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Journal Article

Backward Flow of Hot Burned Gas Surrounding High-Pressure Diesel Spray Flame from Multi-hole Nozzle

2015-09-01
2015-01-1837
The backward flow of the hot burned gas surrounding a diesel flame was found to be one of the factors dominating the set-off length (also called the lift-off length), that is, the distance from a nozzle exit into which a diffusion flame cannot intrude. In the combustion chamber of an actual diesel engine, the entrainment of the surrounding gas into a spray jet from a multi-hole nozzle is restricted by the walls and adjacent spray jets, which induces the backward flow of the surrounding gas. A new momentum theory to calculate the backward flow velocity was established by extending Wakuri's momentum theory. Shadowgraph imaging in an optical engine successfully visualized the backward flow of the hot burned gas.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES) 2nd Report: Prediction of Engine Performance in Transient Driving Cycle Using One Dimensional Engine Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-0881
The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed. This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added.
Journal Article

Cooling Loss Reduction of Highly Dispersed Spray Combustion with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flow in Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0689
In diesel engines with a straight intake port and a lipless cavity to restrict in-cylinder flow, an injector with numerous small-diameter orifices with a narrow angle can be used to create a highly homogeneous air-fuel mixture that, during PCCI combustion, dramatically reduces the NOX and soot without the addition of expensive new devices. To further improve this new combustion concept, this research focused on cooling losses, which are generally thought to account for 16 to 35% of the total energy of the fuel, and approaches to reducing fuel consumption were explored. First, to clarify the proportions of convective heat transfer and radiation in the cooling losses, a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was used to measure the local heat flux and radiation to the combustion chamber wall. The results showed that though larger amounts of injected fuel increased the proportion of heat losses from radiation, the primary factor in cooling losses is convective heat transfer.
Journal Article

Injection Nozzle Coking Mechanism in Common-rail Diesel Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1818
The hole diameter of injection nozzles in diesel engines has become smaller and the nozzle coking could potentially cause injection characteristics and emissions to deteriorate. In this research, engine tests with zinc-added fuels, deposit analyses, laboratory tests and numerical calculations were carried out to clarify the deposit formation mechanisms. In the initial phase of deposit formation, lower zinc carboxylate formed close to the nozzle hole outlet by reactions between zinc in the fuel and lower carboxylic acid in the combustion gas. In the subsequent growth phase, the main component changed to zinc carbonate close to nozzle hole inlet by reactions with CO₂ in the combustion gas. Metal components and combustion gases are essential elements in the composition of these deposits. One way of removing these deposits is to utilize cavitations inside the nozzle holes.
Journal Article

A New Generation of Optically Accessible Single-Cylinder Engines for High-speed and High-load Combustion Analysis

2011-08-30
2011-01-2050
Over the last few decades, in-cylinder visualization using optically accessible engines has been an important tool in the detailed analysis of the in-cylinder phenomena of internal combustion engines. However, most current optically accessible engines are recognized as being limited in terms of their speed and load, because of the fragility of certain components such as the elongated pistons and transparent windows. To overcome these speed and load limits, we developed a new generation of optically accessible engines which extends the operating range up to speeds of 6000 rpm for the SI engine version, and up to in-cylinder pressures of 20 MPa for the CI engine version. The main reason for the speed limitation is the vibration caused by the inertia force arising from the heavy elongated piston, which increases with the square of the engine speed.
Journal Article

Analysis of Oxidative Deterioration of Biodiesel Fuel

2008-10-06
2008-01-2502
Methyl esters of saturated/unsaturated higher aliphatic acids (FAMEs) and a FAME of waste cooking oil (WCOME) were heated at 120°C in an air gas flow. The samples were analyzed before and after heating, using six different methods including electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. As a result, the samples after heating were found to contain low molecular weight aliphatic compounds and oligomers of the FAME. Based on the chemical structure of these oxidation products, reaction schemes were proposed for the deterioration of FAMEs. In addition, two unsaturated FAMEs containing 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol (BHT) were similarly heated and analyzed to examine the effect of BHT on the oxidation of these FAME.
Journal Article

