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Technical Paper

Evaluation Method of Harmony with Traffic Based on a Backpropagation Neural Network Optimized by Mean Impact Value

2021-06-02
2021-01-5060
With the development of autonomous driving, the penetration rate of autonomous vehicles on the road will continue to grow. As a result, the social cooperation ability of autonomous vehicles will have a great effect on the social acceptance of autonomous driving, which can be described as harmony with traffic. In order to research the evaluation method of the harmony with traffic, this paper proposes a subjective and objective mapping evaluation method based on the Mean Impact Value and Backpropagation (MIV-BP) Neural Network, with the merging vehicle on the expressway ramp as the research object. Firstly, by taking 16 original objective indexes obtained by theoretical analysis and the subjective evaluation results as input and output, respectively, the BP Neural Network model is constructed as a baseline model. Secondly, nine selected objective indexes are selected by the MIV method based on the baseline model.
Technical Paper

Improved Joint Probabilistic Data Association Multi-target Tracking Algorithm Based on Camera-Radar Fusion

2021-04-15
2021-01-5002
A Joint Probabilistic Data Association (JPDA) multi-objective tracking improvement algorithm based on camera-radar fusion is proposed to address the problems of poor single-sensor tracking performance, unknown target detection probability, and missing valid targets in complex traffic scenarios. First, according to the correlation rule between the target track and the measurement, the correlation probability between the target and the measurement is obtained; then the measurement collection is divided into camera-radar measurement matched target, camera-only measurement matched target, radar-only measurement matched target, and no-match target; and the correlation probability is corrected with different confidence levels to avoid the use of unknown detection probability.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for Prevention of PEMFC Oxygen Starvation: A Review

2021-04-06
2021-01-0743
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) which has advantages of starting fast, high energy density, high efficiency, lower operating temperature and little pollution is widely regarded as one of the most promising energy sources. The PEMFC system includes several subsystems such as air supply subsystem, hydrogen supply subsystem, thermal management subsystem, water management subsystem, energy management subsystem and so on. The Air supply subsystem has great influence on the performance and life of PEMFC stack. Whether oxygen supply in air supply subsystem is sufficient or not will affects reaction rate of fuel, the operating temperature and degradation of PEMFC stack and so on. To solve the issue of oxygen starvation in PEMFC stack, the control strategies for improving dynamic response and preventing air shortage of the PEMFC air supply subsystem are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Effect of Water and Oxygen Distributions on Consistency of Current Density Using a Quasi-Three-Dimensional Model of a PEM Fuel Cell

2021-04-06
2021-01-0737
Activation loss, mass transfer loss and ohmic loss are the three main voltage losses of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. While the former two types are relevant to concentration of oxygen in catalyst layer and the later one is associated with the water content in membrane. Distributions of water content and oxygen in a single cell are inconsistent which cause that current densities in each segment of the single cell are different. For the dry inlet gas, the water in the segments near the gas inlet channel will be carried to the segments near the gas outlet channel, which causes high ohmic loss of the segments near the gas inlet channel. In this work, a transfer non-isothermal quasi-three-dimensional model is developed to investigate inconsistency of current densities.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Control Strategies on Voltage Inconsistency for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

2021-04-06
2021-01-0736
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) is considered the most promising alternative vehicle power in the future owing to its highly power density and zero carbon emission. However, Voltage inconsistency of PEMFC is an essential issue that influences the performance of a PEMFC. It is affected by flow-rate and relative humidity of the inlet air. It’s necessary to establish a control strategy to ensure air supplied timely. A PEMFC system bench with 30 cells (the cells are numbered 1-30 in the direction from near to far from the air intake port) assembled in series was established to investigate the control strategy of air supply system. According to fuel cell’s position of the lowest voltage and the corresponding air flow rate, there are three different operations as follows. When it appears not in the low numbered area and the air flow rate is high, it indicates that humidity of the cell is insufficient and it needs to reduce power of the blower or close the bypass-valve.
Technical Paper

