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Technical Paper

Effect of geometric parameters on folding of thin-walled steel tube under axial compression

2022-03-29
2022-01-0264
This study investigated the plastic deformation behavior of 304 stainless steel thin-walled tubes under axial compression by means of numerical calculation and theoretical analysis. It was found that the plastic deformation length of thin-walled tube determined the formability of folds and the work done in the whole axial compression process. To reveal the relation between the range of plastic deformation length and tube geometry parameters, regression equations were established using the quadratic regression orthogonal design method. Experiments were conducted to validate the equations. The process windows for forming a single fold and tube joining at ends had been printed ultimately. The results showed that the regression equations can accurately predict the range of plastic deformation length for forming a single fold.
Technical Paper

Efficient Trajectory Planning for Tractor-Trailer Vehicles with an Incremental Optimization Solving Algorithm

2022-03-29
2022-01-0138
A tractor-trailer vehicle (TTV) consists of an actuated tractor attached with several full trailers. Because of its nonlinear and noncompleted constraints, it is a challenging task to avoid collisions for path planner. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to plan an optimal trajectory for TTV to reach the destination without any collision. To deal with the complicated constraints, the trajectory planning problem is formulated as an optimal control problem uniformly, which can be solved by IPM. A novel incremental optimization solving algorithm (IOSA) is proposed to accelerate the optimization process, which makes the number of trailers and the size of obstacles increase asynchronously. Simulation experiments are carried out in two scenarios with static obstacles. Compared with other methods, the results show that the planning method with IOSA outperforms in the efficiency.
Technical Paper

Parking slots allocation for multiple autonomous valet parking vehicles

2022-03-29
2022-01-0148
Although autonomous valet parking technology can replace the driver to complete the parking operation, it is easy to cause traffic chaos in the case of lack of scheduling of multiple parking agents, especially when multiple cars compete for the same parking slot at the same time. Therefore, in order to ensure orderly traffic and parking safety, it is necessary to allocate parking slots reasonably for multiple autonomous valet parking vehicles. The parking slots allocation model is built as an optimization problem with constraints. Both parking mileage cost and parking difficult cost are considering at the objective function of the optimization problem. There are three types of constraints. The first is the capacity limit of a single parking slot, the second is the space limit occupied by a single vehicle, and the third is the total capacity limit of the parking lot. After establishing parking slots allocation model, the immune algorithm is coded to solve the problem.
Technical Paper

Path Planning Method for Perpendicular Parking based on Vehicle Kinematics Model using MPC Optimization

2022-03-29
2022-01-0085
In recent years, intelligent driving technology is being extensively studied. This paper proposes a path planning method for perpendicular parking based on vehicle kinematics model using MPC optimization, which aims to solve the perpendicular parking task. Firstly, in the case of any initial position and orientation of the vehicle, judging whether the vehicle can be parked at one step according to the location of the parking place and the width of the lane, and then calculating the starting position for parking, and use the Bezier curve to connect the initial position and the starting position. Secondly, reference parking path is calculated according to the collision constraints of the parking space. Finally, because the parking path based on the vehicle kinematics model is composed of circle arcs and straight lines, the curvature of the path is discontinuous. The reference parking path is optimized using Model Predictive Control (MPC).
Technical Paper

Parking Planning with Genetic Algorithm for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

2022-03-29
2022-01-0087
The past decade has witnessed the rapid development of autonomous parking technology, since it has promising capacity to improve traffic efficiency and reduce the burden on drivers. However, it is prone to the trap of self-centeredness when each vehicle is automated parking in isolation. And it is easy to cause traffic congestion and even chaos when multiple autonomous vehicles require of parking into the same lot. In order to address the multiple vehicle parking problem, we propose a parking planning method with genetic algorithm. Firstly, an optimal mathematic model is established to describe the multiple autonomous vehicle parking problem. Secondly, a genetic algorithm is designed to solve the optimization problem. Thirdly, illustrative examples are developed to verify the parking planner. The performance of the present method indicates its competence in addressing parking multiple autonomous vehicles problem.
Technical Paper

Routing and Security Mechanisms Design for Automotive TSN/CAN FD Security Gateway

2022-03-29
2022-01-0113
With the explosion of in-vehicle data, Time Sensitive Network (TSN) is increasingly becoming the backbone of the in-vehicle network to ensure deterministic real-time communication and Quality of Service (QoS). However, legacy buses such as CAN FD and LIN will not disappear for a long time in the future. Many protocols are deployed in the gateway and it is an important component in the security and functional safety of the communication process. In this paper, the recommended Electrical/Electronic Architecture is first given and the use cases for the TSN/CAN FD gateway are illustrated. Then, a TSN/CAN FD routing mechanism is designed and security mechanisms are deployed. The routing mechanism includes the protocol conversion module, queue cache module, and forwarding scheduling module. The protocol conversion module unpacks or packs the TSN or CAN FD frames according to the routing table.
Technical Paper

NVH Comparative Analysis of 3in1 and 2in1 Electric Drive System Based on Experimental Research

