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Technical Paper

Test and Analysis of Electromagnetic Noise of an Electric Motor in a Pure Electric Car

2019-06-05
2019-01-1492
Compared with the low-frequency ignition order of mechanical and combustion noise of an internal combustion engine, the noise of electric drive assembly of electric vehicles is mainly the high-frequency whining noise generated by electromagnetic forces of motors and gear meshing of reducers, as well as the high-frequency umbrella-shape noise generated by DC/AC pulse width modulation. Although the radiated sound power of these high frequency noise is far less than that of an internal combustion engine, the high frequency noise of the motor and the reducer is subjectively quite annoying. This paper studies the characteristics of electromagnetic noise of a permanent magnet synchronous motor in an electric car. By testing and analyzing of noise sources of an electric motor in the car and on a test rig, the spatial order characteristics and amplitude-frequency characteristics of the electromagnetic forces are revealed. The noise orders are multiples of the number of motor poles.
Technical Paper

Combined Technologies for Efficiency Improvement on a 1.0 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0233
The CO2 reduction request for automotive industry promotes the efforts on the engine thermal efficiency improvement. The goal of this research is to improve the thermal efficiency on an extremely downsized 3-cylinder 1.0 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. Effects of compression ratio, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), valve timing and viscosity of oil on fuel economy were studied. The results show that increasing compression ratio, from 9.6 to 12, can improve fuel economy at relative low load (below 12 bar BMEP), but has a negative effect at high load due to increased knock intensity. EGR can significantly reduce the pumping loss at low load, optimize combustion phase and reduce exhaust gas temperature. Therefore, the fuel consumption is reduced at all test points. The average brake thermal efficiency (BTE) benefit percentage is 3.47% with 9.6 compression ratio and 5.33 % with 12 compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Simulation Investigation of Working Process and Emissions on GDI Engine Fueled with Hydrous Ethanol Gasoline Blends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0219
Compared with ordinary gasoline, using ethanol gasoline blends as fuel of Internal Combustion Engine is beneficial for the performance of power, economy and emission of engine. However, the fuel ethanol blended in ethanol gasoline blends currently is usually anhydrous ethanol, which requires dewatering implementer in production process, and the cost is high. Therefore, the production cost can be significantly reduced by replacement of anhydrous ethanol with hydrous ethanol while exerting the advantage of ethanol gasoline blends. In this study, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software CONVERGE is employed to establish a simulation model of an actual gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, and investigate the effect of burning hydrous ethanol gasoline blends and different injection strategy on combustion process and emission, and the validity of the model was validated by experiments.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Intake Manifold Water Injection on Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0562
The performances of heavy-duty natural gas engines have been limited by combustion temperature and NOx emissions for a long time. Recently, water injection technology has been widely considered as a technical solution in reducing fuel consumption and emissions simultaneously in both gasoline and diesel engines. This paper focuses on the impacts of intake manifold water injection on characteristics of combustion and emissions in a natural gas heavy-duty engine through numerical methods. A computational model was setup and validated with experimental data of pressure traces in a CFD software coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The simulation was mainly carried out in low-speed and full-load conditions, and knock level was also measured and calculated by maximum amplitude of pressure oscillations (MAPO).
Technical Paper

Transfer Path Analysis and Low-Frequency Vibration Reduction by Locally Resonant Phononic Crystal

2019-04-02
2019-01-0786
The motor has vibration characteristics of order and multi-band in the frequency domain, which is different from the internal combustion engine when it is used as the vehicle’s drive. These characteristics cannot be briefly attenuated by general methods, but make the phononic crystal (PC) an ideal solution to eliminate the vibration transmission of the motor, because the concentrated vibration peak can easily be blocked by the bandgap. In this paper, one dimensional locally resonant phononic crystal (LRPC) which has low-frequency bandgaps are arranged on the automotive subframe to absorbing vibration. The partial coherence analysis is used to analyze the transfer characteristic of vibration on the subframe. Then, 6 main paths are selected from the 18 vibration transmission paths, based on its high ratio of partial coherence coefficient in a certain frequency, and the arranged position, the spring stiffness and the resonator’s mass of the LRPCs are chosen based on this result.
Technical Paper

The Emission of a Diesel Engine in Different Coolant Temperature during Cold Start at High Altitude

