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Technical Paper

Investigation on Brake Disc Deformation Under Asymmetric Mechanical Loads

2021-10-11
2021-01-1291
The mechanism of automobile brake hot spots is unclear, which is a problem in the brake industry. Complex coupling between friction, heat, contact, and structure is the main difficulty in revealing the mechanism of brake hot spots. This paper proposes a new way to study the mechanism of hot spots by analyzing the deformation behavior of brake discs under asymmetric mechanical loading. The actual brake is simplified into a brake disc and friction lining system, and a transient dynamic finite element model under asymmetric mechanical loads is established to analyze the deformation characteristics of the brake disc. The normal deformation of the brake disc under asymmetric mechanical loads consists of two parts: low-frequency bending deformation and high-frequency waviness deformation, which are caused by the squeezing effect of the asymmetric brake pressure on the brake disc and the constraint modal vibration of the brake disc.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Method of Harmony with Traffic Based on a Backpropagation Neural Network Optimized by Mean Impact Value

2021-06-02
2021-01-5060
With the development of autonomous driving, the penetration rate of autonomous vehicles on the road will continue to grow. As a result, the social cooperation ability of autonomous vehicles will have a great effect on the social acceptance of autonomous driving, which can be described as harmony with traffic. In order to research the evaluation method of the harmony with traffic, this paper proposes a subjective and objective mapping evaluation method based on the Mean Impact Value and Backpropagation (MIV-BP) Neural Network, with the merging vehicle on the expressway ramp as the research object. Firstly, by taking 16 original objective indexes obtained by theoretical analysis and the subjective evaluation results as input and output, respectively, the BP Neural Network model is constructed as a baseline model. Secondly, nine selected objective indexes are selected by the MIV method based on the baseline model.
Technical Paper

Improved Joint Probabilistic Data Association Multi-target Tracking Algorithm Based on Camera-Radar Fusion

2021-04-15
2021-01-5002
A Joint Probabilistic Data Association (JPDA) multi-objective tracking improvement algorithm based on camera-radar fusion is proposed to address the problems of poor single-sensor tracking performance, unknown target detection probability, and missing valid targets in complex traffic scenarios. First, according to the correlation rule between the target track and the measurement, the correlation probability between the target and the measurement is obtained; then the measurement collection is divided into camera-radar measurement matched target, camera-only measurement matched target, radar-only measurement matched target, and no-match target; and the correlation probability is corrected with different confidence levels to avoid the use of unknown detection probability.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Ignition Properties of 1-Propanol and 1-Butanol under Fuel-Lean Conditions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0564
To mitigate the global warming and to develop sustainable transportation, investigations on combustion properties of carbon neutral fuels i.e., electro-fuels and bio-fuels such as propanol and butanol are essential. In the past, there were very limited researches concerning the fuel-lean combustion of those fuels, which is however a promising method for reducing the NOx emissions. Moreover, the literature chemical kinetic mechanisms have not been widely validated against the fuel-lean combustion data. Ignition delay time (IDT) is one key parameter and is widely used for validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms. The measurements of IDTs of diluted 1-propanol (nC3H7OH, CH3CH2CH2OH) and 1-butanol (nC4H9OH, CH3CH2CH2CH2OH) mixtures (with 90% bath gas (Ar+N2)) were therefore conducted in a rapid compression machine (RCM), at temperatures between 800 and 1000 K, pressures of 20 and 40 bar, under lean combustion conditions with equivalence ratios (ф) of 0.25, 0.5 and 0.9.
Technical Paper

An Optimized Design of Multi-Chamber Perforated Resonators to Attenuate Turbocharged Intake System Noise

2021-04-06
2021-01-0669
The turbocharger air intake noise during transient conditions like wide open throttle and tip-in/out affects the passenger ride comfort. This paper aims to study an optimized design of multi-chamber perforated resonators to attenuate this noise. The noise produced by a turbocharger in a test vehicle has been measured to find out the noise spectral characteristics which can be used to design the acoustic targets including the amplitude and frequency range of transmission loss (TL). The structural parameters of the resonators are optimized based on genetic algorithm (GA) and two-dimensional prediction theory of the resonator TL. The optimized resonators are installed on the test vehicle to verify the actual noise reduction effect. The results suggest that the broadband noise has been eliminated, and subjective feelings are greatly improved.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Modeling and Characteristic Analysis of Engine Shake Considering Air Engine Mount

