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Technical Paper

Quantitative Optical Analysis and Modelling of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions

2018-09-10
2018-01-1728
This study models short circuits and blow-outs of spark channels. The short circuit model assumes that a spark channel is short-circuited between two arbitrary locations when the electric potential difference between the two locations exceeds the voltage which enables electrical insulation breakage in-between. The threshold voltage can be raised by increasing the distance between the two locations and decreasing the discharge current. Discharge current, in this model, represents the influence of both the spread and the number of electrically charged particles, i.e., electrons and positive ions, distributed near the two locations. Meanwhile, the blow-out model assumes that a strong flow diffuses electrons and positive ions in the spark channel, and consequently the discharge blows out.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compact Adsorption Heat Pump System for Automotive Air Conditioning System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0181
In order to reduce the energy consumption of the automotive air conditioning system, adsorption heat pump (AHP) system is one of the key technologies. We have been developing compact AHP system utilizing the exhaust heat from the engine coolant system (80-100 °C), which can meet the requirements in the automotive application. However, AHP systems have not been practically used in automotive applications because of its low volumetric power density of the adsorber. The volumetric power density of the adsorber is proportional to sorption rate, packing density and latent heat. In general, the sorption rate is determined by mass transfer resistance in primary particle of an adsorbent and heat and mass transfer resistance in packed bed. In order to improve the volumetric power density of the adsorber, it is necessary to increase the production of the sorption rate and the packing density.
Technical Paper

Anti- Combustion Deposit Fuel Development for 2009 Toyota Formula One Racing Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1983
Toyota participated in Formula One1 (F1) Racing from 2002 to 2009. As a result of the downturn in the world economy, various engine developments within F1 were restricted in order to reduce the cost of competing in F1. The limit on the maximum number of engines allowed has decreased year by year. Toyota focused on the engine performance deterioration due to the combustion chamber deposits. In 2009, Toyota was successful in reducing around 40% of the deterioration by making combustion chamber cleaner in cooperation with ExxonMobil. This contributed to good result of 2009 F1 season for Toyota, including two second place finishes.
Journal Article

Analysis of Oxidative Deterioration of Biodiesel Fuel

2008-10-06
2008-01-2502
Methyl esters of saturated/unsaturated higher aliphatic acids (FAMEs) and a FAME of waste cooking oil (WCOME) were heated at 120°C in an air gas flow. The samples were analyzed before and after heating, using six different methods including electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. As a result, the samples after heating were found to contain low molecular weight aliphatic compounds and oligomers of the FAME. Based on the chemical structure of these oxidation products, reaction schemes were proposed for the deterioration of FAMEs. In addition, two unsaturated FAMEs containing 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol (BHT) were similarly heated and analyzed to examine the effect of BHT on the oxidation of these FAME.
Technical Paper

Variation in Nerve Fiber Strain in Brain Tissue Subjected to Uniaxial Stretch

2007-10-29
2007-22-0006
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the most frequent type of closed head injury involved in vehicular accidents, and is characterized by structural and functional damage of nerve fibers in the white matter that may be caused by their overstretch. Because nerve fibers in the white matter have an undulated network-like structure embedded in the neuroglia and extracellular matrix, and are expected to be much stiffer than other components, the strain in the nerve fiber is not necessarily equal to that in the white matter. In this study, the authors have measured strain of the nerve fibers running in various directions in porcine brain tissue subjected to uniaxial stretch and compared them with global strain (tissue strain). The nerve fiber strain had a close correlation with their direction, and was smaller than surrounding global strain.
Technical Paper

Twenty-Year Review of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites at Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.

2007-04-16
2007-01-1017
More than twenty years have passed since we invented polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCN), in which only a few wt.-% of silicate is randomly and homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix. When molded, these nanocomposites show superior properties compared to pristine polymers such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, heat distortion temperature, gas barrier property, and so on. The number of papers on PCN has increased rapidly in recent years, reaching over 500 only in 2005. As the pioneers of the new technology, we will review its history highlighting our works. Epoch-making events of PCN are as follows: In 1985, The first PCN, nylon 6-clay hybrid (NCH), was invented. In 1987, NCH was first presented at the ACS Fall Meetings. In 1989, NCH was presented at the MRS Fall Meetings, firing PCN. In 1989, Toyota launched cars equipped with a NCH part. In 1996, Clay was found to cause a memory effect in liquid crystals.
Technical Paper

Low Friction Property and its Mechanism of DLC-Si Films Under Dry Sliding Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1015
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are of significant interest for the automobile field, because they possess the potential to improve friction properties under various sliding conditions. Among the various DLC films, the authors focus on silicon-containing DLC (DLC-Si) films, which exhibit extremely low friction coefficient under dry sliding conditions in an ambient air atmosphere. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of silicon content in DLC-Si films on the friction property of the films, and to clarify the low friction mechanism of the films. The friction test was conducted under dry sliding conditions. It was found that the films have an exceedingly low friction coefficient (about 0.05) ranging in silicon content from 4 at% to 17 at%. In order to examine the low friction mechanism of the films, surface analyses were done on the wear surface of DLC-Si films slid against bearing steel.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Deterioration of Nylon-66 Immersed in GTL Diesel Fuel Part 1. Analysis and Test of Nylon and GTL Diesel Fuel Before and After Immersion