2022-03-29
2022-01-0606
As the key assembly of new energy vehicles, the noise and vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance of integrated electric drive system directly affects the driving quality of new energy vehicles. In this paper, the vibration noise characteristic test of 3in1 electric drive system is carried out in the semi-muffler chamber. In order to compare and analyze the difference between 2in1 and 3in1 electric drive system NVH performance, the PEU in the 3in1 system was removed and placed on the ground away from the platform, and vibration noise test was carried out. In order to analyze the difference of NVH performance between 2in1 status and 3in1 status, the PEU in the 3in1 system was removed and placed on the ground far away from the bench, and the NVH test was carried out. The microphone signal at 1m position and the vibration acceleration signal of the key structural surface of the system are measured experimentally.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Gas Purge in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

2021-12-31
2021-01-7005
A three-dimensional two-phase single-channel purge mode of proton exchange membrane fuel cell was established, and the steady-state and purge process were simulated. The water distribution in fuel cell after steady-state operation was studied. The changing trend of water content and water volume fraction under co-flow/counter-flow purge conditions was also studied. The results show that the membrane water content and water volume fraction under the ridge position of the fuel cell is more than the flow channel. The non-uniform distribution of membrane water along the direction of the flow channel is significant in co-flow, and the difference can be up to 6. In addition, the effects of different working conditions on purge were studied. It was found that in the purge condition, the water content of the inner membrane of 120s could be basically reduced to below 3.
Technical Paper

Investigation of PEM Fuel Cell Degradation Under On-Off Cyclic Condition

2021-12-31
2021-01-7022
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has attracted extensive attention in recent years because of its high efficiency and zero emission. Although fuel cell technology has made great progress, durability is still the bottleneck of its large-scale commercialization. In order to systematically study the degradation of fuel cell system for transportation applications, we selected the most severe operating condition - on-off cyclic condition as the research object, and focused on the influence of cell temperature and air relative humidity on the degradation rate of fuel cell by means of polarization curve, reference voltage and CV. The results show that with the same temperature, the fuel cell performance degradation rate first decreases and then increases with the decrease of humidity, which may be due to the increase of platinum ion transfer rate at high relative humidity and the dry membrane at low relative humidity.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Energy Management Strategies for an Automotive Range-Extender Electric Powertrain

2021-12-31
2021-01-7027
In this work, the influences of various real-timely available energy management strategies on vehicle fuel consumption (VFC) and energy flow of a range-extender electric vehicle were studied The strategies include single-point, multi-point, speed-following, and equivalent consumption minimization strategy. In addition, the dynamic programming method which cannot be used in real time, but can provide the optimal solution for a known drive situation was used for comparison. VFCs and energy flow characteristics with different strategies under Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) were obtained through computer modeling, and the results were verified experimentally on a range-extender test bench. The experimental results are consistent with the modeled ones in general with a maximum deviation of 4.11%, which verifies the accuracy of the simulation models.
Technical Paper

Network Delay Modelling and Optimization of Internet-Based Distributed Test Platform for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powertrain System

2021-12-15
2021-01-7026
The accelerated global progress in the research and development of automobile products, and the use of new technologies, such as the Internet, cloud computing and big data, to coordinate development platforms in different regions and fields, can reduce the duration and cost of development and testing. Specifically, in the context of the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has caused great obstacles to normal logistics and transportation, personnel exchanges and information communication, platforms that can support global operation are significant for product testing and validation, because they eliminate the need for the transportation of personnel and equipment. Therefore, the establishment of a distributed test and validation platform for automotive powertrain systems, which can integrate software and hardware testing, is important in terms of both scientific research and industrialization.
Technical Paper

Object Detection Method of Autonomous Vehicle Based on Lightweight Deep Learning

2021-04-06
2021-01-0192
Object detection is an important visual content of the autonomous vehicle, the traditional detecting methods usually cost a lot of computational memory and elapsed time. This paper proposes to use lightweight deep convolutional neural network (MobilenetV3-SSDLite) to carry out the object detection task of autonomous vehicles. Simulation analysis based on this method is implemented, the feature layer obtained after h-swish activation function in the first Conv of the 13th bottleneck module in MobilenetV3 is taken as the first effective feature layer, and the feature layer before pooling and convolution of the antepenultimate layer in MobilenetV3 is taken as the second effective feature layer, and these two feature layers are extracted from the MobilenetV3 network.
Technical Paper

Multi-Modal Neural Feature Fusion for Pose Estimation and Scene Perception of Intelligent Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0188
The main challenge for future autonomous vehicles is to identify their location and body pose in real time during driving, that is, “where am I? and how will I go?”. We address the problems of pose estimation and scene perception from continuous visual frames in intelligent vehicle. Recent advanced technology in the domain of deep learning proposes to train some learning models for vehicle’s series detection tasks in a supervised or unsupervised manner, which has numerous advances over traditional approaches, mainly reflected in the absence of manual calibration and synchronization of the camera and IMU. In the paper, we propose a novel approach for pose estimation and scene recognition with a deep fusion of multi-modal neural features in the manner of unsupervised. Firstly, low-cost camera and IMU are used to extract original visual and inertial data, then the visual and inertial encoders are utilized to encoder the feature of the two modes.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Control of Dynamic Chassis Considering Road Roughness Class Recognition

