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Technical Paper

Composite Steering Strategy for 4WS-4WD EV Based on Low-Speed Steering Maneuverability

2019-11-04
2019-01-5052
A composite steering control strategy, which combines four-wheel steering (4WS) and differential steering, is proposed in this paper, to optimize steering maneuverability in the conditions where the vehicle speed is below 15 Km/h, mainly for U-turning and parking conditions. A dynamic model is developed for the steering system and the tire system. Taking different steering wheel inputs into consideration, a 4WS control strategy proportional to the front wheel steering angle is quoted to improve the steering maneuverability in the low speed conditions and guarantee the manipulability by controlling the side slip of the vehicle. Based on the 4WS system, this paper explores the possibility of further improving the low-speed maneuverability of the vehicle through differential steering. And the differential steering control strategy is developed, including four hub-motor output modes. A composite steering controller is designed based on the 4WS-4WD electric vehicle platform.
Technical Paper

Research on CAN FD Controller Conformance Test System

2019-11-04
2019-01-5073
The Controller Area Network with Flexible Data-Rate (CAN FD) is invented to compensate for the limited bandwidth of Controller Area Network (CAN). The technology of CAN FD bus conformance test is a prerequisite for the interconnection and normal work of different manufacturers’ CAN FD module, and is of great significance for ensuring the reliability of the CAN FD network. Firstly, the communication protocol conformance test theory is briefly analyzed and the characteristics of the CAN FD protocol are introduced in this paper. Then the test scope and test objects of CAN FD conformance test are pointed out. This paper mainly focuses on the CAN FD controller conformance test, which is belong to chip test. The controller implements the most parts of data link layer in a CAN FD module. Furthermore, the test method and the test cases are elaborated. Based on the coordinated test method, a conformance test system is designed and the hardware and software are developed for the test system.
Technical Paper

Test and Analysis of Electromagnetic Noise of an Electric Motor in a Pure Electric Car

2019-06-05
2019-01-1492
Compared with the low-frequency ignition order of mechanical and combustion noise of an internal combustion engine, the noise of electric drive assembly of electric vehicles is mainly the high-frequency whining noise generated by electromagnetic forces of motors and gear meshing of reducers, as well as the high-frequency umbrella-shape noise generated by DC/AC pulse width modulation. Although the radiated sound power of these high frequency noise is far less than that of an internal combustion engine, the high frequency noise of the motor and the reducer is subjectively quite annoying. This paper studies the characteristics of electromagnetic noise of a permanent magnet synchronous motor in an electric car. By testing and analyzing of noise sources of an electric motor in the car and on a test rig, the spatial order characteristics and amplitude-frequency characteristics of the electromagnetic forces are revealed. The noise orders are multiples of the number of motor poles.
Technical Paper

Simulation Investigation of Working Process and Emissions on GDI Engine Fueled with Hydrous Ethanol Gasoline Blends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0219
Compared with ordinary gasoline, using ethanol gasoline blends as fuel of Internal Combustion Engine is beneficial for the performance of power, economy and emission of engine. However, the fuel ethanol blended in ethanol gasoline blends currently is usually anhydrous ethanol, which requires dewatering implementer in production process, and the cost is high. Therefore, the production cost can be significantly reduced by replacement of anhydrous ethanol with hydrous ethanol while exerting the advantage of ethanol gasoline blends. In this study, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software CONVERGE is employed to establish a simulation model of an actual gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, and investigate the effect of burning hydrous ethanol gasoline blends and different injection strategy on combustion process and emission, and the validity of the model was validated by experiments.
Technical Paper

Lumped Parameter Transient Thermal Model of Motor Considering Temperature and Flow Rate of Cooling Water

2019-04-02
2019-01-0890
The influence of heat flow and cooling water characteristics on motor temperature cannot be accurately reflected by the traditional motor temperature analysis method. In order to study the motor and its key components’ temperature characteristics under different temperatures and flow rates of cooling water, this paper establishes the lumped parameter transient thermal model which includes cooling water module, based on a 50kW permanent magnet synchronous motor. The transient and steady temperature is calculated through this model together with the motor loss calculation module in the electric drive system model. The influence of different temperature and flow rate of cooling water on motor and its key components’ temperature characteristics is compared. During the modeling process, the motor body is divided into 14 parts, based on the internal heat flow path of the motor. The thermal resistance of each key component and cooling water is calculated.
Technical Paper