2006-10-16
2006-01-3326
The effect of GTL diesel fuel on organic materials used in fuel delivery systems of vehicles was investigated. Specimens made from 16 kinds of organic materials were immersed in GTL diesel fuels synthesized at Refinery-A and Refinery-B (referred to as GTL-A and GTL-B, respectively) and then subjected to tensile testing. The tensile test results revealed that elongation of the nylon sample immersed in GTL-A was extremely small, about 4% of that of untreated nylon. In the light of this finding, the GTL diesel fuels and nylons before and after immersion test were analyzed in detail using about 20 analysis methods to determine the cause for poor elongation. The following points were found. (1) GTL-A consisted of low molecular-weight paraffins. (2) GTL-A had low molecular-weight i-paraffins. (3) The nylon immersed in GTL-A contained low molecular-weight paraffins. (4) The paraffins in the nylon immersed in GTL-A were richer in i-paraffins than the original GTL-A.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact, High Capacity AWD Coupling with DLC-Si Coated Electromagnetic Clutch

2006-04-03
2006-01-0820
We have developed a high capacity electromagnetic clutch by means of Si-containing diamond-like carbon (DLC-Si) coating. The durability of the new clutch is enhanced up to 8 times higher than that of the conventional one. Such a superior performance is due to several tribological properties of the DLC-Si film and micro morphology on the clutch surface. In particular, the DLC-Si plays a significant role in maintaining the groove shape of the clutch and giving sufficient friction in fluid, which is required for a drivetrain device. Besides, our deposition process (using direct current plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition) has afforded homogeneous DLC-Si-coated clutches in large quantities. These techniques have enabled us to reduce the number of clutch discs per coupling and achieve a more compact and higher capacity AWD coupling at a lower cost.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Three-Way-Catalyst

2006-04-03
2006-01-1061
In conventional gasoline engine vehicles, three-way catalysts are used to simultaneously remove HC, CO and NOx from the exhaust gas. The effectiveness of the catalyst to remove these harmful species depends strongly on the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. Deterioration of three-way catalyst results in a reduction in its purification activity and OSC (oxygen storage capacity). In this investigation, additive elements were used to enhance the durability and OSC of the catalyst support material. An optimized formulation of a CeO2-ZrO2 and a ZrO2 material was developed to have excellent durability, improved OSC, enhanced interaction between precious metals and support materials, and increase thermal stability. Using these newly developed support materials, catalysts with increased performance was designed.
Technical Paper

Fretting Fatigue Analysis in Rapidly Solidified Powder Aluminum Alloy

1998-02-23
980698
Fretting fatigue mechanism of rapidly solidified powder aluminum alloy has been studied by model tests and analysis using fracture mechanics. The factors which influences upon fretting scar formation and fatigue crack propagation were the main concerns in the present work. In order to investigate the mechanism of fretting scar formation in detail, fretting wear tests in which small amplitude oscillatory movement occurred in the contact region were carried out. Test results showed that the size of fretting scar increased with increasing tangential force coefficient. Characteristics of fretting fatigue crack propagation were analyzed using fracture mechanics. The fatigue limits under fretting conditions were estimated by connecting the applied stress intensity factor range calculated from applied cyclic stress and tangential force, with the threshold stress intensity factor range of small crack.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Oil Viscosity on Piston Ring and Cam Face Wear

1993-10-01
932782
The influence of engine oil viscosity on the wear of piston rings and cam faces has been investigated by fired engine tests using a radioisotope (RI) tracer technique. High-temperature and high-shear-rate (HTHS; 150°C, 1O6 s-1) viscosities of the experimental oils prepared are 2.2, 2.4, 2.6 and 3.1 mPa•s. At an oil temperature of 90°C the wear of piston rings and cam faces did not increase, even if the HTHS viscosity was lowered down to 2.2 mPa•s. However, both piston rings and cam faces exhibited an increase in wear below 2.4 mPa•s at 130°C. It was also recognized that valve train wear did not significantly increase with reducing viscosity in the motored engine tests at a temperature of 50°C. From these test results, it was suggested that the oil with the HTHS viscosity of 2.6 mPa•s sufficiently demonstrates the antiwear performance equivalent to that with around 3.0 mPa•s for application to piston rings and cam faces.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Type Oil Deterioration Sensor

1993-10-01
932840
According to the principle of pH measurement, an on-board type engine oil deterioration sensor has been developed. The developed sensor is composed of a Pb and oxidized stainless steel electrodes. The sensor signal shows a good linear relationship to the quasi-pH value of the oil. Especially in the region where the oil deterioration proceeds, the remaining basic additives in the oil is easily estimated from the sensor signal.
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