2021-04-06
2021-01-0322
For the DCC (Dynamic Chassis Control) system, in addition to the requirement of ride and comfort, it is also necessary to consider the requirement of handling and stability, and these two requirements are often not met at the same time. This poses a great challenge to the design of the controller, especially in the face of complex working conditions. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a comprehensive DCC controller that considers road roughness class recognition. Firstly, a quarter vehicle model is established, the road surface roughness is calculated from the vertical acceleration of the wheels measured by the sensors. Then we calculate the autocorrelation function and the Fourier transform to estimate the PSD (Power Spectral Density) to get the road roughness class. Then control algorithms are designed for the vertical motion control, roll control and pitch control.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Flammability Limit and Performance of Compression-Ignition Argon Power Cycle Engine with Fuel of Hydrogen

2021-04-06
2021-01-0391
The argon power cycle engine, which uses hydrogen as fuel, oxygen as oxidant, and argon other than nitrogen as the working fluid, is considered as a novel concept of zero-emission and high-efficiency system. Due to the extremely high in-cylinder temperature caused by the lower specific heat capacity of argon, the compression ratio of spark-ignition argon power cycle engine is limited by preignition or super-knock. Compression-ignition with direct-injection is one of the potential methods to overcome this challenge. Therefore, a detailed flammability limit of H2 under Ar-O2 atmosphere is essential for better understanding of stable autoignition in compression-ignition argon power cycle engines.
Technical Paper

Research on Effect of Dynamic Working Condition on Electrochemical Impedance

2021-04-06
2021-01-0747
Impedance is an important parameter of power lithium-ion batteries, which can represent battery characteristics and can also be used as an indicator for battery fault diagnosis. Since Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) includes various electrode processes and information, it is more significant and worthwhile for lithium-ion batteries research. However, it is quite difficult to attain EIS online because of the nonlinear characteristics of batteries. Therefore, this paper focus on studying the nonlinear impedance characteristics of lithium-ion batteries and proposing a new method to calculate the EIS online based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Data similarity analysis is used to study the influence of resting time, excitation current amplitude, bias current amplitude and the state of charge (SOC) on the impedance quantitatively.
Journal Article

Active Launch Vibration Control of Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Nonlinear Backlash

2021-04-06
2021-01-0667
The backlash between engaging components in a driveline is unavoidable, especially when the gear runs freely and collides with the backlash, the impact torque generated increases the vibration amplitude. The power-split hybrid electric vehicle generates output torque only from the traction motor during the launching process. The nonlinear backlash can greatly influence the driveability of the driveline due to the rapid response of the traction motor and the lack of the traditional clutches and torsional shock absorbers in the powertrain. This paper focuses on the launch vibration of the power-split hybrid electric vehicle, establishes a nonlinear driveline model considering gear backlash, including an engine, two motors, a Ravigneaux planetary gear set, a reducer, a differential, a backlash assembly, half shafts, and wheels.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Discretization for Transient Impact Loads on Door Closing

2021-04-06
2021-01-0799
The transient impact load generated by door closing is used as the input of the closing condition, which is an important part of door system investigation. In this article, the basic theory of transfer path analysis (TPA) is introduced to handle the abnormal vibration of the front-left door with the glass down stall position of a certain vehicle during the closure. The transient impact loads are discretized under the closed door and obtained using the inverse matrix (IM) method in TPA. Vehicle test and bench test are conducted. The closed door is subjected to the transient impact loads of the sealing strip and the latch on the body side. In the vehicle test, acceleration sensors are pasted on the target point and the reference point on the door to obtain the acceleration vibration response upon the door closure.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Bus Passenger Flow Based on CEEMDAN-BP Model

2020-12-14
2020-01-5166
The prediction of passenger flow is of great significance to facilitate the decision-making processes for local authorities and transport operators to provide an effective bus scheduling. In this work, a backpropagation neural network (BPNN) was adopted to predict the bus passenger flow. To reduce the prediction error and improve the prediction accuracy, a combined model CEEMDAN-BP, which combines CEEMDAN (Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise) method and BPNN, has been proposed. CEEMDAN is an improved method based on EEMD, which has been widely applied to signal smoothing and de-noising. Experimental results show that this combined model can exactly achieve an excellent prediction effect and improve the prediction accuracy of the network greatly.
Technical Paper

State-of-the-Art and Development Trends of Assembly Technologies for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack: A Review

2020-04-14
2020-01-1175
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) uses hydrogen and oxygen for fuel, the whole energy conversion process almost has no negative impact on the environment. The PEM fuel cell stack with the advantages of low-operating temperature, high current density and fast start-up ability is considered to be the next generation of new electric vehicle power. However, due to the limited current output, it is difficult for a single cell to meet the practical application requirements. The actual fuel cell stack is formed by many single cells assembled together. The assembly process is often related to load transfer, material transfer, energy exchange, multi-phase flow, electrochemical reaction and other factors. The performance of MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly), sealing gaskets and other components will change during the assembly process, which makes the fuel cell stack assembly process more complex.
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