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Technical Paper

Spark Plug Fouling: Behavior and Countermeasure

The higher compression ratio engines, two-stroke engines and flexible fuel vehicles currently under development tend to face the problems of spark plug fouling owing to the necessity of using cold type spark plugs. This paper analyzes the sparking of fouled spark plugs and investigates the characteristics required of an ignition system in order to avoid fouling problems. The results clearly establish that to maintain a strong spark even when the plug is fouled, a high voltage should be instantaneously applied to the spark plug. A series-gap on the high-tension side was confirmed to be an effective means of achieving this and a new plug cap provided with a series-gap has resolved fouling problems such as failure to start. Lately, fuel economy and long-term energy conservation have become critically important. For automobiles, higher compression ratio engines, two-stroke engines and flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are being developed.
Technical Paper

Detection of Higher Frequency Vibration to improve Knock Controllability

For a Knock Control System (KCS) with a vibration sensor mounted on the engine block, means of improving the ratio of knock signal to engine vibration noise are discussed. From analyses of cylinder pressure and engine block vibration spectrums, it is shown that noise is lower in the second knock resonance frequency. The development of a resonance type knock sensor detecting this higher frequency is described. A new KCS utilizing this sensor is evaluated and found to improve knock controllability, especially in engines with a high compression ratio or supercharging.
Technical Paper

Key Factors of Fuel Injection System to Draw Out Good Response in 4-Valve Engine

Fuel and air behavior in the induction passage of a 4-valve engine were investigated in order to improve response at low and medium engine speeds. It was found that response is affected not only by wall vetting but also by fuel being pushed back into the intake manifold and by a lack of fuel which occurs during the transient. Futhermore, fuel-air mixing was found to be insufficient at certain injection timings, resulting in poor combustion and a consequent increase in exhaust emission and fuel consumption. This paper describes the factors of the fuel injection system which are critical for optimum response. Recommendations are made for injector location and injection timing and a proposal is put forward for a system of compensatory fuel injection to improve combustion efficiency during acceleration.
Technical Paper

High Efficiency Supercharger Increases Engine Output, Reduces Fuel Consumption Through Computer Control

Efficiency of a supercharger mainly depends on the clearances between the rotors and the housing, but it has hitherto proved impossible to reduce the clearances without a strong possibility of seizure. A two lobe Roots type supercharger has been developed which overcomes this problem by means of a special resin coating on the rotors. As a result, an increase of 18% in volumetric efficiency of the supercharger is achieved. Engine torque is increased by 30%. Drive power loss resulting from the operation of a supercharger at partial load when boost was not required caused fuel consumption to increase by about 10%. An electro magnetic clutch and an air by-pass valve controlled by the onboard computer were used in the new supercharger to eliminate this fuel economy loss. A passenger car equipped with the new supercharged 2-liter engine demonstrated about the same acceleration performance as a 3-liter class car without sacrificing fuel economy.