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Technical Paper

A Study into the Impact of Engine Oil on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance through a Real-World Fleet Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-0299
Increasingly stringent vehicle emissions legislation is being introduced throughout the world, regulating the allowed levels of particulate matter emitted from vehicle tailpipes. The regulation may prove challenging for gasoline vehicles equipped with modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology, owing to their increased levels of particulate matter production. It is expected that gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) will soon be fitted to most vehicles sold in China and Europe, allowing for carbonaceous particulate matter to be effectively captured. However, GPFs will also capture and accumulate non-combustible inorganic ash within them, mainly derived from engine oil. Studies exist to demonstrate the impact of such ash on GPF and vehicle performance, but these commonly make use of accelerated ash loading methods, which themselves introduce significant variation.
Technical Paper

Developing Efficient Motorcycle Oils

2018-10-30
2018-32-0021
Motorcycle OEMs faced with stringent global fuel economy and emission regulations are being forced to develop new hardware and emissions control technologies to remain compliant. Motorcycle oils have become an enabling technology for the development of smaller, more efficient engines operating at higher power density. Many OEMs have therefore become reliant on lubricants to not only provide enhanced durability under more extreme operating conditions, but to also provide fuel economy benefits through reduced energy losses. Unlike passenger car oils that only lubricate the engine, motorcycle oils must lubricate both the engine and the drive train. These additional requirements place different performance demands versus a crankcase lubricant. The drive train includes highly loaded gears that are exposed to high pressures, in turn requiring higher levels of oil film strength and antiwear system durability.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Late Stage Conventional Diesel Combustion - Effect of Additives

2018-09-10
2018-01-1787
The accepted model of conventional diesel combustion [1] assumes a rich premixed flame slightly downstream of the maximum liquid penetration. The soot generated by this rich premixed flame is burnt out by a subsequent diffusion flame at the head of the jet. Even in situations in which the centre of combustion (CA50) is phased optimally to maximize efficiency, slow late stage combustion can still have a significant detrimental impact on thermal efficiency. Data is presented on potential late-stage combustion improvers in a EURO VI compliant HD engine at a range of speed and load points. The operating conditions (e.g. injection timings, EGR levels) were based on a EURO VI calibration which targets 3 g/kWh of engine-out NOx. Rates of heat release were determined from the pressure sensor data. To investigate late stage combustion, focus was made on the position in the cycle at which 90% of the fuel had combusted (CA90). An EN590 compliant fuel was tested.
Technical Paper

Impact of Demanding Low Temperature Urban Operation on the Real Driving Emissions Performance of Three European Diesel Passenger Cars

2018-09-10
2018-01-1819
In Europe, the development and implementation of new regulatory test procedures including the chassis dynamometer (CD) based World Harmonised Light Duty Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) procedure, has been driven by the close scrutiny that real driving emissions and fuel consumption from passenger cars have come under in recent times. This is due to a divergence between stated certification performance and measured on-road performance, and has been most pointed in the case of NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions from diesel cars. The RDE test is certainly more relevant than CD test cycles, but currently certification RDE cycles will not necessarily include the most extreme low speed congested or low temperature conditions which are likely to be more challenging for NOx after-treatment systems.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Adverse Effects of Inlet Valve Deposits on SI Engine Operation, through a Novel Technique to Create Surrogate Deposits

2018-09-10
2018-01-1742
For gasoline spark ignition engines, port fuel injection (PFI) on a global basis remains the most common type of fuel delivery. When operated with lower quality fuels and lubricants, PFI engines are prone to suffering from the build-up of harmful deposits on critical engine parts including the inlet valves. High levels of inlet valve deposits (IVDs) have been associated with drivability issues like engine stumble and hesitation on sudden acceleration. Fuels formulated with the appropriate level of deposit control additive (DCA) can maintain engine cleanliness and even remove deposits from critical components. This study, involving a single cylinder research bench engine operated in PFI injection mode and heavily augmented with measurement equipment, aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the detrimental impacts of IVDs on engine efficiency and performance.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Test Precision in Latest Vehicle Technologies

2018-04-03
2018-01-0640
Demonstrating the cost/benefits of technologies in the automotive sector is becoming very challenging because the benefits from technologies are sometimes of similar magnitude to testing precision. This paper aims to understand vehicle-borne imprecision and the effect of this on the quality of chassis dynamometer (CD) testing. Fuel consumption and NOx emissions precision is analyzed for two diesel vehicles with particulate filter and SCR systems. The two vehicles were tested on a high precision CD facility over the NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) and WLTC (World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle) cycles. The CD base precision of testing was characterized between 0.6-3% depending on the cycle phase. A novel application of multi-variate statistical analysis was used to identify the factors that affected testing precision, allowing isolation of small differences that were not obvious when conducting cycle-averaged or cycle-phase-averaged analysis.
Technical Paper

Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Durability – A Study of LSPI in Fresh and Aged Engine Oils

