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Technical Paper

A Study of Axle Fluid Viscosity and Friction Impact on Axle Efficiency

2016-04-05
2016-01-0899
The growing need for improved fuel economy is a global challenge due to continuously tightening environmental regulations targeting lower CO2 emission levels via reduced fuel consumption in vehicles. In order to reach these fuel efficiency targets, it necessitates improvements in vehicle transmission hardware components by applying advanced technologies in design, materials and surface treatments etc., as well as matching lubricant formulations with appropriate additive chemistry. Axle lubricants have a considerable impact on fuel economy. More importantly, they can be tailored to deliver maximum operational efficiency over specific or wide ranges of operating conditions. The proper lubricant technology with well-balanced chemistries can simultaneously realize both fuel economy and hardware protection, which are perceived to have a trade-off relationship.
Journal Article

The Effect of Viscosity Index on the Efficiency of Transmission Lubricants

2009-11-02
2009-01-2632
The world is firmly focused on reducing energy consumption and on increasingly stringent regulations on CO2 emissions. Examples of regulatory changes include the new United States Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) fuel economy test procedures which were required beginning with the 2008 model year for vehicles sold in the US market. These test procedures include testing at higher speeds, more aggressive acceleration and deceleration, and hot-weather and cold-temperature testing. These revised procedures are intended to provide an estimate that more accurately reflects what consumers will experience under real world driving conditions. The U.S.
Technical Paper

Breaking the Viscosity Paradigm: Formulating Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency and Axle Life - Part II

2006-10-16
2006-01-3272
The popularity of light trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs), coupled with growing consumer demand for vehicles with more size, weight and horsepower, has increased the impact of these vehicle classes on the manufacturer's CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) numbers. Consumers often use light trucks and SUVs in applications such as prolonged towing at highway speeds, resulting in heavy loading and/or high operating temperatures in the axle. These conditions require superior axle lubricant protection, often provided by choosing a higher viscosity fluid (e.g., SAE 75W-140). Traditionally, the choice of these higher viscosity fluids for enhanced durability performance often results in reduced city-highway efficiency. This paper will describe the use of controlled axle dynamometer laboratory testing methods to develop fluids that maximize both fuel efficiency and durability performance across the wide spectrum of the new proposed viscosity classifications.
Technical Paper

Breaking the Viscosity Paradigm: Formulating Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency and Vehicle Life

2005-10-24
2005-01-3860
The popularity of light trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs), coupled with growing consumer demand for vehicles with more size, weight and horsepower, has challenged the original equipment manufacturers' (OEM) ability to meet the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) specifications due to the increased contribution of these vehicle classes on fleet averages. The need for improved fuel economy is also a global issue due to the relationship of reduced fuel consumption to reduced CO2 emissions. Vehicle manufacturers are challenged to match the proper fluid with the application to provide the required durability protection while maximizing fuel efficiency. Recent new viscosity classifications outlined under SAE J306 aid in more tightly defining options for lubricant choice for a given application. Changes to the SAE J306 viscosity classification define new intermediate viscosity grades, SAE 110 and SAE 190.
Technical Paper

Developing Next Generation Axle Fluids, Part III: Laboratory CAFE Simulation Test as a Key Fluid Development Tool

2003-10-27
2003-01-3235
The regulatory drive for emission reductions, increased fuel costs, and likely increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) requirements have made fuel efficiency a key issue for North American vehicle manufacturers and marketers. At the same time the popularity of sport utility vehicles and light trucks has made it more difficult to achieve CAFE objectives. In order to accommodate both public vehicle preference and government mandated CAFE requirements automobile manufacturers are seeking all available means to increase fuel economy through advanced system design, engineered materials, and improved lubricant technology. Axle lubricants can have a significant impact on fuel economy; moreover, axle lubricants can be tailored to deliver maximum operating efficiency over either specific or wide ranges of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Developing Next Generation Axle Fluids – Part II - Systematic Formulating Approach

2002-05-06
2002-01-1692
Light trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) have become extremely popular in the United States in recent years, but this shift to larger passenger vehicles has placed new demands upon the gear lubricant. The key challenge facing vehicle manufacturers in North America is meeting government-mandated fuel economy requirements while maintaining the durability required for severe service. In light truck/SUV applications, gear oils must provide operating temperature control under extreme conditions such as trailer-towing. Higher operating temperatures for prolonged periods can adversely affect metallurgical properties and reduce fluid film thickness, both of which can lead to premature equipment failures. In our view, operating temperature is an important indicator of durability. Unfortunately, lubricants optimized for temperature control do not always provide the best fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Developing Next Generation Axle Fluids: Part I - Test Methodology to Measure Durability and Temperature Reduction Properties of Axle Gear Oils

2002-05-06
2002-01-1691
Light trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) have become extremely popular in the United States in recent years, but this shift to larger passenger vehicles has placed new demands upon the gear lubricant. The key challenge facing vehicle manufacturers in North America is meeting government-mandated fuel economy requirements while maintaining durability. Gear oils must provide long-term durability and operating temperature control in order to increase equipment life under severe conditions while maintaining fuel efficiency. This paper describes the development of a full-scale light duty axle test that simulates a variety of different driving conditions that can be used to measure temperature reduction properties of gear oil formulations. The work presented here outlines a test methodology that allows gear oil formulations to be compared with each other while accounting for axle changes due to wear and conditioning during testing.
Technical Paper

Energy Conservation Through The Use of Multigraded Gear Oils In Trucks

1977-02-01
770833
Studies of selected automotive gear lubricants in heavy truck tandem axles and transmissions have revealed improvements in fuel economy associated with the viscosity of lubricants tested (grades 75W, 75W-90, and 80W-140). The testing included a heavy truck on-highway fleet test and test track operation. Standard laboratory gear tests on light viscosity monograde (SAE 75W) oils indicate that oils of this type may be deficient in EP protection. Combined observations show that there may be a critical balance between axle lubricant fuel economy benefits and axle durability in field service.
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