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Technical Paper

Application of Models of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions to Spark Ignition Simulation

This report describes the implementation of the spark channel short circuit and blow-out submodels, which were described in the previous report, into a spark ignition model. The spark channel which is modeled by a particle series is elongated by moving individual spark particles along local gas flows. The equation of the spark channel resistance developed by Kim et al. is modified in order to describe the behavior of the current and the voltage in high flow velocity conditions and implemented into the electrical circuit model of the electrical inductive system of the spark plug. Input parameters of the circuit model are the following: initial discharge energy, inductance, internal resistance and capacitance of the spark plug, and the spark channel length obtained by the spark channel model. The instantaneous discharge current and the voltage are obtained as outputs of the circuit model.
Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalysts Enhanced NOx Purifying Activity

Growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. One of the key technologies is a new OSC material that has low surface area (SA) and high OSC performance. We enhanced the pyrochlore- ceria/zirconia (CZ) which has a very small SA. In order to enhance the heat resistance and promote the OSC reaction, we selected and optimized the additive element. This material showed high OSC performance especially in the temperature range of 400 degrees or less. Another key technology is washcoat structure that has high gas diffusivity by making connected pore in the washcoat (New pore forming technology).
Journal Article

Typical Velocity Fields and Vortical Structures around a Formula One Car, based on Experimental Investigations using Particle Image Velocimetry

This paper presents typical flow structures around a 60%-scale wind-tunnel model of a Formula One (F1) car, using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). The customized PIV system is permanently installed in a wind tunnel to help aerodynamicists in the development loop. The PIV results enhance the understanding of the mean velocity field in the two-dimensional plane in some important areas of the car, such as the front-wheel wake and the underfloor flow. These real phenomena obtained in the wind tunnel also help maintain the accuracy of simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by allowing regular checking of the correlation with the real-world counterpart. This paper first surveys recent literature on unique flow structures around the rotating exposed wheel, mostly that on the isolated wheel, and then gives the background to F1 aerodynamics in the late 2000s.
Journal Article

Backward Flow of Hot Burned Gas Surrounding High-Pressure Diesel Spray Flame from Multi-hole Nozzle

The backward flow of the hot burned gas surrounding a diesel flame was found to be one of the factors dominating the set-off length (also called the lift-off length), that is, the distance from a nozzle exit into which a diffusion flame cannot intrude. In the combustion chamber of an actual diesel engine, the entrainment of the surrounding gas into a spray jet from a multi-hole nozzle is restricted by the walls and adjacent spray jets, which induces the backward flow of the surrounding gas. A new momentum theory to calculate the backward flow velocity was established by extending Wakuri's momentum theory. Shadowgraph imaging in an optical engine successfully visualized the backward flow of the hot burned gas.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst with Improved NOx Conversion

Countries and regions around the world are tightening emissions regulations in reaction to the increasing awareness of environmental conservation. At the same time, growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. This catalyst incorporates rhodium (Rh) clusters with a particle size of several nanometers, and stabilized CeO2-ZrO2 solid-solution (CZ) with a pyrochlore crystal structure as a high-volume oxygen storage capacity (OSC) material with a slow O2 storage rate.
Journal Article

Cooling Loss Reduction of Highly Dispersed Spray Combustion with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flow in Diesel Engine

In diesel engines with a straight intake port and a lipless cavity to restrict in-cylinder flow, an injector with numerous small-diameter orifices with a narrow angle can be used to create a highly homogeneous air-fuel mixture that, during PCCI combustion, dramatically reduces the NOX and soot without the addition of expensive new devices. To further improve this new combustion concept, this research focused on cooling losses, which are generally thought to account for 16 to 35% of the total energy of the fuel, and approaches to reducing fuel consumption were explored. First, to clarify the proportions of convective heat transfer and radiation in the cooling losses, a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was used to measure the local heat flux and radiation to the combustion chamber wall. The results showed that though larger amounts of injected fuel increased the proportion of heat losses from radiation, the primary factor in cooling losses is convective heat transfer.
Journal Article

Injection Nozzle Coking Mechanism in Common-rail Diesel Engine

The hole diameter of injection nozzles in diesel engines has become smaller and the nozzle coking could potentially cause injection characteristics and emissions to deteriorate. In this research, engine tests with zinc-added fuels, deposit analyses, laboratory tests and numerical calculations were carried out to clarify the deposit formation mechanisms. In the initial phase of deposit formation, lower zinc carboxylate formed close to the nozzle hole outlet by reactions between zinc in the fuel and lower carboxylic acid in the combustion gas. In the subsequent growth phase, the main component changed to zinc carbonate close to nozzle hole inlet by reactions with CO₂ in the combustion gas. Metal components and combustion gases are essential elements in the composition of these deposits. One way of removing these deposits is to utilize cavitations inside the nozzle holes.
Journal Article

Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows

A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity. Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulation for Designing Next Generation TWC System with Detailed Chemistry

A one-dimensional (1-D) micro-kinetic reaction model with considering mass transport inside porous washcoat was developed to promote an effective development of multi-functional catalysts. The validation of this model has been done successfully through the comparison with a set of basic experiments. A numerical simulation study was conducted for the various catalyst configurations of three-way catalysts under Federal Test Procedure (FTP75) condition. It was found that a double layer type had a significant advantage in the total mass emissions, especially in NOx emissions. The reaction mechanisms in these catalysts were numerically clarified from the view point of detailed reaction dynamics. We concluded that the utilization of the numerical simulation with the detailed chemistry was effective for the optimization of catalyst design.
Journal Article

Emissions Reduction Potential of Extremely High Boost and High EGR Rate for an HSDI Diesel Engine and the Reduction Mechanisms of Exhaust Emissions

The effects of an increasing boost pressure, a high EGR rate and a high injection pressure on exhaust emissions from an HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engine were examined. The mechanisms were then investigated with both in-cylinder observations and 3DCFD coupled with ϕT-map analysis. Under a high-load condition, increasing the charging efficiency combined with a high injection pressure and a high EGR rate is an effective way to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously, which realized an ultra low NOx of 16ppm at 1.7MPa of IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure). The flame temperature with low NOx and low soot emissions is decreased by 260K from that with conventional emissions. Also, the distribution of the fuel-air mixture plot on a ϕT-map is moved away from the NOx and soot formation peninsula, compared to the conventional emissions case.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst

In order to enhance the catalytic performance of the NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst (NSR Catalyst), the sulfur tolerance of the NSR catalyst was improved by developing new support and NOx storage materials. The support material was developed by nano-particle mixing of ZrO2-TiO2 and Al2O3 in order to increase the Al2O3-TiO2 interface and to prevent the ZrO2-TiO2 phase from sintering. A Ba-Ti oxide composite material was also developed as a new NOx storage material containing highly dispersed Ba. It was confirmed that the sulfur tolerance and activity of the developed NSR catalyst are superior to that of the conventional one.
Technical Paper

A Molecular Dynamics Analysis of the Traction Fluids

Non-equilibrium all-atom MD simulations are used to study the traction properties of hydrocarbon fluids. A fluid layer is confined between two solid Fe plates under the constant normal force of 1.0 GPa. Traction simulations are performed by applying a relative sliding motion to the Fe plates. Shear behaviors of nine hydrocarbon fluids are simulated on a sufficiently large film thickness of 6.7 nm, and succeeded in reproducing the order of the experimental traction coefficients. The dynamic mechanism of the momentum transfer on layers of fluid molecules are analyzed focusing on the intermolecular interactions (density profile, orientation factor, pair-correlation function) and intramolecular interactions (intramolecular interaction energy, conformation change of alicyclic ring). In contrast to the case of n-hexane, which shows low traction due to a fragile chain-like interaction, other mechanisms are obtained in the high traction molecules of cyclohexane, dicyclohexyl and santotrac 50.
Technical Paper

Stereo Vision System for Advanced Vehicle Safety System

In this paper, we will introduce a stereo vision system developed as a sensor for a vehicle's front monitor. This system consists of three parts; namely, a stereo camera that collects video images of the forward view of the vehicle, a stereo ECU that processes its output image, and a near-infrared floodlight for illuminating the front at night. We were able to develop an obstacle detection function for the Pre-Crash Safety System and also a traffic lane detection function for a Lane-Keeping Assist System. Especially in regard to the obstacle detection function, we were able to achieve real-time processing of the disparity image calculations that had formerly required long processing times by using two types of recently developed LSIs.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel PCI Combustion Controlled by In-Cylinder Stratification of Ignitability

A concept of dual-fuel, Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) combustion controlled by two fuels with different ignitability has been developed to achieve drastically low NOx and smoke emissions. In this system, isooctane, which was used to represent high-octane gasoline, was supplied from an intake port and diesel fuel was injected directly into an engine cylinder at early timing as ignition trigger. It was found that the ignition timing of this PCI combustion can be controlled by changing the ratio of amounts of injected two fuels and combustion proceeds very mildly by making spatial stratifications of ignitability in the cylinder even without EGR, as preventing the whole mixture from igniting simultaneously. The operable range of load, where NOx and smoke were less than 10ppm and 0.1 FSN, respectively, was extended up to 1.2MPa of IMEP using an intake air boosting system together with dual fueling.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Three-Way-Catalyst

