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Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Control Strategies on Air Supply System for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

2022-11-16
2022-01-5096
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are considered an environment-friendly alternative vehicle power in the future owing to their high power density and zero-carbon emission. To research the performance of the air supplied by the PEMFC air system, the PEMFC air system bench composed of an air compressor, cooler, emulated stack, back-pressure valve, and sensors was built. Then, a PEMFC system test bench composed of a hydrogen supply subsystem, stack, air supply subsystem, electronic control subsystem, and cooling subsystem was established. The fuel cell system control parameters and control method are complex due to the coupling and nonlinearity of the air supply system. The strategy composed of a feedforward table and piecewise proportional integral (PI) feedback control strategy was employed to regulate the pressure and flow rate of the air supply system.
Technical Paper

Rotor Temperature Monitoring and Torque Correction for IPMSM of New Energy Vehicle

2022-10-28
2022-01-7063
As the electric vehicle market grows rapidly, thermal analysis related to the performance of electric drive motors has gained increasing interest. However, it is hard to obtain rotor temperature for torque correction during operation which leads to unexpected inaccurate control of motors. Rotor temperature monitoring and torque correction for IPMSM (Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous motor) of new Energy vehicles are discussed in this paper. Considering the practical application, a low-order lumped parameter thermal network (LPTN) composed of three nodes is built for calculating the rotor temperature under different operating conditions on a 160kw IPMSM of a three-in-one electric drive. To identify the parameters of LPTN, the measurements were done on a test bench with a prototype of the three-in-one electric drive. K-type thermocouples were used to directly measure the temperature of each node.
Technical Paper

Image Recognition of Gas Diffusion Layer Structural Features Based on Artificial Intelligence

2022-10-28
2022-01-7040
Gas diffusion layer (GDL), as a critical constituent of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), plays a key role in mass, heat, electron, and species transport. GDL generally has two distinct layers: a macro-porous substrate (MPS) and a micro-porous layer (MPL). The fibers in MPS and the cracks formed during the deposition process on the surface of MPL change the overall transport capacity and effect the output performance of PEMFC. In this paper, methods of identifying the structural features of fibers and cracks in GDL images based on artificial intelligence are proposed. The block probabilistic Hough transform and the quadric voting based on the weighted K-means algorithm are programmed to realize the fiber feature extraction, and the crack feature extraction is realized by the regional connectivity algorithm and the geometric feature calculation based on the circumscribed graph of the crack region.
Technical Paper

A Study on Optimization Design of Hydrogen Supply Integrated Subsystem for Multi-Stack Fuel Cells

2022-10-28
2022-01-7039
The hydrogen supply integrated subsystem is an important part of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell system. In the multi-stack fuel cell system, the optimal design and integration of the hydrogen supply subsystem have great influence on the whole system structure. In this paper, a fuel cell hydrogen integration subsystem with two hydrogen cycle structures is established based on an optimized split-stack approach. Firstly, the matching of hydrogen subsystem is carried out on the basis of multi-stack fuel cell optimization. Then, the structure of the gas buffering and distribution device and the gas circulation device is optimized considering the gas circulation and the diversity of the equipment, and two solutions are proposed: the separate circulation structure (Structure I) and the common circulation structure (Structure II). Finally, the multi-stack fuel cell system is built by MATLAB/Simulink software and simulated under the condition of step and C-WTVC.
Technical Paper

Comprehensively Investigating the Impact of High-Temperature Cyclic Aging on Thermal Runaway Characteristics for Lithium-Ion Batteries

2022-10-28
2022-01-7061
Battery safety issues have severely limited the rapid development and popularization of electric vehicles. Harsh conditions such as high temperature accelerate the degradation of battery safety. To address this issue, a comprehensive analysis of the impact of high-temperature cyclic aging on lithium-ion battery safety is carried out. In the Accelerating Rate Calorimeter, lithium-ion batteries are performed on adiabatic thermal runaway tests and overcharge tests. Regardless of the fully-charged state or half-charged state, in the adiabatic thermal runaway process, high-temperature cyclic aging reduces the characteristic temperature, and the activation energy from the self-heating temperature to thermal runaway triggering temperature decreases. During the overcharge process, high-temperature cyclic aging increases the voltage plateau and the crest voltage before thermal runaway, and their corresponding charging temperature decreases.
Technical Paper

