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Technical Paper

Has Electronic Stability Control Reduced Rollover Crashes?

Vehicle rollovers are one of the more severe crash modes in the US - accounting for 32% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities annually. One design enhancement to help prevent rollovers is Electronic Stability Control (ESC) which can reduce loss of control and thus has great promise to enhance vehicle safety. The objectives of this research were (1) to estimate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing the number of rollover crashes and (2) to identify cases in which ESC did not prevent the rollover to potentially advance additional ESC development. All passenger vehicles and light trucks and vans that experienced a rollover from 2006 to 2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) were analyzed. Each rollover was assigned a crash scenario based on the crash type, pre-crash maneuver, and pre-crash events.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions.
Technical Paper

Development of an Emergency Stop Assist System

Social concern with traffic accidents caused by driver’s medical emergencies has been growing for the last several years. In Japan, the government issued technical guidelines in June 2016 to promote systems that deal with such accidents. Based on those guidelines, the Emergency Stop Assist system was manufactured in October 2017 to help reduce such accidents. This article first describes its purpose and core design, then presents an overview of the system, and finally discusses its effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
Journal Article

Analysis of Driver Kinematics and Lower Thoracic Spine Injury in World Endurance Championship Race Cars during Frontal Impacts

This study used finite element (FE) simulations to analyze the injury mechanisms of driver spine fracture during frontal crashes in the World Endurance Championship (WEC) series and possible countermeasures are suggested to help reduce spine fracture risk. This FE model incorporated the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) scaled to a driver, a model of the detailed racecar cockpit and a model of the seat/restraint systems. A frontal impact deceleration pulse was applied to the cockpit model. In the simulation, the driver chest moved forward under the shoulder belt and the pelvis was restrained by the crotch belt and the leg hump. The simulation predicted spine fracture at T11 and T12. It was found that a combination of axial compression force and bending moment at the spine caused the fractures. The axial compression force and bending moment were generated by the shoulder belt down force as the driver’s chest moved forward.
Technical Paper

Development of High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage System for the Toyota “Mirai”

The new Toyota FCV “Mirai” has reduced the weight, size, and cost of the high-pressure hydrogen storage system while improving fueling performance. The four 70 MPa tanks used on the 2008 Toyota FCHV-adv were reduced to two new larger diameter tanks. The laminated structure of the tanks was optimized to reduce weight, and a high-strength low-cost carbon fiber material was newly developed and adopted. The size of the high-pressure valve was reduced by improving its structure and a high-pressure sensor from a conventional vehicle was modified for use in a high-pressure hydrogen atmosphere. These innovations helped to improve the weight of the whole storage system by approximately 15% in comparison with Toyota FCHV-adv, while reducing the number of component parts by half and substantially reducing cost. The time required to fuel the FCV was greatly reduced by chilling the filling gas temperature at the hydrogen filling station to −40°C (as per SAE J2601).
Journal Article

Thermal Flow Analysis of Hybrid Transaxle Surface Using Newly-Developed Heat Flux Measurement Method

This research developed a new measurement technology for thermal analysis of the heat radiation from a hybrid transaxle case surface to the air and improved the heat radiation performance. This heat flux measurement technology provides the method to measure heat flux without wiring of sensors. The method does not have effects of wiring on the temperature field and the flow field unlike the conventional methods. Therefore, multipoint measurement of heat flux on the case surface was enabled, and the distribution of heat flux was quantified. To measure heat flux, thermal resistances made of plastic plates were attached to the case surface and the infrared thermography was used for the temperature measurement. The preliminary examination was performed to confirm the accuracy of the thermal evaluation through heat flux measurement. The oil in the transaxle was heated and the amount of heat radiation from the case surface was measured.
Technical Paper

Benefit Estimation Method for Lane Departure Warning Systems in the American Traffic Environment