2018-04-03
2018-01-0934
Downsized gasoline engines, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) and turbocharging, have provided an effective means to meet both emissions standards and customers’ drivability expectations. As a result, these engines have become more and more common in the passenger vehicle marketplace over the past 10 years. To maximize fuel economy, these engines are commonly calibrated to operate at low speeds and high engine loads – well into the traditional ‘knock-limited’ region. Advanced engine controls and GDI have effectively suppressed knock and allowed the engines to operate in this high efficiency region more often than was historically possible. Unfortunately, many of these downsized, boosted engines have experienced a different type of uncontrolled combustion. This combustion occurs when the engine is operating under high load and low speed conditions and has been named Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). LSPI has shown to be very damaging to engine hardware.
Technical Paper

A Mathematical Model for the Vapour Composition and Flammability of Gasoline - Diesel Mixtures in a Fuel Tank

2017-10-08
2017-01-2407
Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this, but a practical concern is the flammability of the headspace vapours in the vehicle fuel tank. Gasoline is much more volatile than diesel so, at most ambient temperatures, the headspace vapours in the tank are too rich to burn. A gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank therefore can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model is presented that predicts the flammability of the headspace vapours in a tank containing mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel. Fourteen hydrocarbons and ethanol represent the volatile components. Heavier components are treated as non-volatile diluents in the liquid phase.
Technical Paper

Extending the Limits of Fuel Economy through Lubrication

2017-10-08
2017-01-2344
It is anticipated that worldwide energy demand will approximately double by 2050, whilst at the same time, CO2 emissions need to be halved. Therefore, there is increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of all machines, with great focus on improving the fuel efficiency of passenger cars. The use of downsized, boosted, gasoline engines, can lead to exceptional fuel economy, and on a well-to-wheels basis, can give similar CO2 emissions to electric vehicles (depending, of course, on how the electricity is generated). In this paper, the development of a low weight concept car is reported. The car is equipped with a three-cylinder 0.66 litre gasoline engine, and has achieved over 100 miles per imperial gallon, in real world driving conditions.
Journal Article

Optimizing Engine Oils for Fuel Economy with Advanced Test Methods

2017-10-08
2017-01-2348
Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the world have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist to improve fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to the cost of implementation. One system that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Because of differences in engine design and architecture, some engines respond more to changes in oil viscosity or friction modification than others. For example, an engine that is designed for an SAE 0W-16 oil may experience an increase in fuel economy if an SAE 0W-8 is used.
Journal Article

Development of a Fuel System Cleanliness Test Method in a Euro 4 Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine (VW 1.4 L TSI 90 kW)

2017-10-08
2017-01-2296
Driven by increasingly stringent tailpipe CO2 and fuel economy regulations, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are enjoying rapidly increasing market penetration. Already more than 50% of newly produced vehicles in the US and western Europe employ direct-injection technology and many markets in Asia are also seeing an increasingly rapid uptake. However, with the adoption of GDI engine technology, which is able to push the boundaries of engine efficiency, new challenges are starting to arise such as injector nozzle deposits, which can adversely affect performance. Multi-hole solenoid actuated fuel injectors are particularly vulnerable to deposits formed when operated on some market fuels. In order to address this challenge, the development of a reliable industry test platform for injector cleanliness in GDI engines is currently underway in both the US and Europe.
Journal Article

A Chemical and Morphological Study of Diesel Injector Nozzle Deposits - Insights into their Formation and Growth Mechanisms

2017-03-28
2017-01-0798
Modern diesel passenger car technology continues to develop rapidly in response to demanding emissions, performance, refinement, cost and fuel efficiency requirements. This has included the implementation of high pressure common rail fuel systems employing high precision injectors with complex injection strategies, higher hydraulic efficiency injector nozzles and in some cases <100µm nozzle hole diameters. With the trend towards lower diameter diesel injector nozzle holes and reduced cleaning through cavitation with higher hydraulic efficiency nozzles, it is increasingly important to focus on understanding the mechanism of diesel injector nozzle deposit formation and growth. In this study such deposits were analysed by cross-sectioning the diesel injector along the length of the nozzle hole enabling in-depth analysis of deposit morphology and composition change from the inlet to the outlet, using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques.
Journal Article

Engine Oil Fuel Economy Testing - A Tale of Two Tests

2017-03-28
2017-01-0882
Fuel economy is not an absolute attribute, but is highly dependent on the method used to evaluate it. In this work, two test methods are used to evaluate the differences in fuel economy brought about by changes in engine oil viscosity grade and additive chemistry. The two test methods include a chassis dynamometer vehicle test and an engine dynamometer test. The vehicle testing was conducted using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing protocol while the engine dynamometer test uses the proposed American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Sequence VIE fuel economy improvement 1 (FEI1) testing methodology. In an effort to improve agreement between the two testing methods, the same model engine was used in both test methods, the General Motors (GM) 3.6 L V6 (used in the 2012 model year Chevrolet™ Malibu™ engine). Within the lubricant industry, this choice of engine is reinforced because it has been selected for use in the proposed Sequence VIE fuel economy test.
Technical Paper

