catalysts. This phosphorous comes from both oil consumption and volatilization. Novel low-volatility ZDDP is designed in such a way that the amounts of volatile phosphorus species are significantly reduced while their antiwear and antioxidant performances are maintained. A recent field trial conducted in New York City taxi cabs provided two sets of “aged” catalysts that had been exposed to GF-4-type formulations. The trial compared fluids formulated with conventional and low-volatility ZDDPs. Results of field test examination were reported in an earlier paper (1).
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubricant Derived Chemistries on Performance of the Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters

Forthcoming on-highway 2005/2007 European and North American emission regulations will require modern diesel engines to be equipped with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) capable of trapping up to 99% of the exhaust particulate matter. Since diesel particulates (soot) accumulate in the filter over time, the overall system needs to be regenerated by attaining the ignition temperature of soot, which in the presence of oxygen is >600 °C. Catalyzed DPFs regenerate at temperatures as low as ∼300 °C. One of the major issues facing OEMs, aftertreatment system manufacturers, and lubricant formulators is the potential effects of the lubricant-derived ash deposits and their impact on a pressure increase across filters, as well as overall filter performance and its service characteristics.
Technical Paper

Soot Related Viscosity Increase - A Comparison of the Mack T-11 Engine Test to Field Performance

Soot related viscosity increase has been reported as a field issue in some diesel engines and this led to the development of the T-11 engine test, incorporated in the Mack EO-N Premium Plus 03 specification (014 GS 12037). This study compares T-11 laboratory engine tests and vehicle field tests and seeks to confirm the correlation between them. The findings are that the T-11 test provides an effective screening tool to investigate soot related viscosity increase, and the severity of the engine test limits gives a substantial margin of safety compared to the field. A complementary study was conducted in conjunction with this work that focuses on the successful application of electrochemical sensor technology to diagnose soot content and soot related viscosity increase. This will be the subject of a separate paper.
Technical Paper

On-Board Sensor Systems to Diagnose Condition of Diesel Engine Lubricants - Focus on Soot

Soot is a typical byproduct of the diesel fuel combustion process, and a portion of the soot inevitably enters an engine's crankcase. A key functionality of a diesel engine lubricant is to disperse and suspend soot so that larger-particle agglomerations are prevented. The role of soot agglomeration in abrasive engine wear and lubricant viscosity increase is the subject of a continuing investigation; however, what is generally known is that once an engine lubricant loses its ability to control soot and a rapid viscosity increase begins, the lubricant has reached the end of its useful life and should be changed to maximize engine performance and life. This issue of soot related viscosity increase is of such importance that the Mack T-11 engine test was developed as a laboratory tool to evaluate lubricants. The newly proposed Mack EO-N Premium Plus - 03 specification includes a T-11 performance requirement.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Lubricant and Fuel Derived Sulfur Species on Efficiency and Durability of Diesel NOx Adsorbers

Global emission legislations for diesel engines are becoming increasingly stringent. While the exhaust gas composition requirements for prior iterations of emission legislation could be met with improvements in the engine's combustion process, the next issue of European, North American and Japanese emission limits greater than 2005 will require more rigorous measures, mainly employment of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. As a result, many American diesel OEMs are considering NOx adsorbers as a means to achieve 2007+ emission standards. Since the efficacy of a NOx adsorber over its lifetime is significantly affected by sulfur (“sulfur poisoning”), forthcoming reductions in diesel fuel sulfur (down to 15 ppm), have raised industry concerns regarding compatibility and possible poisoning effects of sulfur from the lubricant.
Technical Paper

Review of Exhaust Emissions of Compression Ignition Engines Operating on E Diesel Fuel Blends

