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Technical Paper

Test and Analysis of Electromagnetic Noise of an Electric Motor in a Pure Electric Car

2019-06-05
2019-01-1492
Compared with the low-frequency ignition order of mechanical and combustion noise of an internal combustion engine, the noise of electric drive assembly of electric vehicles is mainly the high-frequency whining noise generated by electromagnetic forces of motors and gear meshing of reducers, as well as the high-frequency umbrella-shape noise generated by DC/AC pulse width modulation. Although the radiated sound power of these high frequency noise is far less than that of an internal combustion engine, the high frequency noise of the motor and the reducer is subjectively quite annoying. This paper studies the characteristics of electromagnetic noise of a permanent magnet synchronous motor in an electric car. By testing and analyzing of noise sources of an electric motor in the car and on a test rig, the spatial order characteristics and amplitude-frequency characteristics of the electromagnetic forces are revealed. The noise orders are multiples of the number of motor poles.
Technical Paper

Research on Control Algorithm of Air Supply System for High-Pressure PEMFC Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0379
The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is the most widely used engine in fuel cell vehicles. For PEMFC, whether the supply of oxygen for cathode is adequate or not is a critical factor for its net output power and service life, and the proper control of air supply mass flow and pressure can effectively improve its system performance and efficiency. At present, fuel cells need to reduce the mass and volume and increase the power density. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the air supply pressure for PEMFC. But at the same time, many auxiliary devices are appended to the system to provide high-pressure air, such as air compressor, intercooler, and back pressure valve, which make the control of the entire air supply system very complicated. So an excellent control algorithm is needed.
Technical Paper

Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle Longitudinal Velocity Estimation with Adaptive Kalman Filter: Theory and Experiment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0439
Velocity is one of the most important inputs of active safety systems such as ABS, TCS, ESC, ACC, AEB et al. In a distributed drive electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, velocity is hard to obtain due to all-wheel drive, especially in wheel slipping conditions. This paper focus on longitudinal velocity estimation of the distributed drive electric vehicle. Firstly, a basic longitudinal velocity estimation method is built based on a typical Kalman filter, where four wheel speeds obtained by wheel speed sensors constitute an observation variable and the longitudinal acceleration measured by an inertia moment unit is chosen as input variable. In simulations, the typical Kalman filter show good results when no wheel slips; when one or more wheels slip, the typical Kalman filter with constant covariance matrices does not work well. Therefore, a gain matrix adjusting Kalman filter which can detect the wheel slip and cope with that is proposed.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pitch Control for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0451
On the dual-motor electric vehicle, which is driven by two electric motors mounted on the front and rear axles respectively, longitudinal dynamic control and electro-dynamic braking can be achieved by controlling the torque of front and rear axle motors respectively. Suspension displacement is related to the wheel torque, thus the pitch of vehicle body can be influenced by changing the torque distribution ratio. The pitch of the body has a great influence on the vehicle comfort, which occurs mainly during acceleration and braking progress. Traditionally active suspension is adopted to control the pitch of body. Instead, in this paper an ideal torque distribution strategy is developed to limit the pitch during acceleration and braking progress. This paper first explores the relationship between the torque distribution and the body pitch through the real vehicle test, which reveals the feasibility of the vehicle comfort promotion by optimizing the torque distribution coefficient.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Statistical Energy Consumption and Its Application to an Economic Evaluation of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0933
The energy consumption depends not only on the structures of vehicles but also on their operating conditions. For vehicles with the same structure, the operating conditions will vary from driver to driver. In this paper, considering the difference of operating conditions, the concept of statistical energy consumption is proposed to reveal the statistical law of actual vehicle energy consumption. In this paper, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is taken as the research object. Based on the distribution law of three vehicle use factors, i.e. vehicle mass, daily driving distance and driving aggression, Monte Carlo method is used to simulate and calculate the statistical energy consumption and statistical comprehensive energy consumption. Then, the energy consumption values that only considered the daily driving distance is calculated.
Technical Paper

