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Technical Paper

Evaluation Method of Harmony with Traffic Based on a Backpropagation Neural Network Optimized by Mean Impact Value

2021-06-02
2021-01-5060
With the development of autonomous driving, the penetration rate of autonomous vehicles on the road will continue to grow. As a result, the social cooperation ability of autonomous vehicles will have a great effect on the social acceptance of autonomous driving, which can be described as harmony with traffic. In order to research the evaluation method of the harmony with traffic, this paper proposes a subjective and objective mapping evaluation method based on the Mean Impact Value and Backpropagation (MIV-BP) Neural Network, with the merging vehicle on the expressway ramp as the research object. Firstly, by taking 16 original objective indexes obtained by theoretical analysis and the subjective evaluation results as input and output, respectively, the BP Neural Network model is constructed as a baseline model. Secondly, nine selected objective indexes are selected by the MIV method based on the baseline model.
Technical Paper

An Optimized Design of Multi-Chamber Perforated Resonators to Attenuate Turbocharged Intake System Noise

2021-04-06
2021-01-0669
The turbocharger air intake noise during transient conditions like wide open throttle and tip-in/out affects the passenger ride comfort. This paper aims to study an optimized design of multi-chamber perforated resonators to attenuate this noise. The noise produced by a turbocharger in a test vehicle has been measured to find out the noise spectral characteristics which can be used to design the acoustic targets including the amplitude and frequency range of transmission loss (TL). The structural parameters of the resonators are optimized based on genetic algorithm (GA) and two-dimensional prediction theory of the resonator TL. The optimized resonators are installed on the test vehicle to verify the actual noise reduction effect. The results suggest that the broadband noise has been eliminated, and subjective feelings are greatly improved.
Technical Paper

Object Detection Method of Autonomous Vehicle Based on Lightweight Deep Learning

2021-04-06
2021-01-0192
Object detection is an important visual content of the autonomous vehicle, the traditional detecting methods usually cost a lot of computational memory and elapsed time. This paper proposes to use lightweight deep convolutional neural network (MobilenetV3-SSDLite) to carry out the object detection task of autonomous vehicles. Simulation analysis based on this method is implemented, the feature layer obtained after h-swish activation function in the first Conv of the 13th bottleneck module in MobilenetV3 is taken as the first effective feature layer, and the feature layer before pooling and convolution of the antepenultimate layer in MobilenetV3 is taken as the second effective feature layer, and these two feature layers are extracted from the MobilenetV3 network.
Technical Paper

Multi-Modal Neural Feature Fusion for Pose Estimation and Scene Perception of Intelligent Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0188
The main challenge for future autonomous vehicles is to identify their location and body pose in real time during driving, that is, “where am I? and how will I go?”. We address the problems of pose estimation and scene perception from continuous visual frames in intelligent vehicle. Recent advanced technology in the domain of deep learning proposes to train some learning models for vehicle’s series detection tasks in a supervised or unsupervised manner, which has numerous advances over traditional approaches, mainly reflected in the absence of manual calibration and synchronization of the camera and IMU. In the paper, we propose a novel approach for pose estimation and scene recognition with a deep fusion of multi-modal neural features in the manner of unsupervised. Firstly, low-cost camera and IMU are used to extract original visual and inertial data, then the visual and inertial encoders are utilized to encoder the feature of the two modes.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Control of Dynamic Chassis Considering Road Roughness Class Recognition

2021-04-06
2021-01-0322
For the DCC (Dynamic Chassis Control) system, in addition to the requirement of ride and comfort, it is also necessary to consider the requirement of handling and stability, and these two requirements are often not met at the same time. This poses a great challenge to the design of the controller, especially in the face of complex working conditions. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a comprehensive DCC controller that considers road roughness class recognition. Firstly, a quarter vehicle model is established, the road surface roughness is calculated from the vertical acceleration of the wheels measured by the sensors. Then we calculate the autocorrelation function and the Fourier transform to estimate the PSD (Power Spectral Density) to get the road roughness class. Then control algorithms are designed for the vertical motion control, roll control and pitch control.
Technical Paper

