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Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Knock Mechanism with Multiple Spark Plugs and Multiple Pressure Sensors

2020-09-15
2020-01-2055
Engine knock is an abnormal phenomenon, which places barriers for modern Spark-Ignition (SI) engines to achieve higher thermal efficiency and better performance. In order to trigger more controllable knock events for study while keeping the knock intensity at restricted range, various spark strategies (e.g. spark timing, spark number, spark location) are applied to investigate on their influences on knock combustion characteristics and pressure oscillations. The experiment is implemented on a modified single cylinder Compression-Ignition (CI) engine operated at SI mode with port fuel injection (PFI). A specialized liner with 4 side spark plugs and 4 pressure sensors is used to generate various flame propagation processes, which leads to different auto-ignition onsets and knock development. Based on multiple channels of pressure signals, a band-pass filter is applied to obtain the pressure oscillations with respect to different spark strategies.
Technical Paper

Combustion Visualization and Experimental Study on Multi-Point Micro-Flame Ignited (MFI) Hybrid Lean-Burn Combustion in 4-Stroke Gasoline Engines

2020-09-15
2020-01-2070
Lean-burn combustion is an effective method for increasing the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines fueled with stoichiometric fuel-air mixture, but leads to an unacceptable level of high cyclic variability before reaching ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions emitted from conventional gasoline engines. Multi-point micro-flame ignited (MFI) hybrid combustion was proposed to overcome this problem, and can be can be grouped into double-peak type, ramp type and trapezoid type with very low frequency of appearance. This research investigates the micro-flame ignition stages of double-peak type and ramp type MFI combustion captured by high speed photography. The results show that large flame is formed by the fast propagation of multi-point flame occurring in the central zone of the cylinder in the double-peak type. However, the multiple flame sites occur around the cylinder, and then gradually propagate and form a large flame accelerated by the independent small flame in the ramp type.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Strategy on the Combustion and Knock in a Downsized Gasoline Engine with Large Eddy Simulation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0244
Strategies to suppress knock have been extensively investigated to pursue thermal efficiency limits in downsized engines with a direct-injection spark ignition. Comprehensive considerations were given in this work, including the effects of second injection timing and injector location on knock combustion in a downsized gasoline engine by large eddy simulation. The turbulent flame propagation is determined by an improved G-equation turbulent combustion model, and the detailed chemistry mechanism of a primary reference fuel is employed to observe the detailed reaction process in the end-gas auto-ignition process. The conclusions were obtained by comparing the data to the baseline single-injection case with moderate knock intensity. Results reveal that for both arrangements of injectors, turbulence intensity is improved as the injecting timing is retarded, increasing the flame propagation speed.
Technical Paper

Study on Combustion Information Feedback Based on the Combination of Virtual Model and Actual Angular Velocity Measurement

2020-04-14
2020-01-1151
Combustion closed-loop control is now being studied intensively for engineering applications to improve fuel economy. Currently, combustion closed-loop feedback control is usually based on the cylinder pressure signal, which is the most direct and exact signal that reflects engine working process. Although there were some relatively cheap types of in-cylinder pressure sensors, cylinder pressure sensors have not been widely applied because of their high price now. Moreover, the combustion analysis based on cylinder pressure imposes high requirements on the information acquisition capability of the current ECU, such as high acquisition and analog-digital conversion frequency and so on. For developing a low price and feasible technology, a new engine information feedback method based on model calculation and crank angular velocity measurement was proposed. A simplified combustion model was operated in ECU for the real-time calculation of cylinder pressure and combustion parameters.
Technical Paper

Study on Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Fuel Droplet Impact on Oil Film

2020-04-14
2020-01-1429
In order to understand the spray impinging the lubricant oil on the piston or cylinder wall in GDI engine, the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) method was used to observe the phenomenon of the fuel droplets impact oil film and distinguish the fuel and oil during the impingement. The experimental results show that the hydrodynamic characteristics of impingement affected by the oil viscosity, droplets’ Weber number, oil film thickness. Crown formed after impingement. The morphology after impingement was categorized into: rings, stable crown, splash and prompt splash. Low oil film dynamic viscosity, high Weber number or thin oil film can facilitate splash. Splash droplets consist of fuel and oil, and the oil is the main component of splash droplets and crown. The empirical formula of critical We number (We) is fitted. High dimensionless oil film thickness or low oil film dynamic viscosity can increase the proportion of fuel in the crown.
Technical Paper

