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Technical Paper

Multi-objective control of dynamic chassis considering road roughness class recognition

2021-04-06
2021-01-0322
For the control of the semi-active suspension with continuously adjustable damping, in addition to the ride comfort, the handling and stability requirements also need to be considered,but these needs are often not met at the same time. This contradiction put forward a big challenge for the design of the controller, especially in the face of complex working conditions. Traditional controllers are mainly aimed at restraining vehicles’ attitude caused by the changes in the environment or vehicle motion state, they lack adaptive adjustment to disturbances with certain statistical characteristics, so the control has a certain lag. In order to solve this problem, Adaptive Road Disturbance Fuzzy Control (ARDFC) of the semi-active suspension with continuously adjustable damping considering road roughness class identification is proposed in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Road Load Data Processing Method for Transmission Durability Optimization Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-1062
With increasing pressure from environment problem for reduction in CO2 emissions and stricter fuel targets from road vehicles, new transmission technologies are gaining more attention in different main market. To get suitable road load data for transmission durability development is becoming increasingly important and can shorten the development time of new transmission. This paper presents the procedure and methods of road load data development for durability design of transmission product and optimization based on the real road data measurement, statistical characteristics evaluation and fatigue damage equivalency. Apply this road load data method procedure on 3 type of vehicle which represent conventional vehicle, BEV and HEV.
Technical Paper

Improved Kmeans Algorithm for Detection in Traffic Scenarios

2019-06-17
2019-01-5067
In the Kmeans cluster segmentation used in traffic scenes, there are often zone optimization and over-segmentation problems caused by the algorithm randomly assigning the initial cluster center. In order to improve the target extraction effect in traffic road scenes, this article proposes an improved Kmeans (IM-Kmeans) method. Firstly, search for the histogram peaks of the whole pixels based on hue, saturation, value (HSV) image, and find the initial cluster centers’ positions and number. Secondly, the noise points which are far away from the center pixel are removed, and then the pixels are classified into the nearest cluster center according to its value. Finally, after the clustering model reaches convergence, the area-clustering method is used for another classification to solve the over-segmentation problem. The simulation and experimental comparisons show that the IM-Kmeans algorithm has higher clustering accuracy than the traditional Kmeans algorithm.
Technical Paper

Robust Multi-Lane Detection and Tracking in Temporal-Spatial Based on Particle Filtering

2019-04-02
2019-01-0885
The camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) like lane departure warning system (LDWS) and lane keeping assist (LKA) can make vehicles safer and driving easier. Lane detection is indispensable for these lane-based systems for achieving vehicle local localization and behavior prediction. Since the vision is vulnerable to the variable environment conditions such as bad weather, occlusions and illumination, the robustness is important. In this paper, a robust algorithm for detecting and tracking multiple lanes with arbitrary shape is proposed. We extend the previously lane detection and tracking process from the space domain to the temporal-spatial domain by using a more robust and general multi-lane model. First, new slice images containing temporal information are generated from image sequences. Instead of binarization process, we use a more general detector for extracting the lane marker candidates with prior knowledge to generate the binary slice image.
Technical Paper

State-of-the-Art and Development Trends of Energy Management Strategies for Intelligent and Connected New Energy Vehicles: A Review

2019-04-02
2019-01-1216
Intelligent and connected vehicle (ICV) and new energy vehicle (NEV) will be two important directions of the automotive technology in the future, and the coordinated development of these two directions reflects relevantly the higher requirements put forward by nowadays society and people. Through the use of intelligent and connected technology (ICT), NEVs can exchange various traffic information data with the outside world (e.g. other running vehicles, road infrastructure, internet, etc.) in real time, which is so-called Vehicle to Everything (V2X). Based on the further analysis of the mutual traffic information, the vehicles can identify the current driving conditions and predict the future driving conditions effectively, which can realize the real time optimization of the energy management strategies (EMSs) of vehicles’ powertrain system, so as to meet the driving requirements of vehicles under different driving conditions.
Technical Paper

A Steerable Curvature Approach for Efficient Executable Path Planning for on-Road Autonomous Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0675
A rapid path-planning algorithm that generates drivable paths for an autonomous vehicle operating in structural road is proposed in this paper. Cubic B-spline curve is adopted to generating smooth path for continuous curvature and, more, parametric basic points of the spline is adjusted to controlling the curvature extremum for kinematic constraints on vehicle. Other than previous approaches such as inverse kinematics, model-based prediction postprocess approach or closed-loop forward simulation, using the kinematics model in each iteration of path for smoothing and controlling curvature leading to time consumption increasing, our method characterized the vehicle curvature constraint by the minimum length of segment line, which synchronously realized constraint and smooth for generating path. And Differ from the path of robot escaping from a maze, the intelligent vehicle traveling on road in structured environments needs to meet the traffic rules.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Scenario Typology for Automated Vehicles Based on China-FOT