2019-04-02
2019-01-0730
Emissions of diesel engine have been received much more attention since the Volkswagen Emission Scandal. The Euro VI emission standard has already included cold start emissions in the legislative emission driving cycles which is one of the hardest part of emission control. High altitude performance is also considered in the latest regulations which will be stricter in the future. Heating the coolant is one of the most common method to improve the cold start performance. But researches focus on the emission of a diesel engine in different coolant temperature at high altitude which up to 4500m have not been seen. The present research investigated the effect of coolant temperature on performance and exhaust emissions (gaseous and particulate emissions) during the cold start of a diesel engine. A plateau simulation system controlled the inlet and exhaust pressure to create altitude environments from 0m to 4500m, and the coolant temperature was controlled from 20°C to 60°C.
Technical Paper

Effects of Zeolite Structure, Cu Content, Feed Gas Space Velocity, NH3/NOx Ratio, and Sulfur Poisoning on the Performance of Zeolite-Based SCR Catalyst

2019-04-02
2019-01-0736
To meet the increasingly stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission regulations of diesel engines, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia (NH3) has become the current mainstream technical route. Experiments in the present study included the performance of Cu-Beta catalyst and Cu-CHA catalyst before and after hydrothermal aging, and the effects of Cu content, feed gas space velocity (GHSV), NH3/NOx ratio, and sulfur poisoning on the performance of Cu-CHA catalyst. In the low temperature range (T≤250 °C), the T50 and T90 of Cu-Beta catalyst are 139 °C and 165 °C, respectively, while those of Cu-CHA catalyst are 150 °C and 183 °C, respectively. In the high temperature range (T>400 °C), the NOx conversion of Cu-CHA catalyst is generally higher than that of Cu-Beta catalyst. The temperature window of Cu-Beta catalyst is 154 to 514 °C, while that of Cu-CHA catalyst is 168 to 522 °C. Cu-CHA catalyst exhibits better catalytic activity at medium and high temperatures.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Intake Manifold Water Injection in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine for Performance and Emissions Enhancement

2018-09-10
2018-01-1653
The present work discusses the effects of intake manifold water injection in a six-cylinder heavy duty natural gas (NG) engine through one-dimensional simulation. The numerical study was carried out based on GT-Power under different engine working conditions. The established simulation model was firstly calibrated in detail through the whole engine speed sweep under full load conditions before the model of intake manifold water injector was involved, and the calibration was based on experimental data. The intake manifold water injection mass was controlled through adjustment of intake water/gas (water/natural gas) ratio, a water/gas ratio swept from 0 to 4 was selected to investigate the effects of intake manifold water injection on engine performance and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, the enhancement potential of intake manifold water injection in heavy duty NG engine under lean and stoichiometric condition was also investigated by the alteration of air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Boosted Current Spark Strategy for Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1133
Spark ignition systems with the capability of providing spark event with either higher current level or longer discharge duration has been developed in recent years to help IC engines towards clean combustion with higher efficiency under lean/diluted intake charge. In this research, a boosted current spark strategy was proposed to investigate the effect of spark discharge current level and discharge duration on the combustion process. Firstly, the discharge characteristics of a boosted current spark system were tested with a traditional spark plug under crossflow conditions, and results showed that the spark channel was more stable, and was stretched much longer when the discharge current was boosted. Then the boosted current strategy was used in a spark ignition engine operating under lean conditions. Boosted current was added to the spark channel with different timing, duration, and current levels.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study on Combustion Characteristics of Hydrogen-Argon Jet in a Hot Vitiated Co-flow

2018-04-03
2018-01-1139
This paper presents a study of the Hydrogen/Argon lifted flames in a hot vitiated co-flow. The effects of the dilution of argon in central fuel, the volume fraction of argon in the central fuel, co-flow temperature and the velocity of the central jet on the flame lift-off length were studied, and the numerical simulation with PDF model were analyzed as well. The results could provide theoretical supports for the research of the hydrogen fueled argon cycle engine which is a potential way not only to increase the indicated thermal efficiency of internal combustion engine but also realize the zero emission. The result shows that at the same boundary condition the central jet of H2+Ar has a lower lift-off length than the central jet of H2+N2. By the numerical simulation, the jet flame of H2+Ar has a higher maximum temperature and maximum OH concentration. It indicated that the dilution of argon could promote the combustion reaction.
Technical Paper

