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Technical Paper

Effect of E-Modulus Variation on Springbackand a Practical Solution

2018-04-03
2018-01-0630
Springback affects the dimensional accuracy and final shape of stamped parts. Accurate prediction of springback is necessary to design dies that produce the desired part geometry and tolerances. Springback occurs after stamping and ejection of the part because the state of the stresses and strains in the deformed material has changed. To accurately predict springback through finite element analysis, the material model should be well defined for accurate simulation and prediction of stresses and strains after unloading. Despite the development of several advanced material models that comprehensively describe the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior, permanent softening of the blank material, and unloading elastic modulus degradation, the prediction of springback is still not satisfactory for production parts. Dies are often recut several times, after the first tryouts, to compensate for springback and achieve the required part geometry.
Journal Article

CVJ and Knuckle Design Optimization to Protect Inboard Wheel Bearing Seals from Splash

2016-09-18
2016-01-1956
For higher mileage vehicles, noise from contaminant ingress is one of the largest durability issues for wheel bearings. The mileage that wheel bearing sealing issues increase can vary due to multiple factors, such as the level of corrosion for the vehicle and the mating components around the wheel bearing. In general, sealing issues increase after 20,000 to 30,000 km. Protecting the seals from splash is a key step in extending bearing life. Benchmarking has shown a variety of different brake corner designs to protect the bearing from splash. This report examines the effect of factors from different designs, such as the radial gap between constant velocity joint (CVJ) slinger and the knuckle, knuckle labyrinth height and varying slinger designs to minimize the amount of splash to the bearing inboard seal. This report reviews some of the bearing seal failure modes caused by splash.
Journal Article

Effect of the Tooth Surface Waviness on the Dynamics and Structure-Borne Noise of a Spur Gear Pair

2013-05-13
2013-01-1877
This article studies the effects of tooth surface waviness and sliding friction on the dynamics and radiated structure-borne noise of a spur gear pair. This study is conducted using an improved gear dynamics model while taking into account the sliding frictional contact between meshing teeth. An analytical six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) linear time varying (LTV) model is developed to predict system responses and bearing forces. The time varying mesh stiffness is calculated using a gear contact mechanics code. A Coulomb friction model is used to calculate the sliding frictional forces. Experimental measurements of partial pressure to acceleration transfer functions are used to calculate the radiated structure-borne noise level. The roles of various time-varying parameters on gear dynamics are analyzed (for a specific example case), and the predictions from the analytical model are compared with prior literature.
Journal Article

Transient Response of Hydraulic Bushing with Inertia Track and Orifice-Like Elements

2013-05-13
2013-01-1927
Hydraulic bushings are widely used in vehicle applications, such as suspension and sub-frame systems, for motion control and noise and vibration isolation. To study the dynamic properties of such devices, a controlled laboratory bushing prototype is designed and fabricated. This device has the capability of varying different combinations of long and short flow passages and flow restriction elements. Transient experiments with step-up and step-down excitations are conducted on the prototype, and the transmitted force responses are measured. The transient properties of several commonly seen hydraulic bushing designs are experimentally studied. Analytical models for bushings with different design features are developed based on the linear system theory. System parameters are then estimated for step responses based on theory and measurements. Finally, the linear models are utilized to analyze the step force measurements, from which some nonlinearities of the bushing system are identified.
Technical Paper

Statistical Simulations to Evaluate the Methods of the Construction of Injury Risk Curves

2011-11-07
2011-22-0015
Several statistical methods are currently used to build injury risk curves in the biomechanical field. These methods include the certainty method (Mertz et al. 1996), Mertz/Weber method (Mertz and Weber 1982), logistic regression (Kuppa et al. 2003, Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000), survival analysis with Weibull distribution (Kent et al. 2004, Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000), and the consistent threshold estimate (CTE) (Nusholtz et al. 1999, Di Domenico and Nusholtz 2005). There is currently no consensus on the most accurate method to be used and no guidelines to help the user to choose the more appropriate one. Injury risk curves built for the WorldSID 50th side impact dummy with these different methods could vary significantly, depending on the sample considered (Petitjean et al. 2009). As a consequence, further investigations were needed to determine the fields of application of the different methods and to recommend the best statistical method depending on the biomechanical sample considered.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Angle on the Chest Injury Outcome in Side Loading