2018-04-03
2018-01-0039
To promote the development of automated vehicles (AVs), large scale of field operational tests (FOTs) were carried out around the world. Applications of naturalistic driving data should base on correlative scenarios. However, most of the existing scenario typologies, aiming at advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) and extracting discontinuous fragments from driving process, are not suitable for AVs, which need to complete continuous driving tasks. In this paper, a systematic scenario-typology consisting of four layers (from top to bottom: trip, cluster, segment and process) was first proposed. A trip refers to the whole duration from starting at initial parking space to parking at final one. The basic units ‘Process’, during which the vehicle fulfils only one driving task, are classified into parking process, long-, middle- and short-time-driving-processes. A segment consists of two neighboring long-time-driving processes and a middle or/and short one between them.
Technical Paper

Study on Test Scenarios of Environment Perception System under Rear-End Collision Risk

2018-04-03
2018-01-1079
The foundation of both advanced driving assistance system(ADAS) and automated driving (AD) is an accurate environment perception system(EPS). However, evaluation and test method of EPS are seldom studied. In this paper, naturalistic driving environment was studied and test scenarios for EPS under rear-end collision risk were proposed accordingly. To describe driving environment, a new concept named environment perception element(EPE) was first proposed in this paper, which refers to all the objects that the EPS must perceive during driving. Typical environment perception elements include weather and light conditions, road features, road markings, traffic signs, traffic lights, other vehicles, pedal cyclists and pedestrians and others. Driving behaviors collected in Shanghai, China were classified and rear-end collision risk scenarios were obtained and described using EPEs. Probability distribution of EPEs was therefore obtained.
Technical Paper

Analysis under Vehicle-Pedalcyclist Risk Scenario Based on Comparison between Real Accident and Naturalistic Driving Data

2018-04-03
2018-01-1048
This paper constructs the Accident Crash Scenarios(ACSs) classification system based on the traffic accident data collected by the traffic management department in a Chinses city from 2013 to 2015. The classification system selects four influenced variables on the basis of Critical Driving Scenarios(CDSs) in Naturalistic Driving Data. The proportions of each variable are analyzed, and all ACSs are divided into 48 scenarios. The highest proportion of nine ACSs are extracted from all 10596 ACSs, and the result shows the ACSs involved Car-Pedalcyclist occupy the top four scenarios, and the scenarios involved intersection situations are worth attention. Pedalcyclists include bicyclists, motorcyclists, tri-cyclists and electric bicyclists. Multivariate Logistic Regression(MLR) analysis is then used to study the ACSs involved the type of Car-Pedalcyclist.
Technical Paper

Study on Target Tracking Based on Vision and Radar Sensor Fusion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0613
Faced with intricate traffic conditions, the single sensor has been unable to meet the safety requirements of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and autonomous driving. In the field of multi-target tracking, the number of targets detected by vision sensor is sometimes less than the current tracks while the number of targets detected by millimeter wave radar is more than the current tracks. Hence, a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm is presented by utilizing advantage of both vision sensor and millimeter wave radar. The multi-sensor fusion algorithm is based on centralized fusion strategy that the fusion center takes a unified track management. At First, vision sensor and radar are used to detect the target and to measure the range and the azimuth angle of the target. Then, the detections data from vision sensor and radar is transferred to fusion center to join the multi-target tracking with the prediction of current tracks.
Technical Paper

Optimal Torque Allocation for Distributed Drive Electric Skid-Steered Vehicles Based on Energy Efficiency

2018-04-03
2018-01-0579
Steering of skid-steered vehicles without steering mechanism is realized by differential drive/brake torque generated from in-wheel motors at left and right sides. Compared to traditional Ackerman-steered vehicles, skid-steered vehicles consume much more energy while steering due to greater steering resistance. Torque allocation is critical to the distributed drive skid-steered vehicles, since it influences not only steering performance, but also energy efficiency. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of six-wheeled skid-steered vehicles were analyzed, and a 2-DOF vehicle model was established, which is important for both motion tracking control and torque allocation. Furthermore, a hierarchical controller was proposed. Considering tire force characteristics and tire slip, the upper layer calculates the generalized force and desired yaw moment based on anti-windup PI (proportion-integral) control method.
Technical Paper

Speed Tracking Control for All-Terrain Vehicle Considering Road Slope and Saturation Constraint of Actuator

2017-09-23
2017-01-1953
In this paper, a speed tracking controller is designed for the All-terrain vehicles. The method of feedforward with state variable feedback based on conditional integrators is adopted by the proposed control algorithm. The feedforward is designed considering the influence of the road slope on the longitudinal dynamics, which makes the All-terrain vehicles satisfy the acceleration demand of the upper controller when it tracks the desired speed on the road with slope varying greatly. The road slope is estimated based on a combined kinematic and dynamic model. This method solves the problem that road slope estimation requires an accurate vehicle dynamic model and are susceptible to acceleration sensor bias. Based on the vehicle dynamic model and the nonlinear tire model, the method of conditional integration is used in the state variable feedback, which considers the saturation constraint of the actuator with the intention of preventing the divergent integral operation.
Journal Article