Novel Research for Energy Management of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Dual Motors Based on Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle Optimized by Reinforcement Learning

2021-04-06
2021-01-0726
The plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with dual-motor and multi-gear structure can realize multiple operation modes such as series, parallel, hybrid, etc. The traditional rule-based energy management strategy mostly selects some of the modes (such as series and parallel) to construct the energy management strategy. Although this method is simple and reliable, it can’t fully exert the full potential of this structure considering both economy and driving performance. Therefore, it is very important to study the algorithm which can exert the maximum potential of the multi-degree-of-freedom structure. In this paper, a new RL-PMP algorithm is proposed, which does not divide the operation modes, and explores the optimal energy allocation strategy to the maximum extent according to the economic and drivability criteria within the allowable range of the characteristics of the power system components.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Fuel Cell Prediction Models Based on Relevance Vector Machines with Different Kernel Functions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0728
Fuel cell reactors, as the core components of fuel cell vehicles, have a short life problem that has always limited the development of fuel cell vehicles. The life attenuation curve of fuel cell shows nonlinear characteristics, and there is no model that can accurately predict its effect. This paper is based on the experimental data of the vehicle fuel cell reactor, which is derived from the 600 h durability test run by a 4 kW fuel cell reactor. The relevance vector machine, as a Bayes processing method that supports vector machine, is a data-driven method based on kernel functions. The regression model is established by the relevance vector machine, and the super-parameters are found by genetic algorithm, because the kernel function strongly affects the nonlinearity of the curve, and the decay curve of fuel cell reactor performance is predicted according to four different kernel functions.
Technical Paper

Design and Structural Parameters Analysis of the Turbine Rotor in Fuel Cell Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0729
As the most power-consuming component of the fuel cell system, the compressor directly affects the efficiency of the system. Using turbines to recover energy from the exhaust gas, has become a feasible means to improve the fuel cell system’s efficiency. Previous designs are mainly based on high-temperature (>523.15 K) gas. However, the exhaust gas temperature of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell is only about 348.15 K, which is much lower than the working fluid temperature of typical turbines (such as those used in internal combustion engine). In this paper, a turbine rotor for a 100kW fuel cell system was designed. The influences of non-design structural parameters including blade inlet incline angle, blade thickness, blade tip clearance and blade number on the aerodynamic performance and internal flow of the rotor are investigated. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the rotor single flow is established to predict the turbine aerodynamic performance.
Technical Paper

The Control Strategy for 4WD Hybrid Vehicle Based on Wavelet Transform

2021-04-06
2021-01-0785
In this paper, in order to avoid the frequent switching of engine operating points and improve the fuel economy during driving, this paper proposes a control strategy for the 4-wheel drive (4WD) hybrid vehicle based on wavelet transform. First of all, the system configuration and the original control strategy of the 4WD hybrid vehicle were introduced and analyzed, which summarized the shortcomings of this control strategy. Then, based on the analyze of the original control strategy, the wavelet transform was used to overcome its weaknesses. By taking advantage over the superiority of the wavelet transform method in multi signal disposition, the demand power of vehicle was decomposed into the stable drive power and the instantaneous response power, which were distributed to engine and electric motor respectively. This process was carried out under different driving modes.
Technical Paper

Multi-physics Modeling of Electromagnetically Excited Acoustic Noise of Induction Motor

2021-04-06
2021-01-0772
For electric vehicles, electromagnetically excited noise from the traction motor is one of the main acoustic noise sources, especially for automobiles driven at low speed that mechanical noise and aerodynamic noise are minor. To analyze the characteristics of the electromagnetically excited noise and propose noise reduction suggestions, an accurate noise prediction model is essential. In this paper, a multi-physics model to predict the electromagnetic force excited acoustic noise of induction motor is presented. First, a Three-Dimensional (3D) transient electromagnetic model of the motor was established using the Finite Element Method (FEM). By inputting the current signal collected in the noise test as the current source in the FEM model, the uneven distributed time-varying magnetic forces, which included the influence of the current harmonics due to Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM), was calculated. Then, a structural model was built.
Technical Paper