Topology Optimization of Metal and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Structures under Loading Uncertainties

2019-04-02
2019-01-0709
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials have gained particular interests due to their high specific modulus, high strength, lightweight and perfect corrosion resistance. However, in reality, CFRP composite materials cannot be used alone in some critical places such as positions of joints with hinges, locks. Therefore, metal reinforcements are usually necessary in local positions to prevent structure damage. Besides, if uncertainties present, obtained optimal structures may experience in failures as the optimization usually pushes solutions to the boundaries of constraints and has no room for tolerance and uncertainties, so robust optimization should be considered to accommodate the uncertainties in practice. This paper proposes a mixed topology method to optimize metal and carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite materials simultaneously under nondeterministic load with random magnitude and direction.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Intake Manifold Water Injection on Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0562
The performances of heavy-duty natural gas engines have been limited by combustion temperature and NOx emissions for a long time. Recently, water injection technology has been widely considered as a technical solution in reducing fuel consumption and emissions simultaneously in both gasoline and diesel engines. This paper focuses on the impacts of intake manifold water injection on characteristics of combustion and emissions in a natural gas heavy-duty engine through numerical methods. A computational model was setup and validated with experimental data of pressure traces in a CFD software coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The simulation was mainly carried out in low-speed and full-load conditions, and knock level was also measured and calculated by maximum amplitude of pressure oscillations (MAPO).
Technical Paper

Transfer Path Analysis and Low-Frequency Vibration Reduction by Locally Resonant Phononic Crystal

2019-04-02
2019-01-0786
The motor has vibration characteristics of order and multi-band in the frequency domain, which is different from the internal combustion engine when it is used as the vehicle’s drive. These characteristics cannot be briefly attenuated by general methods, but make the phononic crystal (PC) an ideal solution to eliminate the vibration transmission of the motor, because the concentrated vibration peak can easily be blocked by the bandgap. In this paper, one dimensional locally resonant phononic crystal (LRPC) which has low-frequency bandgaps are arranged on the automotive subframe to absorbing vibration. The partial coherence analysis is used to analyze the transfer characteristic of vibration on the subframe. Then, 6 main paths are selected from the 18 vibration transmission paths, based on its high ratio of partial coherence coefficient in a certain frequency, and the arranged position, the spring stiffness and the resonator’s mass of the LRPCs are chosen based on this result.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Implementation of Three-Phase PMSM Current Harmonic Decomposition Technique

2019-04-02
2019-01-0604
With the development of electric vehicle (EV), permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has received more and more attention. PMSM torque ripple suppression is one of the core technologies of PMSM control. Current harmonic injection method is a commonly used torque ripple suppression method. In order to accurately control the injecting current harmonics, it is necessary to quickly and efficiently decompose the three-phase PMSM current harmonics first. In this paper, an existing instantaneous harmonic decomposition method based on multiple reference coordinates is adopted. First, the causes of the analysis error of the harmonic decomposition technique are analyzed which are divided into internal factors (e.g. analysis errors generated during the discretization of continuous functions) and external factors (e.g. sampling errors). Analysis errors will directly affect the decomposition result.
Technical Paper

Parameters Analyses and Identification for Rubber Bush Based on Theoretical Dynamic Model with Effects of Temperature and Preload

2019-04-02
2019-01-1272
A series connection of the KVBC (Kelvin-Voigt and Bouc-wen) theoretical model of rubber bush in automobile suspension is established. The numerical calculation model is also developed through Matlab/simulation and 9 parameters are identified. Experiments are conducted on the rubber bush on a bench for dynamic and static characteristics and to supply appropriate and reliable data for parameter identification. Based on this, preload and temperature are taken into consideration in an ordinary KVBC model as two important additional factors. As a result, it leads to developing a novel model with new parameter identification, which is validated under different conditions. This new modeling method of rubber bush has three advantages. First, it shows improved accuracy for solving non-linear problems in a multi-body calculation, which is useful for researchers and vehicle engineers.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Intake Manifold Water Injection in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine for Performance and Emissions Enhancement