2021-04-06
2021-01-0676
Attributable to its comprehensive advantages of good vibration isolation performance and low cost, air engine mount is gradually being applied in vehicle powertrain vibration reduction. In the present paper, a full vehicle nonlinear model considering air engine mount was established to describe the characteristics of engine shake better. A Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method for solving nonlinear equations was proposed to simulate the model more efficiently. The result demonstrated that air engine mount has great influence on engine shake characteristics under the front wheel excitation. Then the influence of air engine mount parameters on engine shake characteristics was discussed. Finally, the engine shake characteristics considering air engine mount and hydraulic engine mount were compared and the result showed the former resonance frequency was higher.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Different Modelling Methods of Secondary Path to Maximize Control Effect for Active Engine Mounts

2021-04-06
2021-01-0668
Active engine mount (AEM) is an effective approach which can optimize the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance of vehicles. The filtered-x-least-mean-squares (FxLMS) algorithm is widely applicated for vibration attenuation in AEMs. However, the performance of FxLMS algorithm can be deteriorated without an accurate secondary path estimation. First, this paper models the secondary path using finite impulse response (FIR) model, infinite impulse response (IIR) model and back propagation (BP) neural network model and the model errors of which are compared to determine the most accurate and robust modeling method. After that, the influence of operation frequency on accuracy of the secondary path model is analyzed through simulation approach. Then, the impact of reference signal mismatch on the control effect is demonstrated to study the robustness of FxLMS algorithm.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study on the Influence of the Shielding Mechanism of the Battery Pack Shell on the Vehicle Radiation Emission

2021-04-06
2021-01-0149
From the perspective of the three elements of electromagnetic interference, the main function of shielding is to cut off the propagation path of electromagnetic noise. The battery pack casing can be regarded as shielding the electromagnetic interference conducted on its internal and external wiring harnesses, but because the battery pack casing has power lines in and out, the battery pack casing is an incomplete shield. In the field of electromagnetics, shielding can be divided into electrical shielding, magnetic shielding and electromagnetic shielding. Therefore, this paper studies its influence on the electromagnetic radiation emission of the whole vehicle from the perspective of shielding mechanism. Due to the role of the switch components in the power battery system, strong current fluctuation di/dt and voltage fluctuation dv/dt will be generated on the power cable, and these interferences will have an important impact on the radiation emission of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Object Detection Method of Autonomous Vehicle Based on Lightweight Deep Learning

2021-04-06
2021-01-0192
Object detection is an important visual content of the autonomous vehicle, the traditional detecting methods usually cost a lot of computational memory and elapsed time. This paper proposes to use lightweight deep convolutional neural network (MobilenetV3-SSDLite) to carry out the object detection task of autonomous vehicles. Simulation analysis based on this method is implemented, the feature layer obtained after h-swish activation function in the first Conv of the 13th bottleneck module in MobilenetV3 is taken as the first effective feature layer, and the feature layer before pooling and convolution of the antepenultimate layer in MobilenetV3 is taken as the second effective feature layer, and these two feature layers are extracted from the MobilenetV3 network.
Technical Paper

Reward Function Design via Human Knowledge Graph and Inverse Reinforcement Learning for Intelligent Driving

2021-04-06
2021-01-0180
Motivated by applying artificial intelligence technology to the automobile industry, reinforcement learning is becoming more and more popular in the community of intelligent driving research. The reward function is one of the critical factors which affecting reinforcement learning. Its design principle is highly dependent on the features of the agent. The agent studied in this paper can do perception, decision-making, and motion-control, which aims to be the assistant or substitute for human driving in the latest future. Therefore, this paper analyzes the characteristics of excellent human driving behavior based on the six-layer model of driving scenarios and constructs it into a human knowledge graph. Furthermore, for highway pilot driving, the expert demo data is created, and the reward function is self-learned via inverse reinforcement learning. The reward function design method proposed in this paper has been verified in the Unity ML-Agent environment.
Technical Paper