Research on the Effect of Lubricant Oil and Fuel Properties on LSPI Occurrence in Boosted S. I. Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2292
The effects of lubricant oil and fuel properties on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) occurrence in boosted S.I. engines were experimentally evaluated with multi-cylinder engine and de-correlated oil and fuel matrices. Further, the auto-ignitability of fuel spray droplets and evaporated homogeneous fuel/oil mixtures were evaluated in a combustion bomb and pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) tests to analyze the fundamental ignition process. The work investigated the effect of engine conditions, fuel volatility and various lubricant additives on LSPI occurrence. The results support the validity of aspects of the LSPI mechanism hypothesis based on the phenomenon of droplets of lubricant oil/fuel mixture (caused by adhesion of fuel spray on the liner wall) flying into the chamber and autoigniting before spark ignition.
Journal Article

Analysis of a Diesel Passenger Car Behavior On-Road and over Certification Duty Cycles

2016-10-17
2016-01-2328
Precise, repeatable and representative testing is a key tool for developing and demonstrating automotive fuel and lubricant products. This paper reports on the first findings of a project that aims to determine the requirements for highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in fuel economy and powertrain performance. This will be underpinned by identifying and quantifying the variations inherent to this specific test vehicle, both on-road and on Chassis Dynamometer (CD), that create a barrier to improved testing methods. In this initial work, a comparison was made between on-road driving, the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) cycles to understand the behavior of various vehicle systems along with the discrepancies that can arise owing to the particular conditions of the standard test cycles.
Technical Paper

A Study of Axle Fluid Viscosity and Friction Impact on Axle Efficiency

2016-04-05
2016-01-0899
The growing need for improved fuel economy is a global challenge due to continuously tightening environmental regulations targeting lower CO2 emission levels via reduced fuel consumption in vehicles. In order to reach these fuel efficiency targets, it necessitates improvements in vehicle transmission hardware components by applying advanced technologies in design, materials and surface treatments etc., as well as matching lubricant formulations with appropriate additive chemistry. Axle lubricants have a considerable impact on fuel economy. More importantly, they can be tailored to deliver maximum operational efficiency over specific or wide ranges of operating conditions. The proper lubricant technology with well-balanced chemistries can simultaneously realize both fuel economy and hardware protection, which are perceived to have a trade-off relationship.
Journal Article

Unique Needs of Motorcycle and Scooter Lubricants and Proposed Solutions for More Effective Performance Evaluation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0708
The operating conditions of a typical motorcycle are considerably different than those of a typical passenger car and thus require an oil capable of handling the unique demands. One primary difference, wet clutch lubrication, is already addressed by the current JASO four-stroke motorcycle engine oil specification (JASO T 903:2011). Another challenge for the oil is gear box lubrication, which may be addressed in part with the addition of a gear protection test in a future revision to the JASO specification. A third major difference between a motorcycle oil and passenger car oil is the more severe conditions an oil is subjected to within a motorcycle engine, due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities. Scooters, utilizing a transmission not lubricated by the crankcase oil, also place higher demands on an engine oil, once again due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities.
Journal Article

Computer Simulation Studies of Adsorption of Binary and Ternary Mixtures of Gasoline Components in Engine Deposits

2014-10-13
2014-01-2719
Carbonaceous deposits can accumulate on various surfaces of the internal combustion engine and affect its performance. The porous nature of these deposits means that they act like a “sponge”, adsorbing fuel components and changing both the composition and the amount of fuel in the combustion chamber. Here we use a previously developed and validated model of engine deposits to predict adsorption of normal heptane, isooctane, toluene and their mixtures in deposits of different origin within a port fuel injected spark ignition engine (Combustion Chamber Deposits, or CCDs, and Intake Valve Deposits, or IVDs) and under different conditions. We explore the influence of molecular structure of adsorbing species, composition of the bulk mixture and temperature on the uptake and selectivity behaviour of the deposits. While deposits generally show high capacity toward all three components, we observe that selectivity behaviour is a more subtle and complex property.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Octane, Sensitivity and K on the Performance and Fuel Economy of a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Vehicle

2014-04-01
2014-01-1216
This study investigates the effects of octane quality on the performance, i.e., acceleration and power, and fuel economy (FE) of one late model US vehicle, which is powered by a small displacement, turbocharged, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The relative importance of the gasoline parameters Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) in meeting the octane requirement of this engine to run at an optimum spark timing for the given demand was considered by evaluating the octane index (OI), where OI = (1-K) RON + K MON and K is a constant depending on engine design and operating conditions. Over wide open throttle (WOT) accelerations, the average K of this Pontiac Solstice was determined as −0.75, whereby a lower MON would give a higher OI, a higher knock resistance and better performance.
Journal Article

Ultra Boost for Economy: Extending the Limits of Extreme Engine Downsizing

2014-04-01
2014-01-1185
The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the ‘Ultra Boost for Economy’ collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization.
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