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Technical Paper

Simulation Study on the Influence of the Shielding Mechanism of the Battery Pack Shell on the Vehicle Radiation Emission

2021-04-06
2021-01-0149
From the perspective of the three elements of electromagnetic interference, the main function of shielding is to cut off the propagation path of electromagnetic noise. The battery pack casing can be regarded as shielding the electromagnetic interference conducted on its internal and external wiring harnesses, but because the battery pack casing has power lines in and out, the battery pack casing is an incomplete shield. In the field of electromagnetics, shielding can be divided into electrical shielding, magnetic shielding and electromagnetic shielding. Therefore, this paper studies its influence on the electromagnetic radiation emission of the whole vehicle from the perspective of shielding mechanism. Due to the role of the switch components in the power battery system, strong current fluctuation di/dt and voltage fluctuation dv/dt will be generated on the power cable, and these interferences will have an important impact on the radiation emission of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Speed Fluctuation of Internal Combustion Engine Range Extender by a Dual Closed-Loop Control Strategy

2021-04-06
2021-01-0782
With the increasing concern on environmental pollution and CO2 emission all over the world, range-extended electrical vehicle (REEV) has gradually got more attention because it could avoid the mileage anxiety of the battery electrical vehicles (BEV) and get high energy efficiency. Nevertheless, NVH performance of internal combustion engine range extender (ICRE) is a critical problem that affects the driving experiences for REEV. In this paper, a two-cylinder PFI gasoline engine and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are coaxially mounted to run as an ICRE. The ICRE control system was established based on Compact RIO hardware and LabVIEW, who has the functions of the intake throttle PID closed-loop control, autonomous ICRE operation control, and speed PID closed-loop control. In this paper, the gasoline engine was first driven to the idle condition by PMSM in speed-control mode.
Technical Paper

Research on Effect of Dynamic Working Condition on Electrochemical Impedance

2021-04-06
2021-01-0747
Impedance is an important parameter of power lithium-ion batteries, which can represent battery characteristics and can also be used as an indicator for battery fault diagnosis. Since Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) includes various electrode processes and information, it is more significant and worthwhile for lithium-ion batteries research. However, it is quite difficult to attain EIS online because of the nonlinear characteristics of batteries. Therefore, this paper focus on studying the nonlinear impedance characteristics of lithium-ion batteries and proposing a new method to calculate the EIS online based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Data similarity analysis is used to study the influence of resting time, excitation current amplitude, bias current amplitude and the state of charge (SOC) on the impedance quantitatively.
Technical Paper

Research on Fast Filling Strategy of Large Capacity On-Board Hydrogen Storage Tank for Highway Passenger Cars

2020-04-14
2020-01-0855
In order to study the fast filling problem of large-capacity on-board hydrogen storage tank for highway passenger cars, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation model of 134L large-capacity hydrogen storage tank was established. By simulating different pre-cooling temperatures and mass flow rates, the temperature distribution and thermal transmission in the tank were observed. Due to the large ratio of length to diameter of the hydrogen tank, the temperature distribution is extremely uneven during the whole filling process, and the high temperature area is mainly concentrated in the tank tail. And the heat transfer between the gas and the tank wall is not obvious under the low and constant mass flow rate. The temperature rise process during the whole filling process under different mass flow conditions was simulated to satisfy the highest safe temperature limit.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Parametric Analysis of Battery Thermal Management System Using Phase Change Material

2020-04-14
2020-01-0866
The thermophysical parameters and amount of composite phase change materials (PCMs) have decisive influence on the thermal control effects of thermal management systems (TMSs). At the same time, the various thermophysical parameters of the composite PCM are interrelated. For example, increasing the thermal conductivity is bound to mean a decrease in the latent heat of phase change, so a balance needs to be achieved between these parameters. In this paper, a prismatic LiFePO4 battery cell cooled by composite PCM is comprehensively analyzed by changing the phase change temperature, thermal conductivity and amount of composite PCM. The influence of the composite PCM parameters on the cooling and temperature homogenization effect of the TMS is analyzed. which can give useful guide to the preparation of composite PCMs and design of the heat transfer enhancement methods for TMSs.
Technical Paper