Modeling Analysis of Thermal Efficiency Improvement up to 45% of a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

2022-10-28
2022-01-7051
Numerical analysis of thermal efficiency improvement up to 45% of an 1.8-liter turbocharged direct-injection (DI) gasoline engine was conducted in this study in response to the need of improving vehicle fuel economy. 1D thermodynamics simulations and 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling were carried out to investigate the technical approaches for improving engine thermal efficiency. Effects of various technologies on the improvement in the engine performance were evaluated, and then the technical routes to achieve 41% and 45% brake thermal efficiency were summarized, respectively. It is concluded that 41% thermal efficiency can be reached under stoichiometric combustion conditions, while it is expected lean burn technology is needed for the target of 45% thermal efficiency. The effects of high tumble intake flow on accelerating burning speed and of high compression ratio on intensifying knocking were analyzed.
Technical Paper

Clutch Coordination Control for Series-Parallel DHT Mode Changing

2022-10-28
2022-01-7046
As a newly designed hybrid transmission, DHT (Dedicated Hybrid Transmission) owns the advantages of compact structure, multi-modes and excellent comprehensive performance. Compared with the traditional add-on hybrid transmission with one single motor, DHT uses one independent generator for engine starting and speed adjusting which can be largely improve the driving performance in the mode changing process. Based on the series-parallel DHT with wet clutch for power coupling, this paper firstly analyses the power coupling clutch device functionalities from the power flow viewpoint under normal and limp home condition. And for the changing process from series to parallel mode, a clutch coordination control strategy is designed by combining generator fast speed adjusting with clutch accurately pressure controlling to fulfill the fast driver intension response and clutch protection.
Technical Paper

Improved Energy Management with Vehicle Speed and Weight Recognition for Hybrid Commercial Vehicles

2022-10-28
2022-01-7052
The driving conditions of commercial logistics vehicles have the characteristics of combined urban and suburban roads with relatively fixed mileage and cargo load alteration, which affect the vehicular fuel economy. To this end, an adaptive equivalent consumption minimization strategy (A-ECMS) with vehicle speed and weight recognition is proposed to improve the fuel economy for a range-extender electric van for logistics in this work. The driving conditions are divided into nine representative groups with different vehicle speed and weight statuses, and the driving patterns are recognized with the use of the bagged trees algorithm through vehicle simulations. In order to generate the reference SOC near the optimal values, the optimal SOC trajectories under the typical driving cycles with different loads are solved by the shooting method and the optimal slopes for these nine patterns are obtained.
Research Report

Use of Proton-exchange Membrane Fuel Cells in Ground Vehicles

2022-09-26
EPR2022020
Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) require multiple components to operate properly, and the fuel cell stack—the source of power—is one of the most important components. While the number of enterprises manufacturing and selling fuel cell stacks is increasing globaly year after year, the residual challenges of core components and technologies still need to be resolved in order to keep pace with the development of lithium-ion batteries (i.e., its primary competitor). Additionally, many production and distribution standards are seen as unsettled. These barriers make large-scale commercialization an issue. Use of Proton-exchange Membrane Fuel Cells in Ground Vehicles explores the opportunities and challenges within the PEMFC industry. With the help of expert contributors, a critical overview of fuel cells and the FCEV industry is presented, and core technology, applications, costs, and trends are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Review on Uncertainty Estimation in Deep-Learning-Based Environment Perception of Intelligent Vehicles

2022-06-28
2022-01-7026
Deep neural network models have been widely used for environment perception of intelligent vehicles. However, due to models’ innate probabilistic property, the lack of transparency, and sensitivity to data, perception results have inevitable uncertainties. To compensate for the weakness of probabilistic models, many pieces of research have been proposed to analyze and quantify such uncertainties. For safety-critical intelligent vehicles, the uncertainty analysis of data and models for environment perception is especially important. Uncertainty estimation can be a way to quantify the risk of environment perception. In this regard, it is essential to deliver a comprehensive survey. This work presents a comprehensive overview of uncertainty estimation in deep neural networks for environment perception of intelligent vehicles.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Cockpit Operation System: Indirect Rotary Transducer for an Automotive Screen Interface