We develop a simulation tool which reproduces lane departure crashes for the purpose of estimating potential benefits of Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems in the American traffic environment. Tools that allow a fast evaluation of active safety systems are useful to make better systems, more effective in the real world; however accuracy of the results is always an issue. Our proposed approach is based on developing a simulation tool that reproduces lane departure crashes, then adding the effect of the LDW to compare the cases with and without the safety system, and finally comparing the results of different settings of the safety system. Here, the accurate reproduction of the relevant crashes determines the reliability of the results. In this paper, we present the reproduction of the lane departure crashes occurred in American roads in one year, by using data distributions obtained from retrospective crash databases.
Technical Paper

Development of New AMT Shift Speed Control System for Lexus LFA

The development of the Lexus LFA focused on the pursuit of a passionate driving experience suitable for a super sports car. The shift speed control system in the LFA is an automated manual transmission (AMT) that uses an electrohydraulic actuator. The excellent shifting performance of the AMT was achieved by developing control technology that performs smooth, quick, and highly responsive shifting in accordance with the driving conditions. This was the result of repeated evaluations in both normal driving and on circuits featuring many acceleration, deceleration, and high-speed driving sectors. This paper describes the AMT shift speed control system and technology.
Technical Paper

Safety Impact Methodology (SIM) for Effectiveness Estimation of a Pre-Collision System (PCS) by Utilizing Driving Simulator Test and EDR Data Analysis

Pre-collision system (PCS) that basically consists of warning buzzer, brake-assist and automatic brake functions is designed to help mitigate injury occurring in frontal impacts where preceding vehicles are impacted from the rear. Since the benefit of each function is influenced by drivers' reaction before collision, it is difficult to estimate quantitative effectiveness for improvement. This paper proposes an approach to establish a Safety Impact Methodology (SIM) for the effectiveness estimation of a PCS by utilizing driving simulator (DS) test results and Event Data Recorder (EDR) data. The estimation procedure consists of four steps. Firstly, the PCS functions were modeled as linear transfer functions with gain, delay, etc. Test vehicle's properties were measured and modeled as an example. Secondly, the transfer functions were applied to each DS test result, and the speed reduction from travel speed to impact speed was calculated by the model assuming that PCS was installed.
Technical Paper

Toyota's World First 8-Speed Automatic Transmission for Passenger Cars

TOYOTA has developed the world's first eight-speed automatic transmission (AA80E) for front-engine, rear-drive passenger cars. The AA80E developed for high-torque engines raises the level of power performance and fuel efficiency. To meet the size requirements needed for mounting in a passenger car application, an 8-speed geartrain, torque converter, transmission case and hydraulic control device were all newly-developed. Furthermore, the AA80E has benefited from technical developments to achieve an extremely high level of quietness and shifting performance. In this paper, the details of the AA80E are introduced.
Technical Paper

Structural and Material Changes in the Aging Thorax and Their Role in Crash Protection for Older Occupants

The human body undergoes a variety of changes as it ages through adulthood. These include both morphological (structural) changes (e.g., increased thoracic kyphosis) and material changes (e.g., osteoporosis). The purpose of this study is to evaluate structural changes that occur in the aging bony thorax and to assess the importance of these changes relative to the well-established material changes. The study involved two primary components. First, full-thorax computed tomography (CT) scans of 161 patients, age 18 to 89 years, were analyzed to quantify the angle of the ribs in the sagittal plane. A significant association between the angle of the ribs and age was identified, with the ribs becoming more perpendicular to the spine as age increased (0.08 degrees/year, p=0.012). Next, a finite element model of the thorax was used to evaluate the importance of this rib angle change relative to other factors associated with aging.
Technical Paper

Development of New Brake Control System With Gear Pump Modulator

In recent years, there has been a growing need for excellent automobile safety. The number of vehicle with active safety systems such as ABS, Brake Assist and VSC (Vehicle Stability Control) is dramatically increasing. A current brake control systems tend to generate activating noise and uncomfortable brake pedal feeling, which they have to restrain its positive use during ordinary braking. To improve this point, a new brake control system has been developed. This paper introduces the configuration, functions and effects of the system. The new hydraulic modulator adopts a gear pump (trochoid pump) and linear solenoid valves. This allows the modulator to be controlled silently and smoothly. As a result, it becomes possible to apply hydraulic pressure in the normal operating range at any time and a high level of performance is realized. Several new benefits were added to the current control system.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst

In order to further improve the performance of NOx storage-reduction catalysts (NSR catalysts), focus was placed on their high temperature performance deterioration via sulfur poisoning and heat deterioration. The reactions between the basicity or acidity of supports and the storage element, potassium, were analyzed. It was determined that the high temperature performance of NSR catalysts is enhanced by the interaction between potassium and zirconia, which is a basic metal oxide. Also, a new zirconia-titania complex metal oxides was developed to improve high temperature performance and to promote the desorption of sulfur from the supports after aging.
Technical Paper

A tibial mid-shaft injury mechanism in frontal automotive crashes

Lower extremity injuries in frontal automotive crashes usually occur with footwell intrusion where both the knee and foot are constrained. In order to identify factors associated with tibial shaft injury, a series of numerical simulations were conducted using a finite element model of the whole human body. These simulations demonstrated that tibial mid-shaft injuries in frontal crashes could be caused by an abrupt change in velocity and a high rate of footwell intrusion.
Technical Paper

Body Electronics Area Network (BEAN)

This paper describes the multiplex communication protocol, BEAN (Body Electronics Area Network), developed for body control system on passenger cars which in recent years has increased the scope of multiplex communication. BEAN is based on a protocol developed in 1992 (SAE920231) but expands upon the performance in areas, such as the suitability of the ID system for increase of ECUs, the variable data length enabling the transmission of diagnostic data, and the transmission rate, while keeping the cost and radiation noise level low. The software size of BEAN is compact enough to be implemented by general purpose 8bit MCUs which have recently seen improvements in performance. The BEAN communication devices are available corresponding to the scale of the application and configuration of the ECU taking into account the software capability. This protocol was evaluated using simulation with the body control system on luxury passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Side Impact Phenomena Using MADYMO-3D DOT-SID Dummy

In the present investigation, a numerical model of side impact dummy (DOT-SID) is developed using TNO's MADYMO-3D multi-body features. During the model construction phases, relevant dummy components are individually modeled and are verified against empirical test results. The completed DOT-SID model is then integrated into a padded impactor model to simulate secondary-impact. Computations are run for several input force-deflection distributions, in conjunction with other parameters. From the results, occupant responses to various thoracic input are quantitatively sought, and the effectiveness of the MADYMO DOT-SID model as a vehicle development tool is assessed.
Technical Paper

Super Olefin Polymer for Material Consolidation of Automotive Interior Plastic Parts

A new automotive interior component material, TSOP-5 has been developed by refining the technology utilized to develop TSOP-1, the high modulus and high flow material for bumper covers. This new interior component material has excellent molding capability (MI=30dg/min.) yet still maintains high impact resistance which enables the material to be used in areas such as the dash board as well as trim covers requiring to meet the FMVSS 214, the new side impact regulation or the FMVSS 201, the new soft upper trim regulation.
Technical Paper

Development of Optical Space- Vision Instrumentation

High visibility electronic analog instruments with the blackface lens, lighting up pointers, and back lit dials are used in increasing number for automotive instrumentation. Now, we have developed a new instrument called Optical Space-Vision Instrumentation incorporating the above electronic analog instrument with virtual image by double reflection mechanism. The purpose of this development is to reduce reading time through far-focus and to improve visibility through high contrast. As part of this instrumentation, we also developed a new pointer that uses fluorescent material without a light-emitting element. This paper describes the construction and the engineering technology associated with this instrumentation. According to our test results, this instrument has realized a shorter reading time and higher contrast.
Technical Paper

A Driver-Side Airbag System Using a Mechanical Firing Microminiature Sensor

By developing a mechanical-firing sensor using rotational inertia effect, we have completed miniaturization of the sensor and have developed a new-type mechanical-firing airbag system. This airbag system has been confirmed to have superior occupant protection performance after conducting a variety of vehicle crash tests and sled tests.