Recent Progress on In-Situ Monitoring and Mechanism Study of Battery Thermal Runaway Process

2020-04-14
2020-01-0861
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with relatively high energy, power density and eco-friendly characteristic are considered as a vital energy source in consumer market of portable electronics and transportation sector especially in electric vehicles (EVs). To meet the higher capacity requirements, the nickel-rich LIBs with higher capacity has been used as the commercial power batteries. However, the battery with higher energy density is more destructive, which could result in thermal runaway accidents and make the battery safety issues become more and more prominent. Thermal runaway of LIBs is one of the key scientific problems in safety issues. Until now, the inducement of thermal runaway process is complicated which perplex researchers and industry a lot. On the one hand, the internal mechanism about thermal runaway should be deeply studied. On the other hand, in-situ monitoring should be developed to supply the mechanism study and early warning.
Technical Paper

Starting Process Control of a 2-Cylinder PFI Gasoline Engine for Range Extender

2020-04-14
2020-01-0315
With the increasing worldwide concern on environmental pollution, battery electrical vehicles (BEV) have attracted a lot attention. However, it still couldn’t satisfy the market requirements because of the low battery power density, high cost and long charging time. The range-extended electrical vehicle (REEV) got more attention because it could avoid the mileage anxiety of the BEVs with lower cost and potentially higher efficiency. When internal combustion engine (ICE) works as the power source of range extender (RE) for REEV, its NVH, emissions in starting process need to be optimized. In this paper, a 2-cylinder PFI gasoline engine and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are coaxially connected. Meanwhile, batteries and load systems were equipped. The RE co-control system was developed based on Compact RIO (Compact Reconfigurable IO), Labview and motor control unit (MCU).
Technical Paper

Impedance Modeling and Aging Research of the Lithium-Ion Batteries Using the EIS Technique

2019-04-02
2019-01-0596
As the core component of electric vehicles (EVs), batteries attach increasingly general attention along with the rapid expansion of electric vehicle market. Battery performance effect directly the safety and reliability of the EVs, so its managing technologies are more and more crucial. Among them, the methods of estimating the state of health (SoH) and predicting remaining useful life become the focuses, which are essential to ensure their dependability and optimum performance over time. This paper mainly focuses on impedance modeling and aging research (aging diagnosis and life prediction) of lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique is used to obtain impedance characteristic of batteries. On the one hand, equivalent circuit modeling (ECM) can be motivated by EIS, with the goal to fit measured impedance data using circuit elements.
Technical Paper

Genetic Algorithm-Based Parameter Optimization of Energy Management Strategy and Its Analysis for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0358
Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) composed of fuel cells and batteries can improve the dynamic response and durability of vehicle propulsion. In addition, braking energy can be recovered by batteries. The energy management strategy (EMS) for distributing the requested power through different types of energy sources plays an important role in FCHEVs. Reasonable power split not only improves vehicle performance but also enhances fuel economy. In this paper, considering the power tracking control strategy which is widely adopted in Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR), a constrained nonlinear programming parameter optimization model is established for minimizing fuel consumption. The principal parameters of power tracking control strategy are set as the optimized variables, with the dynamic performance index of FCHEVs being defined as the constraint condition. Then, the genetic algorithm (GA) is applied in the control strategy design for solving the optimization problem.
Technical Paper

SOC Estimation of Battery Pack Considering Cell Inconsistency

2019-04-02
2019-01-1309
Range anxiety problem has always been one of the biggest concern of consumers for pure electric vehicles. Accurate driving range prediction is based on accurate lithium-ion battery pack SOC (State of Charge) estimation. In this article, a complete SOC estimation algorithm is proposed from cell level to battery pack level. To begin with, the equivalent circuit model (ECM) is applied as the model of battery cell. ECM parameters are identified every 10% SOC interval through genetic algorithm. The dual extended Kalman filtering (DEKF) algorithm is adopted for cell-level SOC and ohmic resistance R0 estimation. The estimation accuracy of cell SOC and R0 is verified under NEDC dynamic working condition. The cell-level SOC estimation error is below 1%. However, cell inconsistency can always result in inaccurate cell SOC estimation inside the battery pack. The impact of initial SOC inconsistency and internal resistance inconsistency between cells on battery pack SOC is specifically analyzed.
Technical Paper