Effect of Split Injection and Intake Air Humidification on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Marine Diesel Engine in Partially Premixed Low-Temperature Combustion Mode

2020-04-14
2020-01-0298
The objective of this study was to investigate combined effects of split injection strategies and intake air humidification on combustion and emissions of a partially premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) marine diesel engine. In this research, a three-dimensional numerical model was established by a commercial code AVL-Fire to explore in-cylinder combustion process and pollutant formation factors in a four-stoke supercharged intercooled marine diesel engine under partial load at 1350 r/min. The novelty of this study is to combine different water-fuel ratios and fuel injection parameters (pilot injection timing and main injection timing) to find the optimized way to improve engine performance as well as NOx-soot emissions, thus meeting the increasingly stringent emissions restriction.
Technical Paper

Multiple Engine Faults Detection Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Echo State Network

2020-04-14
2020-01-0418
As a major power source, diesel engines are being widely used in a variety of fields. However, because of complex structure, some faults which cannot be detected by direct signals would occur on engines and even lead to accidents. Among all kinds of indirect signals, vibration signal is the most common choice for faults detection without disassemble because of its convenience and stability. This paper proposed a novel approach for detecting multiple engine faults based on block vibration signals using variational mode decomposition (VMD) and echo state network (ESN). Since the quadratic penalty has a great influence on adaptable VMD that may make expected component signals cannot be extracted exactly, this paper proposed a dynamic quadratic penalty value, which will change with decomposing level. This paper selected a best dynamic quadratic penalty value by analyzing a large amount of data and results showed that this approach can decompose signals more exactly.
Technical Paper

Noise Source Identification of a Gasoline Engine Based on Parameters Optimized Variational Mode Decomposition and Robust Independent Component Analysis

2020-04-14
2020-01-0425
Noise source identification and separation of internal combustion engines is an effective tool for engine NVH (noise, vibration and harshness) development. Among various experimental approaches, noise source identification using signal processing has attracted extensive attention because of that the signal can be easily acquired and the requirements for equipment is relatively low. In this paper, variational mode decomposition (VMD) combined with independent component analysis (ICA) is used for noise source identification of a turbo-charged gasoline engine. Existing algorithms have been proved to be effective to extract signal features but also have disadvantages. One of the key problems in presently used method is that the main components of the signal, i.e. the main source of the noise, are unknown in advance. Thus the parameters selection of signal processing algorithms, which has a significance influence on the identification result, has no uniform criterion.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Combustion Kinetics of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) Fueled with Primary Reference Fuel

2020-04-14
2020-01-0554
This work numerically investigates the detailed combustion kinetics of partially premixed combustion (PPC) in a diesel engine under three different premixed ratio fuel conditions. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) chemical kinetics mechanism was coupled with CONVERGE-SAGE CFD model to predict PPC combustion under various operating conditions. The experimental results showed that the increase of premixed ratio (PR) fuel resulted in advanced combustion phasing. To provide insight into the effects of PR on ignition delay time and key reaction pathways, a post-process tool was used. The ignition delay time is related to the formation of hydroxyl (OH). Thus, the validated Converge CFD code with the PRF chemistry and the post-process tool was applied to investigate how PR change the formation of OH during the low-to high-temperature reaction transition. The reaction pathway analyses of the formations of OH before ignition time were investigated.
Technical Paper

Study on the Characteristics of Different Intake Port Structures in Scavenging and Combustion Processes on a Two-Stroke Poppet Valve Diesel Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0486
Two-stroke engines have to face the problems of insufficient charge for short intake time and the loss of intake air caused by long valve overlap. In order to promote the power of a two-stroke poppet valve diesel engine, measures are taken to help optimize intake port structure. In this work, the scavenging and combustion processes of three common types of intake ports including horizontal intake port (HIP), combined swirl intake port (CSIP) and reversed tumble intake port (RTIP) were studied and their characteristics are summarized based on three-dimensional simulation. Results show that the RTIP has better performance in scavenging process for larger intake air trapped in the cylinder. Its scavenging efficiency reaches 84.7%, which is 1.7% higher than the HIP and the trapping ratio of the RTIP reaches 72.3% due to less short-circuiting loss, 11.2% higher than the HIP.
Technical Paper