Recently, research and testing of oxygenated diesel fuels has increased, particularly in the area of exhaust emissions. Included among the oxygenated diesel fuels are blends of diesel fuel with ethanol, or E diesel fuels. Exhaust emissions testing of E diesel fuel has been conducted by a variety of test laboratories under various conditions of engine type and operating conditions. This work reviews the existing public data from previous exhaust emissions testing on E diesel fuel and includes new testing performed in engines of varied design. Emissions data compares E diesel fuel with normal diesel fuel under conditions of different engine speeds, different engine loads and different engine designs. Variations in performance under these various conditions are observed and discussed with some potential explanations suggested.
Technical Paper

Counteracting detrimental EGR effects with diesel fuel additive

A new generation of fluid technology using novel diesel fuel detergent/dispersant chemistry provides a multitude of beneficial effects to the diesel engine, especially the latest model designs. In addition to improved injector, valve and combustion chamber deposit removal, the additive restores power, fuel economy, performance and emission levels1. Positive observations have also been documented along with improved performance concerning crankcase lube viscosity, soot loading and TBN retention. An even greater added benefit is the inherent capability of the fuel additive to deal with several EGR issues now prominent with the introduction of new engines. Recent research, reported herein, has uncovered the extensive efficacy of this chemistry for piston durability and neutralization of ring corrosion phenomena. All of the beneficial additive attributes are further enhanced with increased oxidative and thermal fuel stability and no loss of filterability.
Technical Paper

Lubricity and Injector Pump Wear Issues with E diesel Fuel Blends

The search for alternative energy sources, particularly renewable sources, has led to increased activity in the area of ethanol blended diesel fuel, or E diesel. E diesel offers potential benefits in reducing greenhouse gases, reducing dependence on crude oil and reducing engine out emissions of particulate matter. However, there are some concerns about the use of E diesel in the existing vehicle fleet. One of the chief concerns of the use of E diesel is the affect of the ethanol on the lubricating properties of the fuel and the potential for fuel system wear. Additive packages that are used to formulate E diesel fuels can improve fuel lubricity and prevent abnormal fuel system wear. This work studies the lubricity properties of several E diesel blends and the diesel fuels that are used to form them. In addition to a variety of bench scale lubricity tests, injector pump tests were performed as an indicator of long term durability in the field.
Technical Paper

Effects of Water-Fuel Emulsions on Spray and Combustion Processes in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

Significant reductions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines have been realized through fueling with water-fuel emulsions. However, the physical and chemical in-cylinder mechanisms that affect these pollutant reductions are not well understood. To address this issue, laser-based and chemiluminescence imaging experiments were performed in an optically-accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine using both a standard diesel fuel (D2) and an emulsion of 20% water, by mass (W20). A laser-based Mie-scatter diagnostic was used to measure the liquid-phase fuel penetration and showed 40-70% greater maximum liquid lengths with W20 at the operating conditions tested. At some conditions with low charge temperature or density, the liquid phase fuel may impinge directly on in-cylinder surfaces, leading to increased PM, HC, and CO emissions because of poor mixing.
Technical Paper

Effects of PuriNOx™ Water-Diesel Fuel Emulsions on Emissions and Fuel Economy in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The engine-out emissions and fuel consumption rates for a modern, heavy-duty diesel engine were compared when fueling with a conventional diesel fuel and three water-blend-fuel emulsions. Four different fuels were studied: (1) a conventional diesel fuel, (2) PuriNOx,™ a water-fuel emulsion using the same conventional diesel fuel, but having 20% water by mass, and (3,4) two other formulations of the PuriNOx™ fuel that contained proprietary chemical additives intended to improve combustion efficiency and emissions characteristics. The emissions data were acquired with three different injection-timing strategies using the AVL 8-Mode steady-state test method in a Caterpillar 3176 engine, which had a calibration that met the 1998 nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions standard.
Technical Paper

Jet Fuel Thermal Stability Additives - Electrical Conductivity and Interactions with Static Dissipator Additive