Anti-Lock Braking System Control Design on An Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1578
Two control strategies, safety preferred control and master cylinder oscillation control, were designed for anti-lock braking on a novel integrated-electro-hydraulic braking system (I-EHB) which has only four solenoid valves in its innovative hydraulic control unit (HCU) instead of eight in a traditional one. The main idea of safety preferred control is to reduce the hydraulic pressure provided by the motor in the master cylinder whenever a wheel tends to be locking even if some of the other wheels may need more braking torque. In contrast, regarding master cylinder oscillation control, a sinusoidal signal is given to the motor making the hydraulic pressure in the master cylinder oscillate in certain frequency and amplitude. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the two control strategies mentioned above and to evaluate them.
Technical Paper

Design and Research of Micro EV Driven by In-Wheel Motors on Rear Axle

2016-09-18
2016-01-1950
As is known to all, the structure of the chassis has been greatly simplified as the application of in-wheel motor in electric vehicle (EV) and distributed control is allowed. The micro EV can alleviate traffic jams, reduce the demand for motor and battery capacity due to its small size and light weight and accordingly solve the problem that in-wheel motor is limited by inner space of the wheel hub. As a result, this type of micro EV is easier to be recognized by the market. In the micro EV above, two seats are side by side and the battery is placed in the middle of the chassis. Besides, in-wheel motors are mounted on the rear axle and only front axle retains traditional hydraulic braking system. Based on this driving/braking system, distribution of braking torque, system reliability and braking intensity is analyzed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Study on the Braking Torque Allocation of the ABS Based on the Frequency of the Electro-Hydraulic Brake

2015-09-27
2015-01-2703
Study on the braking torque allocation of the ABS (Anti-lock Brake System) of the electro-hydraulic brake system in the distributed drive electric vehicles, using a hierarchical control structure, of which the lower controller takes a braking torque allocation strategy based on frequency, so as to achieve a good braking effect. The lower controller uses the strategies which are based on the filter principle or the weighted least squares algorithm. To the former, Butterworth filter is selected to execute the braking torque allocation. Then the ABS braking torque allocation strategy based on Butterworth filter and the weighted least squares are designed and analyzed respectively, finally their braking effects are simulated and contrasted in Simulink and AMESim.
Journal Article

Combination of Test with Simulation Analysis of Brake Groan Phenomenon

2014-04-01
2014-01-0869
During a car launch, the driving torque from driveline acts on brake disk, and may lead the pad to slip against the disk. Especially with slow brake pedal release, there is still brake torque applies on the disk, which will retard the rotation of disk, and under certain conditions, the disk and pad may stick again, so the reciprocated stick and slip can induce the noise and vibration, which can be transmitted to a passenger by both tactile and aural paths, this phenomenon is defined as brake groan. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear dynamics model of brake for bidirectional, and with 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOFs), and phase locus and Lyapunov Second Method are utilized to study the mechanism of groan. Time-frequency analysis method then is adopted to analyze the simulation results, meanwhile a test car is operated under corresponding conditions, and the test signals are sampled and then processed to acquire the features.
Journal Article

Adhesion Control Method Based on Fuzzy Logic Control for Four-Wheel Driven Electric Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0109
The adhesion control is the basic technology of active safety for the four-wheel driven EV. In this paper, a novel adhesion control method based on fuzzy logic control is proposed. The control system can maximize the adhesion force without road condition information and vehicle speed signal. Also, the regulation torque to prevent wheel slip is smooth and the vehicle driving comfort is greatly improved. For implementation, only the rotating speed of the driving wheel and the motor driving torque signals are needed, while the derived information of the wheel acceleration and the skid status are used. The simulation and road test results have shown that the adhesion control method is effective for preventing slip and lock on the slippery road condition.
Technical Paper

Brake Judder Induced Steering Wheel Vibration: Experiment, Simulation and Analysis

2007-10-07
2007-01-3966
The prevention and control of brake judder and its various negative effects has been a key target of vehicle production. One of the effects is the steering wheel vibration during vehicle braking. Experimental and theoretical investigation into “steering wheel vibration due to brake judder” is extensively presented in this paper. The vehicle road test is carried out under controlled braking conditions. During the test, the accelerations of brake caliper assembly, suspension low and upper control arm, steering arm, tie rod and steering wheel, left and right wheel rotary speed, are measured by a multi-channel data acquisition system. The data processing focuses on order tracking analysis and transfer path analysis to work out the related resonant components. A disc brake assembly, with deliberately designed disc thickness variation and surface run-out combinations, is tested on a brake dynamometer.
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