2018-09-10
2018-01-1653
The present work discusses the effects of intake manifold water injection in a six-cylinder heavy duty natural gas (NG) engine through one-dimensional simulation. The numerical study was carried out based on GT-Power under different engine working conditions. The established simulation model was firstly calibrated in detail through the whole engine speed sweep under full load conditions before the model of intake manifold water injector was involved, and the calibration was based on experimental data. The intake manifold water injection mass was controlled through adjustment of intake water/gas (water/natural gas) ratio, a water/gas ratio swept from 0 to 4 was selected to investigate the effects of intake manifold water injection on engine performance and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, the enhancement potential of intake manifold water injection in heavy duty NG engine under lean and stoichiometric condition was also investigated by the alteration of air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Boosted Current Spark Strategy for Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1133
Spark ignition systems with the capability of providing spark event with either higher current level or longer discharge duration has been developed in recent years to help IC engines towards clean combustion with higher efficiency under lean/diluted intake charge. In this research, a boosted current spark strategy was proposed to investigate the effect of spark discharge current level and discharge duration on the combustion process. Firstly, the discharge characteristics of a boosted current spark system were tested with a traditional spark plug under crossflow conditions, and results showed that the spark channel was more stable, and was stretched much longer when the discharge current was boosted. Then the boosted current strategy was used in a spark ignition engine operating under lean conditions. Boosted current was added to the spark channel with different timing, duration, and current levels.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study on Combustion Characteristics of Hydrogen-Argon Jet in a Hot Vitiated Co-flow

2018-04-03
2018-01-1139
This paper presents a study of the Hydrogen/Argon lifted flames in a hot vitiated co-flow. The effects of the dilution of argon in central fuel, the volume fraction of argon in the central fuel, co-flow temperature and the velocity of the central jet on the flame lift-off length were studied, and the numerical simulation with PDF model were analyzed as well. The results could provide theoretical supports for the research of the hydrogen fueled argon cycle engine which is a potential way not only to increase the indicated thermal efficiency of internal combustion engine but also realize the zero emission. The result shows that at the same boundary condition the central jet of H2+Ar has a lower lift-off length than the central jet of H2+N2. By the numerical simulation, the jet flame of H2+Ar has a higher maximum temperature and maximum OH concentration. It indicated that the dilution of argon could promote the combustion reaction.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Ability Testing for Automotive Ethernet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0755
With the introduction of BroadR-Reach and time-sensitive networking (TSN), Ethernet has become an option for in-vehicle networks (IVNs). Although it has been used in the IT field for decades, it is a new technology for automotive, and thus requires extensive testing. Current test solutions usually target specifications rather than the in-vehicle environment, which means that some properties are still uncertain for in-vehicle usage (e.g., fault tolerance for shorted or open wires). However, these characteristics must be cleared before applying Ethernet in IVNs, because of stringent vehicular safety requirements. Because CAN is usually used for these environments, automotive Ethernet is expected to have the same or better level of fault tolerance. Both CAN and BroadR-Reach use a single pair of twisted wires for physical media; thus, the traditional fault-tolerance test method can be applied for automotive Ethernet.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Factors Controlling the Attainable Equivalent Plastic Strain in the Gauge Region of Cruciform Specimens

2018-04-03
2018-01-0809
The maximum equivalent plastic strain (EPSmax), which can be achieved in the gauge region of a cruciform specimen during in-plane biaxial tensile tests, is limited due to early fracture on the cruciform specimen arm. In this paper, a theoretical model was proposed to determine the factors related to the EPSmax of a cruciform specimen following ISO 16842: 2014. Biaxial tensile tests were carried out to verify the theoretical analyses. Results show that the material strength coefficient (k) has no effect on the EPSmax, and EPSmax increases with the increase of the material hardening exponent (n) and the cross-sectional-area ratio (c) of the arm region to the gauge region. It is found that the applied load ratio (α) has an effect on EPSmax, which decreases as the load ratio increases from 0:1 (i.e. uniaxial tension) to 1:2 (i.e. plane strain state) and then increases as the load ratio increases to 1:1 (i.e. balanced biaxial tension).
Technical Paper