Driver Behavior Classification under Cut-In Scenarios Using Support Vector Machine Based on Naturalistic Driving Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0136
Cut-in scenario is common in traffic and has potential collision risk. Human driver can detect other vehicle’s cut-in intention and take appropriate maneuvers to reduce collision risk. However, autonomous driving systems don’t have as good performance as human driver. Hence a deeper understanding on driving behavior is necessary. How to make decisions like human driver is an important problem for automated vehicles. In this paper, a method is proposed to classify the dangerous cut-in situations and normal ones. Dangerous cases were extracted automatically from naturalistic driving database using specific detection criteria. Among those cases, 70 valid dangerous cut-in cases were selected manually. The largest deceleration of subject vehicle is over 4 m/s2. Besides, 249 normal cut-in cases were extracted by going through video data of 2000km traveled distance. In normal driving cases, subject vehicle may brake or keep accelerating and the largest deceleration was less than 3 m/s2.
Technical Paper

Transfer Path Analysis and Low-Frequency Vibration Reduction by Locally Resonant Phononic Crystal

2019-04-02
2019-01-0786
The motor has vibration characteristics of order and multi-band in the frequency domain, which is different from the internal combustion engine when it is used as the vehicle’s drive. These characteristics cannot be briefly attenuated by general methods, but make the phononic crystal (PC) an ideal solution to eliminate the vibration transmission of the motor, because the concentrated vibration peak can easily be blocked by the bandgap. In this paper, one dimensional locally resonant phononic crystal (LRPC) which has low-frequency bandgaps are arranged on the automotive subframe to absorbing vibration. The partial coherence analysis is used to analyze the transfer characteristic of vibration on the subframe. Then, 6 main paths are selected from the 18 vibration transmission paths, based on its high ratio of partial coherence coefficient in a certain frequency, and the arranged position, the spring stiffness and the resonator’s mass of the LRPCs are chosen based on this result.
Technical Paper

Experiment Studies of Charging Strategy for Lithium-Ion Batteries

2019-04-02
2019-01-0792
Regarding the lithium-ion batteries used in the electric vehicle, charging time and charging efficiency are the concern of the public. In this paper, a lot of experiments were conducted to investigate the common charging strategies, including the CC-CV (constant current-constant voltage) charging and the pulse current charging, for the LiFePO4 batteries, which are still widely used in commercial vehicles. Charging temperature and the charging current in the CC phase are the main influence factors to be studied for the CC-CV charging strategy, and the contribution of the CC phase and CV phase to the whole charging is analyzed from three aspects, including the time percent, charging energy efficiency and the capacity of battery at different temperatures and charging current.
Technical Paper

A Steerable Curvature Approach for Efficient Executable Path Planning for on-Road Autonomous Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0675
A rapid path-planning algorithm that generates drivable paths for an autonomous vehicle operating in structural road is proposed in this paper. Cubic B-spline curve is adopted to generating smooth path for continuous curvature and, more, parametric basic points of the spline is adjusted to controlling the curvature extremum for kinematic constraints on vehicle. Other than previous approaches such as inverse kinematics, model-based prediction postprocess approach or closed-loop forward simulation, using the kinematics model in each iteration of path for smoothing and controlling curvature leading to time consumption increasing, our method characterized the vehicle curvature constraint by the minimum length of segment line, which synchronously realized constraint and smooth for generating path. And Differ from the path of robot escaping from a maze, the intelligent vehicle traveling on road in structured environments needs to meet the traffic rules.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Implementation of Three-Phase PMSM Current Harmonic Decomposition Technique

2019-04-02
2019-01-0604
With the development of electric vehicle (EV), permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has received more and more attention. PMSM torque ripple suppression is one of the core technologies of PMSM control. Current harmonic injection method is a commonly used torque ripple suppression method. In order to accurately control the injecting current harmonics, it is necessary to quickly and efficiently decompose the three-phase PMSM current harmonics first. In this paper, an existing instantaneous harmonic decomposition method based on multiple reference coordinates is adopted. First, the causes of the analysis error of the harmonic decomposition technique are analyzed which are divided into internal factors (e.g. analysis errors generated during the discretization of continuous functions) and external factors (e.g. sampling errors). Analysis errors will directly affect the decomposition result.
Technical Paper

Impedance Modeling and Aging Research of the Lithium-Ion Batteries Using the EIS Technique