Effect of Supercharging on the Intake Flow Characteristics of a Swirl-Supported Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0794
Although supercharged system has been widely employed in downsized engines, the effect of supercharging on the intake flow characteristics remains inadequately understood. Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate intake flow characteristics under high intake pressure. In this study, the supercharged intake flow is studied by experiment using steady flow test bench with supercharged system and transient flow simulation. For the steady flow condition, gas compressibility effect is found to significantly affect the flow coefficient (Cf), as Cf decreases with increasing intake pressure drop, if the compressibility effect is neglected in calculation by the typical evaluation method; while Cf has no significant change if the compressibility effect is included. Compared with the two methods, the deviation of the theoretical intake velocity and the density of the intake flow is the reason for Cf calculation error.
Technical Paper

Effects of Direct Injection Timing and Air Dilution on the Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-1139
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion can effectively improve the thermal efficiency of conventional spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines, due to shortened combustion processes caused by multi-point auto-ignition. However, its commercial application is limited by the difficulties in controlling ignition timing and violent heat release process at high loads. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion, a concept in which rich mixture around spark plug is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition and the unburned lean mixture closing to cylinder wall auto-ignites in the increasing in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, was proposed to overcome these challenges.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigations on Strong Knocking Combustion under Advanced Compression Ignition Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-1137
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combined with high compression ratio is an effective way to improve engines’ thermal efficiency. However, the severe thermodynamic conditions at high load may induce knocking combustion thus damage the engine body. In this study, advanced compression ignition knocking characteristics were parametrically investigated through RCM experiments and simulation analysis. First, the knocking characteristics were optically investigated. The experimental results show that there even exists detonation when the knock occurs thus the combustion chamber is damaged. Considering both safety and costs, the effects of different initial conditions were numerically investigated and the results show that knocking characteristics is more related to initial pressure other than initial temperature. The initial pressure has a great influence on peak pressure and knock intensity while the initial temperature on knock onset.
Technical Paper

Effects on Cycle-to-Cycle Variations and Knocking Combustion of Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) with a Small Volume Pre-Chamber

2020-04-14
2020-01-1119
Turbulent jet ignition (TJI) has the advantages of improving burning rates and expanding lean burn limitations of gasoline engines. Based on a single cylinder engine, combustion process with different ignition methods, including single spark ignition, twin spark ignition, one-hole TJI and seven-hole TJI, are studied in this work. Experiments are carried out under conditions with different air/fuel equivalence ratios and different engine loads. Results show that the cycle-to-cycle variations of TJI combustion, which is evaluated by coefficient of variations (CoV) of IMEP and CoV of peak pressure, are obviously reduced due to the fast burning rate induced by the jet flame, and one-hole TJI combustion has the best combustion stability, especially for reducing the CoV of peak pressure.
Technical Paper

OH, soot and temperature distributions of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray under different wall temperatures

2019-12-19
2019-01-2184
OH, soot and temperature distributions of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray were investigated in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume combustion vessel. The ambient temperature (Ta) was set as 773 K, and the wall temperature (Tw) was set as 523 K, 673 K, 773 K, respectively. Three different injection pressures (Pi) of 60 MPa, 100 MPa, 160 MPa, and the ambient pressures (Pa) of 4 MPa were applied. The OH spatial distributions of wall-impinging spray were measured by the method of OH chemiluminescence imaging. Two-color pyrometry was applied to evaluate the spatial distributions of KL factor and flame temperature of wall-impinging spray. The results reveal that, OH chemiluminescence is observed in the region near the impingement point firstly. The regions of high OH chemiluminescence intensity and high KL factor appear in the location near the wall surface along the whole combustion process.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Knock Resistance with Turbulent Jet Ignition at Different Engine Load in an Optical Engine