Novel Research for Energy Management of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Dual Motors Based on Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle Optimized by Reinforcement Learning

2021-04-06
2021-01-0726
The plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with dual-motor and multi-gear structure can realize multiple operation modes such as series, parallel, hybrid, etc. The traditional rule-based energy management strategy mostly selects some of the modes (such as series and parallel) to construct the energy management strategy. Although this method is simple and reliable, it can’t fully exert the full potential of this structure considering both economy and driving performance. Therefore, it is very important to study the algorithm which can exert the maximum potential of the multi-degree-of-freedom structure. In this paper, a new RL-PMP algorithm is proposed, which does not divide the operation modes, and explores the optimal energy allocation strategy to the maximum extent according to the economic and drivability criteria within the allowable range of the characteristics of the power system components.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Control of Dynamic Chassis Considering Road Roughness Class Recognition

2021-04-06
2021-01-0322
For the DCC (Dynamic Chassis Control) system, in addition to the requirement of ride and comfort, it is also necessary to consider the requirement of handling and stability, and these two requirements are often not met at the same time. This poses a great challenge to the design of the controller, especially in the face of complex working conditions. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a comprehensive DCC controller that considers road roughness class recognition. Firstly, a quarter vehicle model is established, the road surface roughness is calculated from the vertical acceleration of the wheels measured by the sensors. Then we calculate the autocorrelation function and the Fourier transform to estimate the PSD (Power Spectral Density) to get the road roughness class. Then control algorithms are designed for the vertical motion control, roll control and pitch control.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study on the Influence of the Shielding Mechanism of the Battery Pack Shell on the Vehicle Radiation Emission

2021-04-06
2021-01-0149
From the perspective of the three elements of electromagnetic interference, the main function of shielding is to cut off the propagation path of electromagnetic noise. The battery pack casing can be regarded as shielding the electromagnetic interference conducted on its internal and external wiring harnesses, but because the battery pack casing has power lines in and out, the battery pack casing is an incomplete shield. In the field of electromagnetics, shielding can be divided into electrical shielding, magnetic shielding and electromagnetic shielding. Therefore, this paper studies its influence on the electromagnetic radiation emission of the whole vehicle from the perspective of shielding mechanism. Due to the role of the switch components in the power battery system, strong current fluctuation di/dt and voltage fluctuation dv/dt will be generated on the power cable, and these interferences will have an important impact on the radiation emission of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Multi-Modal Neural Feature Fusion for Pose Estimation and Scene Perception of Intelligent Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0188
The main challenge for future autonomous vehicles is to identify their location and body pose in real time during driving, that is, “where am I? and how will I go?”. We address the problems of pose estimation and scene perception from continuous visual frames in intelligent vehicle. Recent advanced technology in the domain of deep learning proposes to train some learning models for vehicle’s series detection tasks in a supervised or unsupervised manner, which has numerous advances over traditional approaches, mainly reflected in the absence of manual calibration and synchronization of the camera and IMU. In the paper, we propose a novel approach for pose estimation and scene recognition with a deep fusion of multi-modal neural features in the manner of unsupervised. Firstly, low-cost camera and IMU are used to extract original visual and inertial data, then the visual and inertial encoders are utilized to encoder the feature of the two modes.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Different Modelling Methods of Secondary Path to Maximize Control Effect for Active Engine Mounts

2021-04-06
2021-01-0668
Active engine mount (AEM) is an effective approach which can optimize the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance of vehicles. The filtered-x-least-mean-squares (FxLMS) algorithm is widely applicated for vibration attenuation in AEMs. However, the performance of FxLMS algorithm can be deteriorated without an accurate secondary path estimation. First, this paper models the secondary path using finite impulse response (FIR) model, infinite impulse response (IIR) model and back propagation (BP) neural network model and the model errors of which are compared to determine the most accurate and robust modeling method. After that, the influence of operation frequency on accuracy of the secondary path model is analyzed through simulation approach. Then, the impact of reference signal mismatch on the control effect is demonstrated to study the robustness of FxLMS algorithm.
Technical Paper