On-line Lithium-Ion Battery State-of-Power Prediction by Twice Recursive Method Based on Dynamic Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-1311
State-of-Power (SoP) prediction of Li-ion battery is necessary in battery management system for electric vehicles in order to deal with limited conditions, prevent overcharge and over discharge situations, increase the life of the battery and provide effective battery operation. This article suggests a method to on-line predict the 10-s charge and discharge peak power of Li-ion battery by twice recursions. First with the dynamic battery model we use the first recursion based on a least square method to get parameters which are influenced by the state of charge of Li-ion battery and temperature, etc. The dynamic model is an equivalent circuit model. Current and voltage are input online into the battery model. By recursive least square method the parameters are updated in real time. Moreover, when we use a recursive method to get real-time parameters, we add an extra proper factor to abandon old datum, which increases the real-time capability of state-of-power prediction.
Journal Article

Development of Hardware and Software for On-Board Hydrogen System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0377
The fuel cell engine is considered to be the ultimate technical direction for the development of vehicle power. The on-board hydrogen supply system is important in fuel cell system. However, the on-board hydrogen supply system is diversified, and the management is mostly integrated in the engine controller. Thus, the fuel cell engine controller is excessive coupled with design of on-board hydrogen supply system. In order to improve the portability and compatibility of the fuel cell engine controller, an independent controller of the on-board hydrogen supply system is designed. Meanwhile, the hardware and software are developed to control 35Mpa gaseous hydrogen storage system. After being tested in a high-pressure environment, the controller can detect temperature, pressure and ambient hydrogen concentration of the hydrogen supply system. Simultaneously, it can drive and control the hydrogen cylinder valve.
Technical Paper

High Frequency Impedance and Electromagnetic Interference Suppression of Lithium-Ion Power Battery Pack

2019-04-02
2019-01-1060
When electric vehicle speeds up or slows down, rapidly changing current and voltage (di/dt and du/dt) would occurs in its lithium-ion power battery. In this way, the impedance of power battery would changes with parasitic parameters because that the ion transport in electrolytes would influence diffusion effect and polarization effect of battery. Thus, the lithium-ion battery cannot be regarded as ideal component in high frequency, which could cause unpredictable problem in electromagnetic interference (EMI). However, most previous studies took lithium-ion power batteries as disturbed objects or transmission routes, which ignore the electromagnetic interference of battery itself. Based on it, this paper analyses the internal mechanism of EMI in lithium-ion power battery, and simulates the distribution of electromagnetic field as well as it corresponding interference suppression measures. Firstly, the test platform for parameter extraction of battery cell is built.
Technical Paper

Experiment Studies of Charging Strategy for Lithium-Ion Batteries

2019-04-02
2019-01-0792
Regarding the lithium-ion batteries used in the electric vehicle, charging time and charging efficiency are the concern of the public. In this paper, a lot of experiments were conducted to investigate the common charging strategies, including the CC-CV (constant current-constant voltage) charging and the pulse current charging, for the LiFePO4 batteries, which are still widely used in commercial vehicles. Charging temperature and the charging current in the CC phase are the main influence factors to be studied for the CC-CV charging strategy, and the contribution of the CC phase and CV phase to the whole charging is analyzed from three aspects, including the time percent, charging energy efficiency and the capacity of battery at different temperatures and charging current.
Technical Paper

The Aging Law of Low Temperature Charging of Lithium-Ion Battery

2019-04-02
2019-01-1204
With the rise of new energy vehicles, lithium-ion batteries have been widely used. However, the safety, cruising range and practicality of electric vehicles are still major obstacles to their development. Among them, the low-temperature performance of electric vehicles is receiving more and more attention. Lithium-ion batteries have poor low-temperature performance. At low temperatures, not only the charging efficiency is lowered, but also the energy that can be flushed is correspondingly reduced, thereby resulting in a decrease in capacity and an increase in aging. At present, the mechanism and influence factors of battery discharge aging have been studied relatively well, but there are few researches on low temperature charging aging of batteries.
Technical Paper