2022-05-30
2022-01-5034
Indirect rotary transducer for an automotive screen interface is an innovative solution for the smart cockpit. The primary objective of this study is to design an indirect rotary transducer system, and study its feasibility in the smart cockpit. The working theory of this designed system is that the magnetic induction hall electronic chip can detect changes in the magnetic field. Several tests have been conducted, which show that the hypothesis of dangling operating system achieves the same effect as a hard-wired operating system. The results of the experiment indicate that the magnetic induction hall sensor can meet the specification of traditional hard-wired operating system. This system is a good concept for intelligent cab driving, which can fully meet the needs of the current market.
Journal Article

Investigation on the Impact of High-Temperature Calendar and Cyclic Aging on Battery Overcharge Performance

2022-03-29
2022-01-0698
With the degradation of lithium-ion batteries, the battery safety performance changes, which further influences the safe working window. In this paper, the pouch ternary lithium-ion battery whose rated capacity is 4.2 Ah is used as the research object to investigate the impact of the high-temperature calendar and cyclic aging on tolerance performance. The overcharge-to-thermal-runaway test is performed on the fresh cell and aged cell (90% SOH). The inflection point of voltage for aged cells appears earlier than that of the fresh cell, while the voltage corresponding to the inflection point is the same for them, which means that the voltage at which lithium plating occurs is the same. However, the voltage plateau and the crest voltage before thermal runaway of aged cell are significantly higher than that of the fresh cell. Besides, ohmic heat, reversible heat, and side reaction heat make contribution to the thermal runaway triggering.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Flame Temperature and Intermediate Product Concentration in Micro-Scale Coaxial Diffusion Combustion of Methanol

2022-03-29
2022-01-0699
As an excellent nanoscale material, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) play a very important role in improving the batteries of new energy vehicles. The micro-scale combustion flame synthesis method is a promising method for preparing carbon nanotubes. To explore the optimal growth condition of carbon nanotubes under micro-scale combustion, the detailed mechanism of methanol C3 (114 species, 1999 reactions) was reduced based on whole-species sensitivity analysis, then a suitable model of methanol combustion was established by using Fluent software coupling with simplified mechanism (16 species, 65 reactions) of methanol. The model was used for the numerical simulation of micro-scale coaxial diffusion combustion of methanol, and then it was verified by the experimental results of micro-scale combustion of methanol.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of - 30°C Cold Start Process for an Automotive PEM Fuel Cell System

2022-03-29
2022-01-0694
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system is considered as one of the most popular power sources because of its high energy density, fast dynamic response and zero pollution. However, the start-up at low temperature (e.g. - 30 °C) is still a major challenge for its wide application due to water freezing in Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). In this paper, a cold start test process in an environment cabin with auxiliary heat was carried out for a full power automotive PEMFC system, including normal operation, shutdown purge and cold start processes analysis from -30°C. Rated power of this stack is 100kW at the current density of 1.4A/cm2 and relevant maximum output power can reach to 120kW. In order to reduce the damage of high potential to MEA, on-load purge with a current of 30A is conducted to removing extra water in stack for improving cold start ability. Based on corresponding control strategy, cold start was realized successfully within 110s.
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Multi-Type and Multi-Level Fault Diagnosis of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems Using Artificial Intelligence Algorithms

2022-03-29
2022-01-0693
To improve the durability of Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in actual transportation application scenario, the research on fault diagnosis of PEMFC is receiving extensive attention. With the development of artificial intelligence, performing fault diagnosis with the massive sampling data of the fuel cell system has become a popular research topic. But few people have successfully verified the diagnosis performance of these artificial intelligence algorithms on a real high power on-board PEMFC system. Therefore, we intend to make a step forward with these data-driven artificial intelligence algorithms. We applied four data-driven artificial intelligence algorithms to diagnose three common faults of PEMFC (each fault type has two severity levels, slight and severe). AVL CRUISE M was firstly applied for generation of simulation fault dataset to speed up the algorithm screening process. Based on the dataset, these algorithms are trained and optimized.
Technical Paper

Comparative Thermal Runaway Behavior Analysis of High-Nickel Lithium-Ion Batteries with Different Specifications