In conventional gasoline engine vehicles, three-way catalysts are used to simultaneously remove HC, CO and NOx from the exhaust gas. The effectiveness of the catalyst to remove these harmful species depends strongly on the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. Deterioration of three-way catalyst results in a reduction in its purification activity and OSC (oxygen storage capacity). In this investigation, additive elements were used to enhance the durability and OSC of the catalyst support material. An optimized formulation of a CeO2-ZrO2 and a ZrO2 material was developed to have excellent durability, improved OSC, enhanced interaction between precious metals and support materials, and increase thermal stability. Using these newly developed support materials, catalysts with increased performance was designed.
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Fuel Spray and Mixture Formation from Nozzle Internal Flow Calculation

A series calculation methodology from the injector nozzle internal flow to the in-cylinder fuel spray and mixture formation in a diesel engine was developed. The present method was applied to a valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle with the recent common rail injector system. The nozzle internal flow calculation using an Eulerian three-fluid model and a cavitation model was performed. The needle valve movement during the injection period was taken into account in this calculation. Inside the nozzle hole, cavitation appears at the nozzle hole inlet edge, and the cavitation region separates into two regions due to a secondary flow in the cross section, and it is distributed to the nozzle exit. Unsteady change of the secondary flow caused by needle movement affects the cavitation distribution in the nozzle hole, and the spread angle of the velocity vector at the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction Behavior on Catalysts With Non-Thermal Plasma in Simulated Oxidizing Exhaust Gas

NOx reduction activity in an oxidizing exhaust gas was significantly improved by discharging non-thermal plasma and catalysts (plasma assisted catalysis). We investigated effective catalyst for plasma assisted catalysis in view of hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction(HC-SCR). Plasma assist was effective for γ-alumina and alkali or alkaline earth metals loaded zeolite and γ-alumina showed the highest NOx conversion among these catalysts. On the other hand, Plasma assist was not effective for Cu-ZSM-5 and Pt loaded catalyst. The NOx conversion for the plasma assisted γ-alumina decreased by formation of a deposit on the catalyst below 400°C. It is shown that indium loading on γ-alumina improved the NOx reduction activity and suppressed the degradation of the NOx reduction activity at 300°C with plasma assist.
Technical Paper

First Order Analysis for Automotive Body Structure Design - Part 3: Crashworthiness Analysis Using Beam Elements

We have proposed First Order Analysis (FOA) as a method, which the engineering designers themselves can use easily in an initial design stage. In this paper, we focus on the crashworthiness, and present the method to predict the collapse behavior of the frame member. This method is divided into two parts. Those are (1) collapse analysis under loading conditions of combined axial force and bending moment to the cantilever, and (2) collapse analysis of structural member considering the previously obtained moment - rotation angle relationship using the beam element. In comparison with the results according to the detailed Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model, effectiveness and validity of this method are presented.
Technical Paper

Stratification Features of Swirl Nozzle Sprays and Slit Nozzle Spray in DI Gasoline Combustion

The stratification feature of DI gasoline combustion was studied by using a constant volume combustion vessel. An index of stratification degree, defined as volumetric burning velocity, has been proposed based on the thermodynamic analysis of the indicated pressure data. The burning feature analysis using this stratification degree and the fuel vapor concentration measurement using He-Ne laser ray absorption method were carried out for the swirl nozzle spray with 90° cone angle and the slit nozzle spray with 60° fan angle. Ambient pressure and ambient temperature were changed from atmospheric condition to 0.5∼0.6 MPa and 465 K, respectively. Air Swirl with swirl ratio of 0∼1.0 were added for the 90° swirl nozzle spray. Single component fuels with different volatility and self-ignitability from each other were used besides gasoline fuel. The major findings are as follows. High ambient temperature improves stratification degree due to the enhanced fuel vaporization and vapor diffusion.
Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Simulation of Slit Nozzle Injector for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

In direct-injection (DI) gasoline engines, spray characteristics greatly affect engine combustion. For the rapid development of new gasoline direct-injectors, it is necessary to predict the spray characteristics accurately by numerical analysis based on the injector nozzle geometry. In this study, two-phase flow inside slit nozzle injectors is calculated using the volume of fluid method in a three-dimensional CFD. The calculation results are directly applied to the boundary conditions of spray calculations, of which the submodels are recently developed to predict spray formation process in direct injection gasoline engines. The calculation results are compared with the experiments. Good agreements are obtained for typical spray characteristics such as spray shape, penetration and Sauter mean diameter at both low and high ambient pressures. Two slit nozzle injectors of which the slit thickness is different are compared.