Thermal Model of High-Power Lithium Ion Battery Under Freezing Operation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0445
Lithium ion battery is considered as one of the most possible energy storage equipment for new energy vehicles (EV, HEV, etc.) because of the advantages of long cycle life, high power density and low self-discharge rate. However, under freezing condition high power battery suffers of significant performances losses. For example, they would suffer from significant power capability losses and poor rate performance, which would restrict the availability to delivery or to gain of high current in transient conditions. To evaluate those performance drawbacks and to make an efficient design, good mathematical models are required for system simulation especially for battery thermal management. In this paper, a three-dimensional homogenization thermal model of a 20 Ah prismatic lithium ion battery with LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode is described.
Technical Paper

Bi-Directional Equalization System for Li-Ion Battery Pack Based on Fly-back Transformer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0442
For balancing Li-ion battery cells connected in series and effectively improving the consistency of the cells, a bi-directional equalization system based on fly-back transformer is proposed. Unlike the passive equalization technology using a resistor or active equalization with expensive DC-DC converter for the balancing among the cells, this equalization circuit consists of the fly-back transformer and RCD circuit, which can easily and cheaply realize the energy transfer between the whole battery module and the cells, and thus achieving bidirectional equalization. In this system, both the primary side and the secondary side of multi-winding transformer are connected to a MOSFET. All MOSFETs are controlled by the PWM signal. The control timing and duty ratio of the PWM control signal are determined through the simulation analysis. Meanwhile, an RCD circuit is applied at the primary side of multi-winding transformer for buffering the peak voltage caused by leakage inductance.
Technical Paper

A Novel Battery Impedance Model Considering Internal Temperature Gradient

2018-04-03
2018-01-0436
Battery models are often applied to describe the dynamic characteristics of batteries and can be used to predict the state of the battery. Due to the process of charging and discharging, the battery heat generation will cause the inhomogeneity between inner battery temperature and surface temperature. In this paper, a novel battery impedance model, which takes the impact of the battery internal temperature gradient on battery impedance into account, is proposed to improve the battery model performance. Several experiments are designed and conducted for pouch typed battery to investigate the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) characteristics with the artificial temperature gradient (using a heating plate). Experimental results indicate that the battery internal temperature gradient will influence battery EIS regularly.
Technical Paper

Parameter Identification of Battery Pack Considering Cell Inconsistency

2017-03-28
2017-01-1214
Lithium-ion batteries have been applied in the new energy vehicles more and more widely. The inconsistency of battery cells imposes a lot of difficulties in parameter and state estimations. This paper proposes a new algorithm which can online identify the parameters of each individual battery cell accurately with limited increase of computational cost. An equivalent circuit battery model is founded and based on the RLS (recursive least squares) algorithm, an optimization algorithm with the construction of weight vectors is proposed which can identify the parameters of lithium battery pack considering inconsistency of single battery cell. Firstly, the average value of the parameters of the battery pack is identified with the traditional RLS algorithm. Then the ratios between the parameters of each battery cell can be deduced from the mathematical model of battery. These ratios are used to determine the weight vector of each parameter of individual battery cells.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of AC Pulse Heating Method for NMC Lithium-Ion Battery at Subzero Temperatures

2017-03-28
2017-01-1217
An alternating current (AC) heating method for a NMC lithium-ion battery with 8Ah capacity is proposed. The effects of excitation frequency, current amplitudes, and voltage limit condition on the temperature evolution are investigated experimentally. Current amplitudes are set to 24A(3C), 40(5C), and 64A(8C), and excitation frequencies are set to 300Hz, 100Hz, 30Hz, 10Hz, 5Hz, and 1Hz respectively. The voltage limitations are necessary to protect cells from overcharge and over-discharge. Therefore the voltage limit condition (4.2V/2.75V, 4.3V/2.65V, and 4.4V/2.55V) are also considered in depth to verify the feasibility of the AC heating method. The temperature rises prominently as the current increases, and the decrement of frequencies also lead to the obvious growth of battery temperature. The battery obtain the maximum temperature rise at 64A and 1Hz, which takes 1800s to heat up the battery from -25°C to 18°C.
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