2019-12-19
2019-01-2151
This research was focused on the effect of pre-chamber ignition and compared the knock limit of normal spark ignition in the main chamber and pre-chamber jet ignition combustion in a spark ignition gasoline engine. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder engine with optical access. Engine was operated with stoichiometric air/fuel mixtures at 1200 rev/min and different inlet pressures of 1, 1.2, and 1.4 bar. No auxiliary fuel was injected into the pre-chamber when jet-ignition mode was used. The results show that significant knock limit extension can be realized with use of a pre-chamber ignition unit. The main differences in engine performance, heat release and combustion, knock resistance and flame propagation were compared between the pre-chamber ignition and conventional spark ignition in the main chamber by in-cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed flame chemiluminescence imaging.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Coordinated Engine-Start Control Strategy for P2 Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2019-11-04
2019-01-5023
P2 hybrid electric vehicle is the single-motor parallel configuration integrating with an engine disconnect clutch (EDC) between the engine and the motor. The key point with P2 hybrid electric vehicle is to start the engine utilizing the single driving motor while still propelling the vehicle, which requires an appropriate engine-start control strategy and a high mechanical performance of EDC. Since the space for EDC is limited, EDC torque response is difficult to follow the torque command, which complicates the issue of precisely controlling the clutch. Consequently, methods proposed in massive papers are inappropriate for current EDC of target vehicle. Considering that slip control of shifting clutch also contributes to reducing impact of engine start assisted by EDC, a detailed engine-start control strategy was proposed to simplify the control of EDC for being applied to actual target vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction on Spray Combustion: A Large Eddy Simulation Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-0203
Although turbulence plays a critical role in engines operated within low temperature combustion (LTC) regime, its interaction with chemistry on auto-ignition at low-ambient-temperature and lean-oxygen conditions remains inadequately understood. Therefore, it is worthwhile taking turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) into consideration in LTC engine simulation by employing advanced combustion models. In the present study, large eddy simulation (LES) coupled with linear eddy model (LEM) is performed to simulate the ignition process in n-heptane spray under engine-relevant conditions, known as Spray H. With LES, more details about unsteady spray flame could be captured compared to Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). With LEM approach, both scalar fluctuation and turbulent mixing on sub-grid level are captured, accounting for the TCI. A skeletal mechanism is adopted in this numerical simulation, including 41 species and 124 reactions.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Impact of Exhaust Turbine Redesign, for Narrow VGT Operating Range, on the Performance of Diesel Engines with Assisted Turbocharger

2019-04-02
2019-01-0326
Electrically assisted turbochargers are a promising technology for improving boost response of turbocharged engines. These systems include a turbocharger shaft mounted electric motor/generator. In the assist mode, electrical energy is applied to the turbocharger shaft via the motor function, while in the regenerative mode energy can be extracted from the shaft via the generator function, hence these systems are also referred to as regenerative electrically assisted turbochargers (REAT). REAT allows simultaneous improvement of boost response and fuel economy of boosted engines. This is achieved by optimally scheduling the electrical assist and regeneration actions. REAT also allows the exhaust turbine to operate within a narrow range of optimal vane positions relative to the unassisted variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The ability to operate within a narrow range of VGT vane positions allows an opportunity for a more optimal turbine design for a REAT system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Impingement of Fuel Droplet on Substrates

2019-04-02
2019-01-0300
Within a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, the impingement of fuel droplet on substrates induces various problems such as particular matter emission, oil dilution and abnormal combustion. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, it is urgent to have a clear understanding of the impingement behavior of fuel droplet impacting on substrates. Most previous studies have focused on the impingement of either water droplet on dry solid surface or the impinging droplet on the liquid film of the same type of liquid, while little research has been conducted on the impingement of fuel droplet on relevant substrates existing in GDI engines. The impingement of fuel droplet with higher Weber number on dry surface, fuel film and oil film with different thickness and viscosity were investigated experimentally. Results show that fuel droplet impacting on dry wall is easy to be deposited to form a fuel film. The fuel film attached to the wall is the main reason for the splash.
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