Study on the Constant Voltage, Current and Current Ramping Cold Start Modes of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

2021-04-06
2021-01-0746
The cold-start of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been one of the technical challenges for fuel cell vehicle table ommercialization. In this study, a one-dimensional cold start transient model of PEMFC was developed for the transfer of water, heat, electrons and protons during the cold start process. Different loading modes, including constant voltage, constant current, and current ramping, were adopted for fuel cell cold starting analysis, respectively. The internal water-heat transfer within fuel cell was investigated under different loading modes. The results show that in the constant current mode, for the high current, the cold start process can produce more heat than other modes, which can increase fuel cell temperature rapidly. However, this process may easily fail before the ice fully covers the cathode catalyst layers (CL).
Journal Article

A Data Driven Fuel Cell Life-Prediction Model for a Fuel Cell Electric City Bus

2021-04-06
2021-01-0739
Life prediction is a major focus for a commercial fuel cell stack, especially applied in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). This paper proposes a data driven fuel cell lifetime prediction model using particle swarm optimized back-propagation neural network (PSO-BPNN). For the prediction model PSO-BP, PSO algorithm is used to determine the optimal hyper parameters of BP neural network. In this paper, total voltage of fuel cell stack is employed to represent the health index of fuel cell. Then the proposed prediction model is validated by the aging data from PEMFC stack in FCEV at the actual road condition. The experimental results indicate that PSO-BP model can predict the voltage degradation of PEMFC stack at actual road condition precisely and has a higher prediction accuracy than BP model.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Performance Modeling of the Centrifugal Compressor and Stability Analysis of the Compression System for Fuel Cell Vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0733
The centrifugal compressor is one of the most commonly used air compressors for fuel cell air supply systems, and it has the small volume, high pressure ratio and low noise. However, surge in a centrifugal compressor severely limits its stable flow range. In this paper, a mathematical model of the compressor aerodynamic performance based on the energy transfer method was established, some parameters of model were identified by experimental data, and the model was validated through experiments. Then the dynamic model of the compression system was derived based on the compressor model and the Moore-Greitzer model. The stability analysis of the compression system was conducted, and it was strictly proved that when the compression system is unstable, there is the limit cycle in this nonlinear system, namely the surge cycle. Furthermore, the simulation of the compression system was conducted and the instability condition of the compression system was presented.
Journal Article

Review on State of Health Definition in Relation to Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0735
Owing to its advantages of high energy density, quick start-up, and no emissions, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources in transportation and has been used for automotive application for years. However, shortcomings in fuel cell key performances, such as lifetime and efficiency, characterized by state of health (SOH), restrict the large-scale commercialization for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), raising demands for real-time state monitoring. Nowadays, most researchers have explored the reasons for state change from models or experiments. Nevertheless, it is in need of system-level researches on definition methods of SOH against the actual automotive application. Lacking accurate quantitative indicators, existing studies on health states are often qualitative and hence fail to consider intermediate processes.
Journal Article

Active Launch Vibration Control of Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Nonlinear Backlash

2021-04-06
2021-01-0667
The backlash between engaging components in a driveline is unavoidable, especially when the gear runs freely and collides with the backlash, the impact torque generated increases the vibration amplitude. The power-split hybrid electric vehicle generates output torque only from the traction motor during the launching process. The nonlinear backlash can greatly influence the driveability of the driveline due to the rapid response of the traction motor and the lack of the traditional clutches and torsional shock absorbers in the powertrain. This paper focuses on the launch vibration of the power-split hybrid electric vehicle, establishes a nonlinear driveline model considering gear backlash, including an engine, two motors, a Ravigneaux planetary gear set, a reducer, a differential, a backlash assembly, half shafts, and wheels.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Detection Based on Deep Neural Network Combined with Radar Attention Mechanism