2022-03-29
2022-01-0706
High-nickel lithium-ion batteries extend the driving mileage of electric vehicles (EVs) to 600km without much cost increment. However, thermal accidents commonly occur due to their poor thermal stability, such as thermal runaway. To address the issue, a comprehensive analysis of the thermal runaway behavior of high-nickel lithium-ion batteries with different specifications is conducted. The thermal runaway process is divided into five stages based on self-heating generation, voltage drop, safety valve rupture, and thermal runaway triggering for the three tested cells. The three tested cells demonstrate similar behaviors during each stage of the thermal runaway process. However, there are still apparent differences between their characteristics. This study analyses the thermal runaway features from the following aspects: (i) characteristic temperature; (ii) the relationship between sudden voltage drop and characteristic temperatures; (iii) temperature recovery; (iv) thermodynamics.
Technical Paper

NVH Comparative Analysis of 3in1 and 2in1 Electric Drive System Based on Experimental Research

2022-03-29
2022-01-0606
As the key assembly of new energy vehicles, the noise and vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance of integrated electric drive system directly affects the driving quality of new energy vehicles. In this paper, the vibration noise characteristic test of 3in1 electric drive system is carried out in the semi-muffler chamber. In order to compare and analyze the difference between 2in1 and 3in1 electric drive system NVH performance, the power electronics unit (PEU) in the 3in1 system was removed and placed on the ground away from the platform, and vibration noise test was carried out. In order to analyze the difference of NVH performance between 2in1 status and 3in1 status, the PEU in the 3in1 system was removed and placed on the ground far away from the bench, and the NVH test was carried out. The microphone signal at 1m position and the vibration acceleration signal of the key structural surface of the system are measured experimentally.
Technical Paper

Cold Start Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine at High Altitude and Low Temperature

2022-03-29
2022-01-0563
The diesel engine is the core in the field of engineering machine power plants. While both at home and abroad for the cold start of diesel engine, the transient emission characteristics below 0 °C and above 2000m is almost a blank. Therefore, aimed at high altitude and low-temperature environment emission characteristics of cold start, this article has carried on the systematic analysis and research. In this paper, a simulation test system for the cold start of the diesel engine at low temperature at high altitude is established. The cold start experiments of a heavy diesel engine at different ambient temperatures (10°C, 0°C, -10°C and -20°C) and different altitudes (0m, 3000m, and 4000m) is carried out. In this paper, the gas emission of the diesel engine during the speed-up period of cold start is studied.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Sliding Mode Kalman Observer for the Estimation of Vehicle Fuel Cell Humidity

2022-03-29
2022-01-0690
The efficiency and durability of fuel cells are affected by internal water content. Therefore, the active control of humidity is of great significance for vehicle fuel cells, especially for self-humidifying fuel cell systems. To realize fuel cell internal humidity active control, it is necessary to collect the humidity information of stack in real time, so as to carry out feedback control. However, humidity sensor has the characteristics of high cost and low durability, so it is more practical to get the feedback value of humidity by using state estimation method for high-power commercial fuel cell system such as vehicle fuel cell. However, humidity estimation is often affected by other physical or chemical dynamic processes, such as oxygen transportation and response process of electrical appliances. In order to weaken the influence of other physical or chemical dynamic processes on humidity estimation, this paper proposes an adaptive sliding mode Kalman observer (ASMK) algorithm.
Technical Paper

Multi-Stack Fuel Cell System Stacks Allocation Optimization Based on Genetic Algorithms

2022-03-29
2022-01-0689
High-powered and modularity is the trend for fuel cell systems. Similar to the evolution from single-cylinder to multi-cylinder in conventional internal combustion engines, fuel cell systems shall also follow this developing process. Compared to single-stack fuel cell systems, multi-stack fuel cell systems (MFCS) can enhance the system maximum output power and improve the system performance. To achieve modular design and improve the performance of high-powered MFCS, a MFCS stacks allocation optimization algorithm based on genetic algorithms is proposed in this paper. First, remaining useful life (RUL) and efficiency are choosing as an integrated optimization index, the decision model for MFCS stacks allocation is developed. Then, a heavy-duty commercial vehicle was used as an example to match the vehicle power train parameters. The genetic algorithm is used to solve the global optimal stacks allocation scheme for the vehicle in a specific application scenario.
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