Emissions Reduction Potential of Extremely High Boost and High EGR Rate for an HSDI Diesel Engine and the Reduction Mechanisms of Exhaust Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1189
The effects of an increasing boost pressure, a high EGR rate and a high injection pressure on exhaust emissions from an HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engine were examined. The mechanisms were then investigated with both in-cylinder observations and 3DCFD coupled with ϕT-map analysis. Under a high-load condition, increasing the charging efficiency combined with a high injection pressure and a high EGR rate is an effective way to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously, which realized an ultra low NOx of 16ppm at 1.7MPa of IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure). The flame temperature with low NOx and low soot emissions is decreased by 260K from that with conventional emissions. Also, the distribution of the fuel-air mixture plot on a ϕT-map is moved away from the NOx and soot formation peninsula, compared to the conventional emissions case.
Technical Paper

Study of Future Engine Oil (First Report): Future Engine Oil Scenario

2007-07-23
2007-01-1977
In recent years, problems such as global warming, the depletion of natural resources, and air pollution caused by emissions are emerging on a global scale. These problems call for efforts directed toward the development of fuel-efficient engines and exhaust gas reduction measures. As a solution to these issues, performance improvements should be achieved on the oil that lubricates the sliding sections of engines. This report points to features required of future engine oil-such as contribution to fuel consumption, minimized adverse effects on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system, and improved reliability achieved by sludge reduction-and discusses the significance of these features. For engine oil to contribution of engine oil to lower fuel consumption, we examined the effects of reduced oil viscosity on friction using gasoline and diesel engines.
Technical Paper

A Study on Natural Gas Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine - Expanding the Operating Range and Combustion Mode Switching

2007-04-16
2007-01-0176
Natural gas homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines require high compression ratios and intake air heating because of the high auto-ignition temperature of natural gas. In the first study, the natural gas fueled HCCI combustion with internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was achieved without an intake air heater. The effects of the combustion chamber configuration, turbocharging, and external EGR were investigated for expanding the operating range. As a result, it was cleared that the combination of internal / external EGR and turbocharging is effective for expanding the HCCI operational range toward high loads. Meanwhile, the HCCI combustion characteristics at high engine speeds were unstable because of an insufficient reaction time for auto-ignition. Although the engine operation with a richer air-fuel ratio was effective for improving the combustion stability, the combustion noise (CN) was at an unacceptable level.
Technical Paper

Twenty-Year Review of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites at Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.

2007-04-16
2007-01-1017
More than twenty years have passed since we invented polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCN), in which only a few wt.-% of silicate is randomly and homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix. When molded, these nanocomposites show superior properties compared to pristine polymers such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, heat distortion temperature, gas barrier property, and so on. The number of papers on PCN has increased rapidly in recent years, reaching over 500 only in 2005. As the pioneers of the new technology, we will review its history highlighting our works. Epoch-making events of PCN are as follows: In 1985, The first PCN, nylon 6-clay hybrid (NCH), was invented. In 1987, NCH was first presented at the ACS Fall Meetings. In 1989, NCH was presented at the MRS Fall Meetings, firing PCN. In 1989, Toyota launched cars equipped with a NCH part. In 1996, Clay was found to cause a memory effect in liquid crystals.
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Fuel Spray and Mixture Formation from Nozzle Internal Flow Calculation

2005-05-11
2005-01-2098
A series calculation methodology from the injector nozzle internal flow to the in-cylinder fuel spray and mixture formation in a diesel engine was developed. The present method was applied to a valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle with the recent common rail injector system. The nozzle internal flow calculation using an Eulerian three-fluid model and a cavitation model was performed. The needle valve movement during the injection period was taken into account in this calculation. Inside the nozzle hole, cavitation appears at the nozzle hole inlet edge, and the cavitation region separates into two regions due to a secondary flow in the cross section, and it is distributed to the nozzle exit. Unsteady change of the secondary flow caused by needle movement affects the cavitation distribution in the nozzle hole, and the spread angle of the velocity vector at the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper

Development of Deodorant Filter for Diesel Smell

2004-03-08
2004-01-1384
One of typical outcome of the desire for increasing passenger comfort is that especially for deodorant efficiency. Since customers are becoming so sensitive about cabin odor, development of more effective deodorant filter is strongly required. Out side of vehicle, which most being disliked is diesel odor, therefore, analysis on this diesel gas and investigation to identity the ingredient for the main cause of the strong odor were executed, and found that acetaldehyde gas is the one. Therefore, identification of the chemical that adsorb acetaldehyde gas with being impregnated in activated carbon was required, since activated carbon itself does not have ability of adsorbing acetaldehyde gas, and finally found appropriate chemical, vitamin Bx. At the end of this report, sensory evaluation result by twenty panelists with deodorant type cabin air filter impregnated with vitamin Bx, and its efficiency for deodorant will be shown at the end of this report.
Technical Paper

Cause of Exhaust Smoke and Its Reduction Methods in an HSDI Diesel Engine Under High-Speed and High-Load Conditions

2002-03-04
2002-01-1160
The cause of the exhaust smoke and its reduction methods in a small DI Diesel engine with a small-orifice-diameter nozzle and common rail F.I.E. were investigated under high-speed and high-load condition, using both in-cylinder observations and Three-dimensional numerical analyses. The following points were clarified during this study. At these conditions, fuel sprays are easily pushed away by a strong swirl, and immediately flow out to the squish area by a strong reverse squish. Therefore, the air in the cavity is not effectively used. Suppressing the airflow in a piston cavity, using such ideas as enlarging the piston cavity diameter or reducing the port swirl ratio, decreases the excessive outflow of the fuel-air mixture into the squish area, and allows the full use of air in the whole cavity. Hence, exhaust smoke is reduced.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Diesel Particulate Matter by Oil Consumption Improvement Utilizing Radioisotope Tracer Techniques

1997-05-01
971630
A study was conducted to reduce unburned oil fractions in diesel particulate matter (PM) by improving oil consumption. A method utilizing radioisotope 14C was developed to measure the unburned oil fractions separately for the four paths by which oil is consumed: valve stem seals, piston rings, PCV system, turbocharger. The conversion ratio of oil consumption to PM was calculated by comparing the unburned oil emission rates with oil consumption rates, which were obtained by the use of the 35S tracer method. The result in an experimental diesel engine shows the highest conversion ratio for the oil leaking through the valve stem seals. The modifications to the engine were thereby focused on reducing the leakage of the stem seals. This stem seal modification, along with piston ring improvements, reduced oil consumption, resulting in the unburned oil fractions in PM being effectively reduced.
Technical Paper

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Model of Connecting Rod Big End Bearings; Comparison with Experiments by Diesel Engine

1995-10-01
952549
The EHD lubrication model of connecting rod big end bearings is compared with experiments using an automotive diesel engine. The axial load and the bending moment near the middle of rod length were derived from strain measurements and compared with the theoretical results based on engine dynamics. Although oscillation appeared on bending moment at 5000 rpm, the theoretical load almost agreed with the experiment. The EHD lubrication theory and the experiments were compared by the histories of clearances and the journal center orbits in the bearing. The theoretical results agreed well with the experimental one. The deformation of the bearing appeared both in the theory and in the experiment at 3000 rpm or above; these results confirm the necessity of the EHD lubrication theory.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Air-Fuel Mixture Distribution in a Gasoline Engine Using LIEF Technique

1992-10-01
922356
The laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) technique, currently used to observe mixture formation in a diesel engine, has been applied to a spark ignition (SI) engine and a new equivalence ratio calibration technique has been developed in order that two-dimensional measurements of the equivalence ratio may be made in an operating engine. Spectrally separated fluorescent images of liquid and vapor phase fuel distributions were obtained by adding new exciplex-forming dopants to the gasoline fuel. Dual light sheets from an excimer laser were introduced into one of the cylinders of a 4-valve lean-burn engine, and 2-D images of the mixture formation were recorded at pre-set crank angles during the induction and compression strokes by an image-intensified camera equipped with the appropriate filter.
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