Multi-Modal Neural Feature Fusion for Pose Estimation and Scene Perception of Intelligent Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0188
The main challenge for future autonomous vehicles is to identify their location and body pose in real time during driving, that is, “where am I? and how will I go?”. We address the problems of pose estimation and scene perception from continuous visual frames in intelligent vehicle. Recent advanced technology in the domain of deep learning proposes to train some learning models for vehicle’s series detection tasks in a supervised or unsupervised manner, which has numerous advances over traditional approaches, mainly reflected in the absence of manual calibration and synchronization of the camera and IMU. In the paper, we propose a novel approach for pose estimation and scene recognition with a deep fusion of multi-modal neural features in the manner of unsupervised. Firstly, low-cost camera and IMU are used to extract original visual and inertial data, then the visual and inertial encoders are utilized to encoder the feature of the two modes.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Surface Temperature Fluctuation and Thermal Barrier Coating at the Piston Top for a Diesel Engine Performance Improvement

2021-04-06
2021-01-0229
Low heat rejection (LHR) combustion has been recognized as a potential technology for further fuel economy improvement. This paper aims to simulate how the piston top’s thermal barrier coating affects the engine’s thermal efficiency and emissions. Accordingly, a Thin-wall heat transfer model in AVL Fire software was employed. The effects of increasing the piston top surface temperature, comparing different thermal barrier coating material, were simulated at the engine’s rated power operating point, so as the piston top’s surface roughness. In comparison to a standard diesel engine, the indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) could increase by 0.4% when the surface temperature of the piston top changed from 575K to 775K.
Technical Paper

Anode Pressure Control with Fuzzy Compensator in PEMFC System

2021-04-06
2021-01-0121
Hydrogen safety is of great importance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. Anode pressure control has become a focus point in recent years. The differential pressure between anode and cathode in PEMFC system needs to be carefully controlled under a suitable threshold. In practice, the anode pressure is usually controlled about 20–30kPa higher than the cathode pressure to minimize nitrogen crossover and improve cell stability. High differential pressure could lead to irreversible damage in proton exchange membrane. PID control was the dominant method to control the anode pressure in the past. However, the anode pressure’s fluctuation when hydrogen mass flow suddenly changes is a long-term challenge. As the requirements of control precision are increasingly high, the traditional PID control needs to be improved. Several new control algorithms are presented in recent researches, however, mostly are theoretical and experimental.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic and Chemical Analysis of the Effect of Working Substances on the Argon Power Cycle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0447
The Argon Power Cycle engine is a novel concept for high efficiency and zero emission through the replacement of N2 by Ar. However, the higher in-cylinder temperature and pressure as by-products cause heavier knock. The anti-knock strategies, such as reducing compression ratio and retarding ignition time, offset the efficiency increased by the Argon Power Cycle. Therefore, knock control becomes the most urgent task for the Argon Power Cycle engine development. The anti-knock methods, including fuel replacement, ultra-lean combustion, high dilution combustion, and water injection, were considered. The simulated ignition delay times were used to evaluate the probability of knock. The Otto cycle, combined with chemical equilibrium, was utilized to confirm the effect on the thermal conversion efficiency and each in-cylinder thermodynamic state parameter. The results show that the ignition delay times increase by a factor of two when the Ar dilution ratio increases from 79% to 95%.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Strategy during Negative Valve Overlap on HCCI Combustion and Ion Current Characteristics

2021-04-06
2021-01-0532
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has the characteristics of high efficiency and low emissions. However, the lack of a decisive control method of combustion timing hinders its application. In this paper, the effects of fuel injection strategies on HCCI combustion and ion current (IC) characteristics were studied experimentally and numerically. The results show that by advancing the fuel injection timing or increasing the fuel injection ratio during negative valve overlap (NVO), the combustion phase and the start of ion current in the main combustion are both advanced, and the strength of the IC signal during NVO is enhanced as well, indicating that more active species will lead to earlier combustion. Additionally, HCCI combustion is determined not only by the reforming of fuel composition in NVO but also by the distribution of mixture and the gradient of concentration in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Compressive and Bending Resistance of the Thin-Walled Hat Section Beam with Strengthened Ridgelines