Concurrent Optimization of Ply Orientation and Thickness for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Laminated Engine Hood

2018-04-03
2018-01-1121
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites have gained particular interests due to their high specific modulus, high strength, lightweight and resistance to environment. In the automotive industry, numerous studies have been ongoing to replace the metal components with CFRP for the purpose of weight saving. One of the significant benefits of CFRP laminates is the ability of tailoring fiber orientation and ply thickness to meet the acceptable level of structural performance with little waste of material capability. This study focused on the concurrent optimization of ply orientation and thickness for CFRP laminated engine hood, which was based on the gradient-based discrete material and thickness optimization (DMTO) method. Two manufactural constraints, namely contiguity and intermediate void constraints, were taken into account in the optimization problem to reduce the potential risk of cracking matrix of CFRP.
Journal Article

The Effect of Fixture on the Testing Accuracy in the Spindle-Coupled Road Simulation Test

2018-04-03
2018-01-0130
The action of load on the component is crucial to evaluate the performance of durability. Another factor that affects fatigue life is the boundary conditions of the test specimen being tested by introducing unrealistic loads on the component of interest. The physical test is widely conducted in the laboratory. The fixture provides additional constraints on the test specimen as well as reaction forces to balance the test system [1]. The characteristics of the fixture involved in the test is important to analyze and assess the test results [2]. The impact of the reaction force of the fixture on the spindle-coupled axle road simulation test is presented in this article. A simplified 7-DoF (degrees of freedom) model is introduced to demonstrate the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The influence on the internal load by the fixture has been analyzed. Followed by a more detailed MBS (multibodysystem) model to give a thorough understanding of the phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics at Different Altitudes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0308
In this study, effects of altitude on free diesel spray morphology, macroscopic spray characteristics and air-fuel mixing process were investigated. The diesel spray visualization experiment using high-speed photography was performed in a constant volume chamber which reproduced the injection diesel-like thermodynamic conditions of a heavy-duty turbocharged diesel engine operating at sea level and 1000 m, 2000 m, 3000 m and 4500 m above sea level. The results showed that the spray morphology became narrower and longer at higher altitude, and small vortex-like structures were observed on the downstream spray periphery. Spray penetration increased and spray angle decreased with increasing altitude. At altitudes of 0 m, 1000 m, 2000 m, 3000 m and 4500 m, the spray penetration at 1.45 ms after start of injection (ASOI) were 79.54 mm, 80.51 mm, 81.49 mm, 83.29 mm and 88.92 mm respectively, and the spray angle were 10.9°, 10.8°, 10.7°, 10.4°and 9.8° respectively.
Technical Paper

An Online Fault Detection and Isolation Method for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0451
An online fault detection and isolation (FDI) method for several common sensor faults and even demagnetization of PMSM is proposed by combining model-based and signal analysis technology. To begin with, the field reconstruction method (FRM) of PMSM is employed to obtain the flux residuals which are used as the criterion of fault detection. Then, the flux residuals are transformed by multi sequence harmonic synchronous rotating transformation and inputted into low pass filters (LPFs) in order to obtain the DC components. Last, offset and gain faults of the two phase current sensors, offset fault of the rotor angle sensor and permanent magnet (PM) demagnetization can be isolated by comparing the DC components and preset thresholds. The detection and isolation strategy of PMSM is validated by motor controller hardware in motor bench tests.
Technical Paper

Parameter Identification of Self-Inductance in Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0463
For a practical pad design, a magnetic shielding layer is imperative which is made of ferrite, aluminum or some other metallic material. However, once the magnetic shielding layer is added, not only the mutual inductance but also the self-inductance of the coupling coils vary with the lateral misalignment which is inevitable for a human driver. The change of self-inductance will also result in the mistuning problem in the resonant circuit, which can significantly reduce the transmission efficiency of the whole wireless power transfer (WPT) system. This paper proposed a method of parameter identification of self-inductance based on the least square in order to solve the mistuning problem. In order to verify the proposed method, both the simulation model and the experiment set-up are built.
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