2019-04-02
2019-01-0596
As the core component of electric vehicles (EVs), batteries attach increasingly general attention along with the rapid expansion of electric vehicle market. Battery performance effect directly the safety and reliability of the EVs, so its managing technologies are more and more crucial. Among them, the methods of estimating the state of health (SoH) and predicting remaining useful life become the focuses, which are essential to ensure their dependability and optimum performance over time. This paper mainly focuses on impedance modeling and aging research (aging diagnosis and life prediction) of lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique is used to obtain impedance characteristic of batteries. On the one hand, equivalent circuit modeling (ECM) can be motivated by EIS, with the goal to fit measured impedance data using circuit elements.
Technical Paper

The Dynamic Electromagnetic Distribution and Electromagnetic Interference Suppression of Smart Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-1061
Smart electric vehicles need more accurate and more timely information as well as control than traditional vehicles, which depends on great environmental sensors such as millimeter-wave radar. In this way, the electromagnetic compatibility of whole vehicle would confront more serious challenges because of its high frequency range. Thus, this paper studies the electromagnetic distribution and electromagnetic interference suppression of smart electric vehicles with the followings. Firstly, the millimeter wave radar is modeled and optimized. Micro strip patch antenna, with small size, light mass and low cost, is used as array element of antenna. Millimeter wave radar is modeled and simulated step by step from array element to line array to planar matrix. Then the Cross Shape - Uniplanar Compact - Electromagnetic Band Gap (CS-UC-EBG) structure is deployed to optimize its electromagnetic characteristics, based on finite time domain difference model theory.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Emissions of a Range Extended Electric Vehicle under Different Energy Management Strategies

2019-04-02
2019-01-1189
Range extended electric vehicles achieve significant reductions in fuel consumption by employing as an energy source a small displacement combustion engine that is optimized for high efficiency at one, or a few, operating points. The present paper examines the impact of various energy management strategies on the particulate emissions from the auxiliary power unit (APU) of a range extended electric bus, including optimized auxiliary power unit (APU) on/off strategy, single-point strategy, two-point strategy, power-following strategy and equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). In addition, this paper also compares the particulate emissions of single energy storage system and composite energy storage system on single-point energy management strategy.
Technical Paper

The Aging Law of Low Temperature Charging of Lithium-Ion Battery

2019-04-02
2019-01-1204
With the rise of new energy vehicles, lithium-ion batteries have been widely used. However, the safety, cruising range and practicality of electric vehicles are still major obstacles to their development. Among them, the low-temperature performance of electric vehicles is receiving more and more attention. Lithium-ion batteries have poor low-temperature performance. At low temperatures, not only the charging efficiency is lowered, but also the energy that can be flushed is correspondingly reduced, thereby resulting in a decrease in capacity and an increase in aging. At present, the mechanism and influence factors of battery discharge aging have been studied relatively well, but there are few researches on low temperature charging aging of batteries.
Technical Paper

State-of-the-Art and Development Trends of Energy Management Strategies for Intelligent and Connected New Energy Vehicles: A Review

2019-04-02
2019-01-1216
Intelligent and connected vehicle (ICV) and new energy vehicle (NEV) will be two important directions of the automotive technology in the future, and the coordinated development of these two directions reflects relevantly the higher requirements put forward by nowadays society and people. Through the use of intelligent and connected technology (ICT), NEVs can exchange various traffic information data with the outside world (e.g. other running vehicles, road infrastructure, internet, etc.) in real time, which is so-called Vehicle to Everything (V2X). Based on the further analysis of the mutual traffic information, the vehicles can identify the current driving conditions and predict the future driving conditions effectively, which can realize the real time optimization of the energy management strategies (EMSs) of vehicles’ powertrain system, so as to meet the driving requirements of vehicles under different driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Subsection Coordinated Control during Mode Transition for a Compound Power-Split System