2021-04-06
2021-01-0293
To overcome some drawbacks of using UHSS (Ultra High Strength Steel) in vehicle weight reduction, like spot weld HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) softening, hard machining and brittleness, a new solution of ultra-high stress strengthening was proposed and applied to the ridgelines of thin-walled structures in this paper. Firstly, stress distribution characteristics, the laws of stress variation and the compressed plate buckling process of the rectangular thin-walled beam under compressive and bending load were analyzed in elastic plastic stage by theory and Finite Element (FE) simulation. Secondly, based on elastic plastic buckling theory of the compressed plate and stress distribution similarity of the buckling process of the thin-walled box structure, three factors influencing the ultimate resistance enhancement of thin-walled hat section beam were found, and the rationality and accuracy of cross section ultimate resistance prediction formulas were also verified by FE simulation.
Technical Paper

Optimal Gearshift Strategy in Inertia Phase of Dual-Clutch Transmissions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0320
Shift quality is an important indicator to measure the performance of dual-clutch transmissions (DCT). To obtain optimal driving comfort and reduce the vehicle jerk as much as possible, this paper proposes an integrated gearshift controller to control the engine and the on-coming clutch in inertia phase. First of all, a dynamic model of DCT during gearshift is established. Key factors determining shift quality are analyzed. In order to reduce the vehicle jerk, a reference trajectory of the engine speed and the derivative of the desired torque transferred by the on-coming clutch in inertia phase are programmed respectively. A back-stepping sliding mode controller (BPSMC) is designed to make the actual engine speed track the reference trajectory and an incremental proportional-integrative (PI) controller is designed to make the actual clutch torque to track the desired clutch torque.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Control of Dynamic Chassis Considering Road Roughness Class Recognition

2021-04-06
2021-01-0322
For the DCC (Dynamic Chassis Control) system, in addition to the requirement of ride and comfort, it is also necessary to consider the requirement of handling and stability, and these two requirements are often not met at the same time. This poses a great challenge to the design of the controller, especially in the face of complex working conditions. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a comprehensive DCC controller that considers road roughness class recognition. Firstly, a quarter vehicle model is established, the road surface roughness is calculated from the vertical acceleration of the wheels measured by the sensors. Then we calculate the autocorrelation function and the Fourier transform to estimate the PSD (Power Spectral Density) to get the road roughness class. Then control algorithms are designed for the vertical motion control, roll control and pitch control.
Technical Paper

Three Failure Models for CFRP Composites

2021-04-06
2021-01-0310
Several failure criteria and stiffness degradation laws for composite materials are summarized and compared in terms of precision and convenience of use. The 2D/3D Hashin failure criteria are coupled with the stiffness degradation rules provided by Tan, Tserpes and Zinoviev. Three new failure models including 2D Hashin-Tan, 3D Hashin-Tser and 3D Hashin-Zin are presented for CFRP materials. The above three models were coded and incorporated into the ABAQUS software by user subroutines, among which model 2D Hashin-Tan and model 3D Hashin-Tser were programmed using the implicit algorithm VUSDFLD while model 3D Hashin-Zin was coded using the explicit algorithm VUMAT. Experiments of uniaxial tension and three-point bending were performed. A single element subjected to uniaxial tension and three-bending were simulated to check the function and precision of the new models.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rotor Dynamics Characteristics of Jeffcot Rotor-Floating Ring Bearing System Including Heat Transfer

2021-04-06
2021-01-0641
With the increasing application of turbochargers on internal combustion engines, there are more and more examples of vibration faults in turbochargers. The dynamics characteristics of the bearing-rotor system of engine turbocharger systems have received extensive attention. The bearing-rotor system dynamics is a discipline that couples bearing fluid lubrication research and rotor dynamics. The lubrication characteristics of the bearing and the dynamic characteristics of the rotor must be studied at the same time. In this paper, the lubrication model of floating ring bearing of turbocharger is established, and the viscosity lubrication condition considering heat transfer effect is obtained. Based on the Capone cylindrical bearing oil film force model, the nonlinear oil film force equation of the floating ring bearing is deduced. Further the dynamic model of the Jeffcott rotor-floating ring bearing system is established.
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