Effects of DOC and CDPF Catalyst Composition on Emission Characteristics of Light-Duty Diesel Engine with DOC + CDPF + SCR System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0337
With regulatory standards for diesel engine emissions becoming stricter worldwide, integrated catalytic systems are becoming increasingly necessary. One of the better approaches is to use an after-treatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR), but many factors can affect how well this system works. This study investigates the effects of DOC and CDPF catalyst composition on emissions characteristics for DOC + CDPF + SCR systems by collecting reactor and engine data. The reactor results show that the light-off temperatures (T50) of CO and C3H6 increase with the growth of Pt:Pd ratio while the T50 of NO degrades. An engine dynamometer test was conducted on a light-duty diesel engine equipped with DOC + CDPF + SCR. The results show light-off curves of CO and THC that are smoother than the reactor data.
Technical Paper

Study on Correlation between After-Treatment Performance and Running Conditions, Exhaust Parameters of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0338
The increasingly stringent emission regulations have mandated the use of CCRT (catalyzed continuously regeneration trap) made by upstream DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst) and downstream CDPF (catalyzed diesel particulate filter) for heavy-duty diesel vehicles, which is proved to be the only way that can efficiently control the gaseous and particulate emissions. The performance of after-treatment is greatly influenced by the running conditions of the diesel vehicle and its exhaust parameters, so this paper intended to use grey relational analysis to study the correlation between running conditions (velocity, acceleration, VSP (vehicle specific power)), exhaust parameters (exhaust flow rate, DOC inlet temperature, concentrations of CO, THC, O2 and NOX) and the performance of DOC and CCRT based on chassis dynamometer test. Results showed that the effect of DOC on CO and THC is mainly affected by exhaust flow rate, exhaust temperature and THC concentration.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics at Different Altitudes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0308
In this study, effects of altitude on free diesel spray morphology, macroscopic spray characteristics and air-fuel mixing process were investigated. The diesel spray visualization experiment using high-speed photography was performed in a constant volume chamber which reproduced the injection diesel-like thermodynamic conditions of a heavy-duty turbocharged diesel engine operating at sea level and 1000 m, 2000 m, 3000 m and 4500 m above sea level. The results showed that the spray morphology became narrower and longer at higher altitude, and small vortex-like structures were observed on the downstream spray periphery. Spray penetration increased and spray angle decreased with increasing altitude. At altitudes of 0 m, 1000 m, 2000 m, 3000 m and 4500 m, the spray penetration at 1.45 ms after start of injection (ASOI) were 79.54 mm, 80.51 mm, 81.49 mm, 83.29 mm and 88.92 mm respectively, and the spray angle were 10.9°, 10.8°, 10.7°, 10.4°and 9.8° respectively.
Journal Article

Simulation Study of Water Injection Strategy in Improving Cycle Efficiency Based on a Novel Compression Ignition Oxy-Fuel Combustion Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0894
The present work discusses a novel oxy-fuel combustion cycle utilized in compression ignition internal combustion engine. The most prominent feature of this cycle is that the air intake is replaced by oxygen; therefore nitric oxide (NOX) emission is eliminated. The enrichment of oxygen leads to higher flame speed and mass fraction consumption rate; on the other hand, the high concentration of oxygen presented during combustion will result in intense pressure rise rate which may cause severe damage to engine hardware. As water injection is already utilized in gasoline engine to control knocking, the utilization of water injection in optimizing oxy-fuel combustion process has been tested in this study. To understand the relationship between water injection strategy and cycle efficiency, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out. The model was carefully calibrated with the experimental results; the errors were controlled within 3%.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Characteristic and Application Performance of Catalyzed DPFs Coated with Various Content of Precious Metal in China

