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Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalysts Enhanced NOx Purifying Activity

Growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. One of the key technologies is a new OSC material that has low surface area (SA) and high OSC performance. We enhanced the pyrochlore- ceria/zirconia (CZ) which has a very small SA. In order to enhance the heat resistance and promote the OSC reaction, we selected and optimized the additive element. This material showed high OSC performance especially in the temperature range of 400 degrees or less. Another key technology is washcoat structure that has high gas diffusivity by making connected pore in the washcoat (New pore forming technology).
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst with Improved NOx Conversion

Countries and regions around the world are tightening emissions regulations in reaction to the increasing awareness of environmental conservation. At the same time, growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. This catalyst incorporates rhodium (Rh) clusters with a particle size of several nanometers, and stabilized CeO2-ZrO2 solid-solution (CZ) with a pyrochlore crystal structure as a high-volume oxygen storage capacity (OSC) material with a slow O2 storage rate.
Technical Paper

Low Friction Property and its Mechanism of DLC-Si Films Under Dry Sliding Conditions

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are of significant interest for the automobile field, because they possess the potential to improve friction properties under various sliding conditions. Among the various DLC films, the authors focus on silicon-containing DLC (DLC-Si) films, which exhibit extremely low friction coefficient under dry sliding conditions in an ambient air atmosphere. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of silicon content in DLC-Si films on the friction property of the films, and to clarify the low friction mechanism of the films. The friction test was conducted under dry sliding conditions. It was found that the films have an exceedingly low friction coefficient (about 0.05) ranging in silicon content from 4 at% to 17 at%. In order to examine the low friction mechanism of the films, surface analyses were done on the wear surface of DLC-Si films slid against bearing steel.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Three-Way-Catalyst

In conventional gasoline engine vehicles, three-way catalysts are used to simultaneously remove HC, CO and NOx from the exhaust gas. The effectiveness of the catalyst to remove these harmful species depends strongly on the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. Deterioration of three-way catalyst results in a reduction in its purification activity and OSC (oxygen storage capacity). In this investigation, additive elements were used to enhance the durability and OSC of the catalyst support material. An optimized formulation of a CeO2-ZrO2 and a ZrO2 material was developed to have excellent durability, improved OSC, enhanced interaction between precious metals and support materials, and increase thermal stability. Using these newly developed support materials, catalysts with increased performance was designed.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction Behavior on Catalysts With Non-Thermal Plasma in Simulated Oxidizing Exhaust Gas

NOx reduction activity in an oxidizing exhaust gas was significantly improved by discharging non-thermal plasma and catalysts (plasma assisted catalysis). We investigated effective catalyst for plasma assisted catalysis in view of hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction(HC-SCR). Plasma assist was effective for γ-alumina and alkali or alkaline earth metals loaded zeolite and γ-alumina showed the highest NOx conversion among these catalysts. On the other hand, Plasma assist was not effective for Cu-ZSM-5 and Pt loaded catalyst. The NOx conversion for the plasma assisted γ-alumina decreased by formation of a deposit on the catalyst below 400°C. It is shown that indium loading on γ-alumina improved the NOx reduction activity and suppressed the degradation of the NOx reduction activity at 300°C with plasma assist.
Technical Paper

An Intelligent Catalyst

The catalyst of the crystalline ceramics known as a perovskite-type oxide was designed and controlled at the atomic level in order to create a new function for self-regeneration of precious metals in a usage ambience without auxiliary treatment. We have already reported that a catalyst with Pd supported on the perovskite-type oxide has higher activity than a catalyst with Pd supported on alumina. It was also found that Pd supported on the perovskite catalyst is finely dispersed [1, 2 and 3] The object of this study was to investigate the mechanism of self-regeneration by using hyper-analytical facilities. XAFS analysis, at SPring-8 (8 GeV), revealed that Pd is in six-fold coordinations with oxygen in a perovskite crystal, which indicating that Pd occupies the B site of the unit formula of ABO3 in the perovskite crystal structure under oxidation atmosphere.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional Surface Treatment for Car Air Conditioners

In order to improve corrosion resistance and thermal efficiency of the air conditioner evaporator, a coating which provides hydrophilicity was formed over the chromate coating. In addition, there has been greater demand for air with fewer smells. This report describes the cause of “dusty odor” and a method to reduce it. The dusty odor is caused by a little corrosion of the substrate aluminum. Hydrophilic coating film dissolves little by little in condensed water, and substrate aluminum is exposed. A method to prevent the odor was developed by forming a coating giving hydrophilicity and durability to the evaporator surface.
Technical Paper

Fretting Fatigue Analysis in Rapidly Solidified Powder Aluminum Alloy

Fretting fatigue mechanism of rapidly solidified powder aluminum alloy has been studied by model tests and analysis using fracture mechanics. The factors which influences upon fretting scar formation and fatigue crack propagation were the main concerns in the present work. In order to investigate the mechanism of fretting scar formation in detail, fretting wear tests in which small amplitude oscillatory movement occurred in the contact region were carried out. Test results showed that the size of fretting scar increased with increasing tangential force coefficient. Characteristics of fretting fatigue crack propagation were analyzed using fracture mechanics. The fatigue limits under fretting conditions were estimated by connecting the applied stress intensity factor range calculated from applied cyclic stress and tangential force, with the threshold stress intensity factor range of small crack.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Type Oil Deterioration Sensor

According to the principle of pH measurement, an on-board type engine oil deterioration sensor has been developed. The developed sensor is composed of a Pb and oxidized stainless steel electrodes. The sensor signal shows a good linear relationship to the quasi-pH value of the oil. Especially in the region where the oil deterioration proceeds, the remaining basic additives in the oil is easily estimated from the sensor signal.