The primary goal of the USAF JP-8+100 thermal stability additive (TSA) program is to increase the heat-sink capacity of JP-8 fuel by 50%. Current engine design is limited by a fuel nozzle temperature of 325°F (163°C); JP-8+100 has been designed to allow a 100°F increase in nozzle temperatures up to 425°F (218°C) without serious fuel degradation leading to excessive deposition. Previous studies have shown that TSA formulations increase the electrical conductivity of base jet fuel. In the present paper, further characterization of this phenomenon is described, as well as interactions of newer TSAs with combinations of SDA and other surface-active species in hydrocarbons, will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening: Rotational Rheology Techniques to Determine Viscosity and Soot Structure in Peugeot XUD-11 BTE Drain Oils

The Association des Constructeurs Européen d'Automobiles (ACEA) light duty diesel engine specifications requires a kinematic viscosity measurement technique for Peugeot XUD-11 BTE drain oils. This viscosity measurement is used to define the medium temperature dispersivity of soot in the drain oil.(1) This paper discusses the use of rotational rheology methods to measure the Newtonian character of XUD-11 drain oils. The calculation of the rate index using the Hershel Bulkley model indicates the level of non-Newtonian behavior of the drain oil and directly reflects the level of soot dispersion or agglomeration. This study shows that the more non-Newtonian the drain oil the greater the difference between kinematic and rotational viscosity measurements Oscillation (dynamic) rheological techniques are used to characterize build up of soot structure.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling of Soot Reduction in Diesel and Alternate Fuels using CHEMKIN®

A new gas phase kinetic model using Westbrook's gas phase n-heptane model and Frenklach's soot model was constructed. This model was then used to predict the impact on PAH formation as an indices of soot formation on ethanol/diesel fuel blends. The results were then compared to soot levels measured by various researchers. The ignition delay characteristics of ethanol were validated against experimental results in the literature. In this paper the results of the model and the comparison with experimental results will be discussed along with implications on the method of incorporation of additives and alternative fuels.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection and Port Fuel Injection Vehicles: Part II - Lubricant Oil Performance and Engine Wear

Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection (GDI) and two with port fuel injection engines (PFI) were tested in a designed experiment to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant type on engine wear and engine oil performance parameters. Fuel types were represented by an unadditised base fuel meeting EEC year 2000 specifications and the same base fuel plus synthetic deposit control additive packages. Crankcase oils were represented by two types (1) a 5W-30 API SJ/ILSAC GF-2 type engine oil and (2) a 10W-40 API SH/CF ACEA A3/ B3-96 engine oil. The program showed that specific selection of oil additive chemistry may reduce formation of intake valve deposits in GDI cars.. In general, G-DI engines produced more soot and more pentane insolubles and were found to be more prone to what appears to be soot induced wear than PFI engines.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection Part I - Fuel System Deposits and Vehicle Performance

Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection and two with port fuel injection engines, were tested in 20,100 km intervals to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant on vehicle deposits and emissions, acceleration and driveability performance. The program showed that engine fuel system deposits, including specifically those on intake valves, combustion chambers and injectors are formed in higher amounts in the GDI engine than the PFI engine. The fuel additive used reduced injector deposits and combustion chamber deposits in the GDI, but had no significant effect on intake valve deposits, which are affected by crankcase oil formulation. In GDI vehicles, deposited engines were found to have increased hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions and poorer fuel economy and acceleration, but lower particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening Part 6: Base Oil Effects

One of the key functions of lubricating oil additives in diesel engines is to control oil thickening caused by soot accumulation. Over the last several years, it has become apparent that the composition of the base oil used within the lubricant plays an extremely important role in the oil thickening phenomenon. In particular, oil thickening observed in the Mack T-8 test is significantly affected by the aromatic content of the base oil. We have found that the Mack T-8 thickening phenomenon is associated with high electrical activity, i.e., engine drain oils which exhibit high levels of viscosity increase show significantly higher conductivities. These findings suggest that electrical interactions are involved in soot-induced oil thickening.