2017-10-08
2017-01-2379
Recent toxicological and epidemiologic studies have shown that diesel emissions have been a significant toxic air contaminant. Catalyzed DPF (CDPF) not only significantly reduces the PM mass emissions (>90%), but also further promotes carrier self-regeneration and oxidize more harmful gaseous pollutants by the catalyst coated on the carrier. However, some ultrafine particles and potentially harmful gaseous pollutants, such as VOCs species, originally emitted in the vapor-phase at high plume temperature, may penetrate through the CDPF filter. Furthermore, the components and content of catalyst coated on the CDPF could influence the physicochemical properties and toxicity intensity of those escaping ultrafine particles and gaseous pollutants. In this work, (1) we investigated the influence of precious metal content as a variable parameter on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the small CDPF samples.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR Temperature on PFI Gasoline Engine Combustion and Emissions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2235
In order to investigate the impacts of recirculated exhaust gas temperature on gasoline engine combustion and emissions, an experimental study has been conducted on a turbocharged PFI gasoline engine. The engine was equipped with a high pressure cooled EGR system, in which different EGR temperatures were realized by using different EGR coolants. The engine ran at 2000 r/min and 3000 r/min, and the BMEP varied from 0.2MPa to 1.0MPa with the step of 0.2MPa. At each case, there were three conditions: 0% EGR, 10% LT-EGR, 10% HT-EGR. The results indicated that LT-EGR had a longer combustion duration compared with HT-EGR. When BMEP was 1.0 MPa, CA50 of HT-EGR advanced about 5oCA. However, CA50 of LT-EGR could still keep steady and in appropriate range, which guaranteed good combustion efficiency. Besides, LT-EGR had lower exhaust gas temperature, which could help to suppress knock. And its lower exhaust gas temperature could reduce heat loss. These contributed to fuel consumption reduction.
Technical Paper

Effect of Direct Water Injection Timing on Common Rail Diesel Engine Combustion Process and Efficiency Enhancement

2017-10-08
2017-01-2281
The present work aims at optimizing diesel engine combustion efficiency with optimized water injection strategy. The engine had been modified based on a two-cylinder mechanical pump diesel engine into common rail diesel engine with capability of direct water injection. The direct water injection system was designed and manufactured independently. An air-fluid booster was utilized to establish the water injection pressure up to 40MPa. Customized diesel injector was selected to be used as water injector in this study. Water injection strategy was optimized in detail with injection timing around TDC which ranges from 12°CA BTDC to -5°CA BTDC under 10 bar IMEP. The engine efficiency can be improved under selected water injection strategy due to the increment of work fluid in the combustion chamber. Moreover, the nitric oxides emissions show decrement around 10%.
Technical Paper

Improvement on Energy Efficiency of the Spark Ignition System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0678
Future clean combustion engines tend to increase the cylinder charge to achieve better fuel economy and lower exhaust emissions. The increase of the cylinder charge is often associated with either excessive air admission or exhaust gas recirculation, which leads to unfavorable ignition conditions at the ignition point. Advanced ignition methods and systems have progressed rapidly in recent years in order to suffice the current and future engine development, and a simple increase of energy of the inductive ignition system does not often provide the desired results from a cost-benefit point of view. Proper design of the ignition system circuit is required to achieve certain spark performances.
Journal Article

Longitudinal Vibration Analysis of Electric Wheel System in Starting Condition

2017-03-28
2017-01-1126
Due to coupling of in-wheel motor and wheel/tire, the electric wheel system of in-wheel motor driven vehicle is different from tire suspension system of internal combustion engine vehicle both in the excitation source and structural dynamics. Therefore emerging dynamic issues of electric wheel arouse attention. Longitudinal vibration problem of electric wheel system in starting condition is studied in this paper. Vector control system of permanent magnet synchronous hub motor considering dead-time effect of the inverter is primarily built. Then coupled longitudinal-torsional vibration model of electric wheel system is established based on rigid ring model and dynamic tire/road interface. Inherent characteristics of this model are further analyzed. The vibration responses of electric wheel system are simulated by combining electromagnetic torque and the vibration model. The results indicate that abrupt changes of driving torque will cause transient vibration of electric wheel system.
Journal Article

Study of the Combustion Characteristics of a HCCI Engine Coupled with Oxy-Fuel Combustion Mode

2017-03-28
2017-01-0649
The present work proposed to implement oxy-fuel combustion mode into a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to reduce complexity in engine emissions after-treatment and lower carbon dioxide emission. The combination of oxy-fuel combustion mode with homogeneous charge compression ignition engine can be further optimized by the utilization of direct high temperature and pressure water injection to improve cycle performance. A retrofitted conventional diesel engine coupled with port fuel injection and direct water injection is utilized in this study. A self-designed oxygen and carbon dioxide mixture intake system with flexible oxygen fraction adjustment ability is implemented in the test bench to simulate the adoption of exhaust gas recirculation. Water injection system is directly installed in the combustion chamber with a modified high speed solenoid diesel injector.
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