The Control Strategy for 4WD Hybrid Vehicle Based on Wavelet Transform

2021-04-06
2021-01-0785
In this paper, in order to avoid the frequent switching of engine operating points and improve the fuel economy during driving, this paper proposes a control strategy for the 4-wheel drive (4WD) hybrid vehicle based on wavelet transform. First of all, the system configuration and the original control strategy of the 4WD hybrid vehicle were introduced and analyzed, which summarized the shortcomings of this control strategy. Then, based on the analyze of the original control strategy, the wavelet transform was used to overcome its weaknesses. By taking advantage over the superiority of the wavelet transform method in multi signal disposition, the demand power of vehicle was decomposed into the stable drive power and the instantaneous response power, which were distributed to engine and electric motor respectively. This process was carried out under different driving modes.
Technical Paper

Review on State of Health Definition in Relation to Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0735
Owing to its advantages of high energy density, quick start-up, and no emissions, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources in transportation and has been used for automotive application for years. However, shortcomings in fuel cell key performances, such as lifetime and efficiency, characterized by state of health (SOH), restrict the large-scale commercialization for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), raising demands for real-time state monitoring. Nowadays, most researchers have explored the reasons for state change from models or experiments. Nevertheless, it is in need of system-level researches on definition methods of SOH against the actual automotive application. Lacking accurate quantitative indicators, existing studies on health states are often qualitative and hence fail to consider intermediate processes.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Speed Fluctuation of Internal Combustion Engine Range Extender by a Dual Closed-Loop Control Strategy

2021-04-06
2021-01-0782
With the increasing concern on environmental pollution and CO2 emission all over the world, range-extended electrical vehicle (REEV) has gradually got more attention because it could avoid the mileage anxiety of the battery electrical vehicles (BEV) and get high energy efficiency. Nevertheless, NVH performance of internal combustion engine range extender (ICRE) is a critical problem that affects the driving experiences for REEV. In this paper, a two-cylinder PFI gasoline engine and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are coaxially mounted to run as an ICRE. The ICRE control system was established based on Compact RIO hardware and LabVIEW, who has the functions of the intake throttle PID closed-loop control, autonomous ICRE operation control, and speed PID closed-loop control. In this paper, the gasoline engine was first driven to the idle condition by PMSM in speed-control mode.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Cold Start for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

2021-04-06
2021-01-0738
Cold start remains a major obstacle to the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), however, there are few studies on the cold start characteristics, especially at a complicated stack level. In this study, a novel layer-lumped numerical model with higher computational efficiency is proposed to investigate the cold start behavior of PEMFC stack, in which phase transition, heat transfer and electrochemical reaction are comprehensively considered. Besides, phase transition mechanisms are reconstructed based on the assumption that super-cooled water exists within the cell. With this model, the inconsistency of the stack temperature distribution and output performance is presented, some constant loading voltage strategies are investigated, and a linear variable controlling voltage strategy is developed.
Technical Paper

Reward Function Design via Human Knowledge Graph and Inverse Reinforcement Learning for Intelligent Driving

2021-04-06
2021-01-0180
Motivated by applying artificial intelligence technology to the automobile industry, reinforcement learning is becoming more and more popular in the community of intelligent driving research. The reward function is one of the critical factors which affecting reinforcement learning. Its design principle is highly dependent on the features of the agent. The agent studied in this paper can do perception, decision-making, and motion-control, which aims to be the assistant or substitute for human driving in the latest future. Therefore, this paper analyzes the characteristics of excellent human driving behavior based on the six-layer model of driving scenarios and constructs it into a human knowledge graph. Furthermore, for highway pilot driving, the expert demo data is created, and the reward function is self-learned via inverse reinforcement learning. The reward function design method proposed in this paper has been verified in the Unity ML-Agent environment.
Technical Paper