2019-04-02
2019-01-1214
The power-split transmission is considered as one of the major technologies for hybrid electric vehicles. It utilizes two electric motors/generators (MGs) and a power-split device (planetary gear sets) to make the speed of internal combustion engine (ICE) independent from the vehicle speed, and in that way enables the ICE to operate in a high-efficiency region under all driving cycles. In this study, a compound power-split hybrid system integrated with a two-planetary gear train is proposed. To suppress the vehicle jerk intensity and improve the driving comfort during the transition from EV (Electric Vehicle) mode to HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) mode, a torque coordinated control strategy is derived. Based on the analysis of mode transition in different sections, mathematical models of each section are deduced, respectively. Then a model-based torque coordinated control method is used to solve out the target output torques of ICE, MGs and brakes in each mode transition phase.
Technical Paper

On-line Lithium-Ion Battery State-of-Power Prediction by Twice Recursive Method Based on Dynamic Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-1311
State-of-Power (SoP) prediction of Li-ion battery is necessary in battery management system for electric vehicles in order to deal with limited conditions, prevent overcharge and over discharge situations, increase the life of the battery and provide effective battery operation. This article suggests a method to on-line predict the 10-s charge and discharge peak power of Li-ion battery by twice recursions. First with the dynamic battery model we use the first recursion based on a least square method to get parameters which are influenced by the state of charge of Li-ion battery and temperature, etc. The dynamic model is an equivalent circuit model. Current and voltage are input online into the battery model. By recursive least square method the parameters are updated in real time. Moreover, when we use a recursive method to get real-time parameters, we add an extra proper factor to abandon old datum, which increases the real-time capability of state-of-power prediction.
Technical Paper

SOC Estimation of Battery Pack Considering Cell Inconsistency

2019-04-02
2019-01-1309
Range anxiety problem has always been one of the biggest concern of consumers for pure electric vehicles. Accurate driving range prediction is based on accurate lithium-ion battery pack SOC (State of Charge) estimation. In this article, a complete SOC estimation algorithm is proposed from cell level to battery pack level. To begin with, the equivalent circuit model (ECM) is applied as the model of battery cell. ECM parameters are identified every 10% SOC interval through genetic algorithm. The dual extended Kalman filtering (DEKF) algorithm is adopted for cell-level SOC and ohmic resistance R0 estimation. The estimation accuracy of cell SOC and R0 is verified under NEDC dynamic working condition. The cell-level SOC estimation error is below 1%. However, cell inconsistency can always result in inaccurate cell SOC estimation inside the battery pack. The impact of initial SOC inconsistency and internal resistance inconsistency between cells on battery pack SOC is specifically analyzed.
Technical Paper

Study on Real-World NOx and Particle Emissions of Bus: Influences of VSP and Fuel

2019-04-02
2019-01-1181
In this study, the real-world NOx and particle emissions of buses burning pure diesel fuel (D100), biodiesel fuel with 20% blend ratio (B20) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) were measured with portable emission measurement system (PEMS). The measurement conducted at 6 constant speed, which ranged from 10km/h to 60 km/h at 10km/h intervals, and a period of free driving condition. The relationship between vehicle specific power (VSP) and NOx/particle emissions of each bus were analyzed. The results show that the change rules of NOx, PN and PM emission factors with the increase of VSP were basically the same for the same bus, but for the bus using different fuel, the change rules may change. In VSP bin 0, the vehicles were mostly in idle condition and the emission factors of NOx, PN and PM of three buses were all in a relatively high level. In low VSP interval, which ranged from bin 0 to bin 4, the emissions of three buses first decreased and then increased with the growth of VSP.
Technical Paper

Genetic Algorithm-Based Parameter Optimization of Energy Management Strategy and Its Analysis for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0358
Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) composed of fuel cells and batteries can improve the dynamic response and durability of vehicle propulsion. In addition, braking energy can be recovered by batteries. The energy management strategy (EMS) for distributing the requested power through different types of energy sources plays an important role in FCHEVs. Reasonable power split not only improves vehicle performance but also enhances fuel economy. In this paper, considering the power tracking control strategy which is widely adopted in Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR), a constrained nonlinear programming parameter optimization model is established for minimizing fuel consumption. The principal parameters of power tracking control strategy are set as the optimized variables, with the dynamic performance index of FCHEVs being defined as the constraint condition. Then, the genetic algorithm (GA) is applied in the control strategy design for solving the optimization problem.
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