2009-11-02
2009-22-0014
Thoracic injury criteria and injury risk curves in side impact are based on impactor or sled tests, with rigid or padded surfaces while airbags are very common on current cars. Besides, the loading is generally pure lateral while real crashes or regulations can generate oblique loadings. Oblique tests were found in the literature, but no conclusion was drawn with regard to the effect of the direction on the injury outcome. In order to address these two limitations, a series of 17 side airbag tests were performed on Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) at different severities and angles. The subjects were instrumented with accelerometers on the spine and strain gauges on the ribs. They were loaded by an unfolded airbag at different distances in pure lateral or 30 degrees forward. The airbag forces ranged from 1680 N to 6300 N, the injuries being up to 9 separated fractured ribs. This paper provides the test results in terms of physical parameters and injury outcome of the 17 subjects.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Elevator Door Retention During Hallway Applied Lateral Loads

2009-06-09
2009-01-2273
Most do not consider there to be a risk in pushing on, bumping into or falling against an elevator door from the hallway side. However, the lack of the elevator cars presence alone, and the potential for severe injury or even death make this seemingly mundane situation potentially critical. Standards exist relative to such situations, and past and current designs attempt to account for this possibility, still people get injured interacting with these doors every year. In order to evaluate a real-world elevator door system's ability to withstand the quasi-static and impactive loads that can be placed on it by the general public during its life, both intentionally and unintentionally, a predictive tool is needed. This work represents the combination of empirical laboratory testing and numerical modeling of a typical elevator door system exposed to quasi-static and dynamic loading.
Journal Article

Design of a Multi-Chamber Silencer for Turbocharger Noise

2009-05-19
2009-01-2048
A multi-chamber silencer is designed by a computational approach to suppress the turbocharger whoosh noise downstream of a compressor in an engine intake system. Due to the significant levels and the broadband nature of the source spanning over 1.5 – 3.5 kHz, three Helmholtz resonators are implemented in series. Each resonator consists of a chamber and a number of slots, which can be modeled as a cavity and neck, respectively. Their target resonance frequencies are tuned using Boundary Element Method to achieve an effective noise reduction over the entire frequency range of interest. The predicted transmission loss of the silencer is then compared with the experimental results from a prototype in an impedance tube setup. In view of the presence of rapid grazing flow, these silencers may be susceptible to whistle-noise generation. Hence, the prototype is also examined on a flow bench at varying flow rates to assess such flow-acoustic coupling.
Technical Paper

Volume Morphing to Compensate Stamping Springback

2009-04-20
2009-01-0982
A common occurrence in computer aided design is the need to make changes to an existing CAD model to compensate for shape changes which occur during a manufacturing process. For instance, finite element analysis of die forming or die tryout results may indicate that a stamped panel springs back after the press line operation so that the final shape is different from nominal shape. Springback may be corrected by redesigning the die face so that the stamped panel springs back to the nominal shape. When done manually, this redesign process is often time consuming and expensive. This article presents a computer program, FESHAPE, that reshapes the CAD or finite element mesh models automatically. The method is based on the technique of volume morphing pioneered by Sederberg and Parry [Sederberg 1986] and refined in [Sarraga 2004]. Volume morphing reshapes regions of surfaces or meshes by reshaping volumes containing those regions.
Technical Paper

Application of Principle Component Analysis to Low Speed Rear Impact - Design for Six Sigma Project at General Motors

2009-04-20
2009-01-1204
This study involves an application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) conducted in support of a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project. Primary focus of the project is to optimize seat parameters that influence Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) whiplash performance. During the DFSS study, the project team identified a need to rank order critical design factors statistically and establish their contribution to LSRI performance. It is also required to develop a transfer function for the LSRI rating in terms of test response parameters that can be used for optimization. This statistical approach resulted in a reliable transfer function that can applied across all seat designs and enabled us to separate vital few parameters from several many.
Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0858
At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Axiomatic Design for a Total Robust Development Process

2009-04-20
2009-01-0793
In this article, the authors illustrate the benefits of axiomatic design (AD) for robust optimization and how to integrate axiomatic design into a total robust design process. Similar to traditional robust design, the purpose of axiomatic design is to improve the probability of a design in meeting its functional targets at early concept generation stage. However, axiomatic design is not a standalone method or tool and it needs to be integrated with other tools to be effective in a total robust development process. A total robust development process includes: system design, parameter design, tolerance design, and tolerance specifications [1]. The authors developed a step-by-step procedure for axiomatic design practices in industrial applications for consistent and efficient deliverables. The authors also integrated axiomatic design with the CAD/CAE/statistical/visualization tools and methods to enhance the efficiency of a total robust development process.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