2020-12-29
2020-01-5171
In the autonomous driving perception task, the accuracy of target detection is an essential evaluation, especially for small targets. In this work, we propose a multi-sensor fusion neural network that combines radar and image data to improve the confidence level of the camera when detecting targets and the accuracy of the prediction box regression. The fusion network is based on the basic structure of single-shot multi-box detection (SSD). Inspired by the attention mechanism in image processing, our work incorporates the a priori knowledge of radar detection in the convolutional block attention module (CBAM), which forms a new attention mechanism module called radar convolutional block attention module (RCBAM). We add the RCBAM into the SSD target detection network to build a deep neural network fusing millimeter-wave radar and camera.
Technical Paper

Multi-target Tracking Algorithm with Adaptive Motion Model for Autonomous Urban Driving

2020-12-29
2020-01-5167
Since situational awareness is crucial for autonomous driving in urban environments, multi-target tracking has become an increasingly popular research topic during the last several years. For autonomous driving in urban environments, cars and pedestrians are the two main types of obstacles, and their motion characteristics are not the same. While in the current related multi-target tracking research, the same motion model (such as Constant Velocity model [CV]) or motion model set (such as CV combined with Constant Acceleration model [CA]) is mostly used to track different types of obstacles simultaneously. Besides, in current research, regular motion models are mostly adopted to track pedestrians, such as CV, CA, and so on, the uncertainty in pedestrian motion is not well considered.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Bus Passenger Flow Based on CEEMDAN-BP Model

2020-12-14
2020-01-5166
The prediction of passenger flow is of great significance to facilitate the decision-making processes for local authorities and transport operators to provide an effective bus scheduling. In this work, a backpropagation neural network (BPNN) was adopted to predict the bus passenger flow. To reduce the prediction error and improve the prediction accuracy, a combined model CEEMDAN-BP, which combines CEEMDAN (Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise) method and BPNN, has been proposed. CEEMDAN is an improved method based on EEMD, which has been widely applied to signal smoothing and de-noising. Experimental results show that this combined model can exactly achieve an excellent prediction effect and improve the prediction accuracy of the network greatly.
Technical Paper

Decision-Making for Intelligent Vehicle Considering Uncertainty of Road Adhesion Coefficient Estimation: Autonomous Emergency Braking Case

2020-10-29
2020-01-5109
Since data processing methods could not completely eliminate the uncertainty of signals, it is a key issue for stable and robust decision-making for uncertainty tolerance of intelligent vehicles. In this paper, a decision-making for an Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) case considering the uncertainty of road adhesion coefficient estimation (RACE) is proposed. Firstly, the 3σ criterion is employed to classify the confidence in order to establish the decision-making mechanism considering the signal uncertainty of RACE. Secondly, the model for AEB with the uncertainty of the road adhesion coefficient estimated is designed based on the Seungwuk Moon model. Thirdly, a CCRs and CCRm scenario was designed to verify the feasibility in reference to the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) standard. Finally, the results of 10,000 cycles test illustrate that the proposed method is stable and could significantly improve the safety confidence both in the CCRs and CCRm scenarios.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient NOx Emissions of HEV under Real Road Driving

2020-04-14
2020-01-0380
To meet the request of China National 6b emission regulations which will be officially implemented in China, firstly including the RDE emission test limits, the transient emissions on real road condition are paid more attention. A non-plug-in hybrid light-duty gasoline vehicles (HEV) sold in the Chinese market was selected to study real road emissions employed fast response NOx analyzer from Cambustion Ltd. with a sampling frequency of 100Hz, which can measure the missing NO peaks by standard RDE gas analyzer now. Emissions from PEMS were also recorded and compared with the results from fast response NOx analyzer. The concentration of NOx emissions before and after the Three Way Catalyst (TWC) of the hybrid vehicle were also sampled and analyzed, and the working efficiency of the TWC in real road driving process was investigated.
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