Object Detection Method of Autonomous Vehicle Based on Lightweight Deep Learning

2021-04-06
2021-01-0192
Object detection is an important visual content of the autonomous vehicle, the traditional detecting methods usually cost a lot of computational memory and elapsed time. This paper proposes to use lightweight deep convolutional neural network (MobilenetV3-SSDLite) to carry out the object detection task of autonomous vehicles. Simulation analysis based on this method is implemented, the feature layer obtained after h-swish activation function in the first Conv of the 13th bottleneck module in MobilenetV3 is taken as the first effective feature layer, and the feature layer before pooling and convolution of the antepenultimate layer in MobilenetV3 is taken as the second effective feature layer, and these two feature layers are extracted from the MobilenetV3 network.
Technical Paper

Research on Effect of Dynamic Working Condition on Electrochemical Impedance

2021-04-06
2021-01-0747
Impedance is an important parameter of power lithium-ion batteries, which can represent battery characteristics and can also be used as an indicator for battery fault diagnosis. Since Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) includes various electrode processes and information, it is more significant and worthwhile for lithium-ion batteries research. However, it is quite difficult to attain EIS online because of the nonlinear characteristics of batteries. Therefore, this paper focus on studying the nonlinear impedance characteristics of lithium-ion batteries and proposing a new method to calculate the EIS online based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Data similarity analysis is used to study the influence of resting time, excitation current amplitude, bias current amplitude and the state of charge (SOC) on the impedance quantitatively.
Technical Paper

Study on the Constant Voltage, Current and Current Ramping Cold Start Modes of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

2021-04-06
2021-01-0746
The cold-start of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been one of the technical challenges for fuel cell vehicle table ommercialization. In this study, a one-dimensional cold start transient model of PEMFC was developed for the transfer of water, heat, electrons and protons during the cold start process. Different loading modes, including constant voltage, constant current, and current ramping, were adopted for fuel cell cold starting analysis, respectively. The internal water-heat transfer within fuel cell was investigated under different loading modes. The results show that in the constant current mode, for the high current, the cold start process can produce more heat than other modes, which can increase fuel cell temperature rapidly. However, this process may easily fail before the ice fully covers the cathode catalyst layers (CL).
Journal Article

A Data Driven Fuel Cell Life-Prediction Model for a Fuel Cell Electric City Bus

2021-04-06
2021-01-0739
Life prediction is a major focus for a commercial fuel cell stack, especially applied in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). This paper proposes a data driven fuel cell lifetime prediction model using particle swarm optimized back-propagation neural network (PSO-BPNN). For the prediction model PSO-BP, PSO algorithm is used to determine the optimal hyper parameters of BP neural network. In this paper, total voltage of fuel cell stack is employed to represent the health index of fuel cell. Then the proposed prediction model is validated by the aging data from PEMFC stack in FCEV at the actual road condition. The experimental results indicate that PSO-BP model can predict the voltage degradation of PEMFC stack at actual road condition precisely and has a higher prediction accuracy than BP model.
Journal Article

Active Launch Vibration Control of Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Nonlinear Backlash

2021-04-06
2021-01-0667
The backlash between engaging components in a driveline is unavoidable, especially when the gear runs freely and collides with the backlash, the impact torque generated increases the vibration amplitude. The power-split hybrid electric vehicle generates output torque only from the traction motor during the launching process. The nonlinear backlash can greatly influence the driveability of the driveline due to the rapid response of the traction motor and the lack of the traditional clutches and torsional shock absorbers in the powertrain. This paper focuses on the launch vibration of the power-split hybrid electric vehicle, establishes a nonlinear driveline model considering gear backlash, including an engine, two motors, a Ravigneaux planetary gear set, a reducer, a differential, a backlash assembly, half shafts, and wheels.
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