2009-04-20
2009-01-0341
This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
Journal Article

Modeling and Simulation of Torsional Vibration of the Compliant Sprocket in Balance Chain Drive Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1529
The work presented in this paper outlines the development of a simulation model to aid in the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives. A design with dual-mass flywheel and a crank-mounted compliant chain sprocket greatly reduces interior noise levels due to chain meshing. However, experimental observations showed the compliant sprocket can enter into resonance and generate excessive vibration energy during startup. Special features are incorporated into the compliant sprocket design to absorb and dissipate this energy. Additional damper spring rate, high hysteresis and large motion angle that overlap the driving range may solve the problem during engine start-up period. This work develops a simulation model to help interpret the measured data and rank the effectiveness of the design alternatives. A Multibody dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Technical Paper

Robust Assessment of USCAR Electrical Connectors Using Standardized Signal-To-Noise

2008-04-14
2008-01-0364
Robust assessment using standardized signal-to-noise (SS/N) is a Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology used to assess the mating quality of USCAR electrical connectors. When the insertion force vs. distance relationship is compared to a standard under varying environmental and system-related noise conditions, the ideal function is transformed into a linear relationship between actual and ideal force at the sample points acquired during the mating displacement. Since the ideal function used in the robust assessment of competing designs has a linear slope of 1 through the origin, the SS/N function used is of the form 10 log (1/σ2), also known as nominal-the-best type 2. Using this assessment methodology, designs are compared, with a higher SS/N indicating lower variation from the standard.
Technical Paper

Brake Noise Analysis with Lining Wear

2008-04-14
2008-01-0823
It is well known that lining reduction through wear affects contact pressure profile and noise generation. Due to high complexity in brake noise analysis, many factors were not included in previous analyses. In this paper, a new analysis process is performed by running brake “burnishing” cycles first, followed by noise analysis. In the paper, brake lining reduction due to wear is assumed to be proportional to the applied brake pressure with ABAQUS analysis. Brake pads go through four brake application-releasing cycles until the linings settle to a more stable pressure distribution. The resulting pressure profiles show lining cupping and high pressure spots shifting. The pressure distributions are compared to TekScan measurements. Brake noise analysis is then conducted with complex eigenvalue analysis steps; the resulting stability chart is better correlated to testing when the wear is comprehended.
Technical Paper

Correlation of a CAE Hood Deflection Prediction Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0098
As we continue to create ever-lighter road vehicles, the challenge of balancing weight reduction and structural performance also continues. One of the key parts this occurs on is the hood, where lighter materials (e.g. aluminum) have been used. However, the aerodynamic loads, such as hood lift, are essentially unchanged and are driven by the front fascia and front grille size and styling shape. This paper outlines a combination CFD/FEA prediction method for hood deflection performance at high speeds, by using the surface pressures as boundary conditions for a FEA linear static deflection analysis. Additionally, custom post-processing methods were developed to enhance flow analysis and understanding. This enabled the modification of existing test methods to further improve accuracy to real world conditions. The application of these analytical methods and their correlation with experimental results are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

NVH Analysis of Balancer Chain Drives with the Compliant Sprocket of the Crankshaft with a Dual-Mass Flywheel for an Inline-4 Engine

2007-05-15
2007-01-2415
The work presented in this paper outlines the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives in an effort to reduce the noise levels related to chain-sprocket meshing. An experimental observation of a severe chain noise around a resonant engine speed with the Dual-Mass Flywheel (DMF) and standard build solid (fixed) balancer drive sprocket. Torsional oscillation at the crankshaft nose at full load is induced by uneven running of crankshaft with a dual-mass flywheel system. This results in an increase of the undesirable impact noise caused by the meshing between the chain-links and the engagement/disengagement regions of sprockets, and the clatter noise from the interaction between the vibrating chain and the guides. This paper evaluates and discusses the benefits that the compliant sprocket design provided. A multi-body dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Gear Mesh Excitation Models for Assessing Gear Rattle and Gear Whine of Torque Transmission Systems with Planetary Gear Sets

2007-05-15
2007-01-2245
This paper presents four methodologies for modeling gear mesh excitations in simple and compound planetary gear sets. The gear mesh excitations use simplified representations of the gear mesh contact phenomenon so that they can be implemented in a numerically efficient manner. This allows the gear mesh excitations to be included in transmission system-level, multibody dynamic models for the assessment of operating noise and vibration levels. After presenting the four approaches, a description is made regarding how they have been implemented in software. Finally, example models are used to do a comparison between the methods
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