Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Journal Article

Friction Coefficient Variation Mechanism under Wet Condition in Disk Brake (Variation Mechanism Contributing Wet Wear Debris)

2016-09-18
2016-01-1943
This paper deals with friction under wet condition in the disk brake system of automobiles. In our previous study, the variation of friction coefficient μ was observed under wet condition. And it was experimentally found that μ becomes high when wear debris contains little moisture. Based on the result, in this paper, we propose a hypothesis that agglomerates composed of the wet wear debris induce the μ variation as the agglomerates are jammed in the gaps between the friction surfaces of a brake pad and a disk rotor. For supporting the hypothesis, firstly, we measure the friction property of the wet wear debris, and confirm that the capillary force under the pendular state is a factor contributing to the μ variation. After that, we simulate the wear debris behavior with or without the capillary force using the particle-based simulation. We prepare the simulation model for the friction surfaces which contribute to the friction force through the wear debris.
Technical Paper

Anti- Combustion Deposit Fuel Development for 2009 Toyota Formula One Racing Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1983
Toyota participated in Formula One1 (F1) Racing from 2002 to 2009. As a result of the downturn in the world economy, various engine developments within F1 were restricted in order to reduce the cost of competing in F1. The limit on the maximum number of engines allowed has decreased year by year. Toyota focused on the engine performance deterioration due to the combustion chamber deposits. In 2009, Toyota was successful in reducing around 40% of the deterioration by making combustion chamber cleaner in cooperation with ExxonMobil. This contributed to good result of 2009 F1 season for Toyota, including two second place finishes.
Technical Paper

Research into All Solid Secondary Lithium Battery

2011-05-17
2011-39-7234
It may be possible to simplify the structure and control systems of a lithium-ion battery by replacing the conventional liquid electrolyte with a solid electrolyte, resulting in higher energy density. However, power performance is a development issue of batteries using a solid electrolyte. To increase battery power performance, in addition to lithium ionic conductivity within the bulk of the electrolyte, it is also necessary to boost the lithium ionic conductivity at the interface between the electrode active material and the electrolyte, and to boost electron and lithium ionic conductivity within the cathode and anode active material. This research studied the mechanism of resistance reduction by electrode surface modification. Subsequently, this research attempted to improve electron conductivity by simultaneously introducing oxygen vacancies and carrying out nitrogen substitution in the crystalline structure of the Li4Ti5O12 anode active material.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction on Rough Road Using Full Vehicle Co-simulation Model with Suspension Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0952
A full vehicle multi-body dynamic (MBD) model with suspension control system is developed for fatigue life prediction under rough road condition. The model consists of tires, a trimmed body, heavy attached parts, powertrain, suspension, joints, and a driver model, and includes a suspension control system that varies characteristics of the suspension according to the rough road inputs. For tires, a commercial MBD tire model is employed with identifiable parameters. The models are simulated to run on the optically measured road surface of the proving ground. Apart from the trimmed body, several important heavy attached parts are modeled separately, that represent dynamic behavior that induces complex body input load. These parts, along with suspension and powertrain systems are connected to the body using nonlinear elements such as joints, springs, and dampers. Contact conditions are used to represent mount bushing, hood lock, stopper rubber, etc.
Journal Article

Analysis of Oxidative Deterioration of Biodiesel Fuel

2008-10-06
2008-01-2502
Methyl esters of saturated/unsaturated higher aliphatic acids (FAMEs) and a FAME of waste cooking oil (WCOME) were heated at 120°C in an air gas flow. The samples were analyzed before and after heating, using six different methods including electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. As a result, the samples after heating were found to contain low molecular weight aliphatic compounds and oligomers of the FAME. Based on the chemical structure of these oxidation products, reaction schemes were proposed for the deterioration of FAMEs. In addition, two unsaturated FAMEs containing 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol (BHT) were similarly heated and analyzed to examine the effect of BHT on the oxidation of these FAME.
Technical Paper

Wear Analysis of DLC Coating in Oil Containing Mo-DTC

2007-07-23
2007-01-1969
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating has excellent properties like high hardness and low friction. So it has attracted considerable attention in recent years as a low-friction coating material. However, some DLC coatings display increased wear in oil containing Mo-DTC (Molybdenum-dithiocarbamates). Wear analyses of sliding surface after block-on-ring tests were conducted suggest that the decomposition product from Mo-DTC, MoO3, reacts with active sites in the DLC to promote the wear of DLC.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Deterioration of Nylon-66 Immersed in GTL Diesel Fuel Part 1. Analysis and Test of Nylon and GTL Diesel Fuel Before and After Immersion

2006-10-16
2006-01-3326
The effect of GTL diesel fuel on organic materials used in fuel delivery systems of vehicles was investigated. Specimens made from 16 kinds of organic materials were immersed in GTL diesel fuels synthesized at Refinery-A and Refinery-B (referred to as GTL-A and GTL-B, respectively) and then subjected to tensile testing. The tensile test results revealed that elongation of the nylon sample immersed in GTL-A was extremely small, about 4% of that of untreated nylon. In the light of this finding, the GTL diesel fuels and nylons before and after immersion test were analyzed in detail using about 20 analysis methods to determine the cause for poor elongation. The following points were found. (1) GTL-A consisted of low molecular-weight paraffins. (2) GTL-A had low molecular-weight i-paraffins. (3) The nylon immersed in GTL-A contained low molecular-weight paraffins. (4) The paraffins in the nylon immersed in GTL-A were richer in i-paraffins than the original GTL-A.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Deterioration of Nylon-66 Immersed in GTL Diesel Fuel Part 2. Analysis of Model Fuel and Nylon Before and After Immersion

2006-10-16
2006-01-3327
In a previous paper (Part 1 of this series), nylon-66 specimens were immersed in two GTL diesel fuels (GTL-A and GTL-B) and then subjected to tensile testing. The tensile test results revealed that the elongation of the specimen immersed in GTL-A was dramatically reduced. The GTL diesel fuels and nylon specimens before and after immersion were analyzed to determine the cause of the decline in elongation. It was found that the poor elongation was caused by penetration and oxidation of low molecular-weight paraffins and that the ease of penetration and oxidation of paraffin depended on the structure of paraffin. In this paper, the low molecular-weight paraffins detected in GTL-A were mixed to produce model fuels. Then, pieces of nylon cut from the tensile test specimen, were immersed in the model fuels. In addition, partial oxidation products of the paraffin (alcohol, aldehyde or ketone and acid) were used in immersion tests of the nylon pieces.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Three-Way-Catalyst

2006-04-03
2006-01-1061
In conventional gasoline engine vehicles, three-way catalysts are used to simultaneously remove HC, CO and NOx from the exhaust gas. The effectiveness of the catalyst to remove these harmful species depends strongly on the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. Deterioration of three-way catalyst results in a reduction in its purification activity and OSC (oxygen storage capacity). In this investigation, additive elements were used to enhance the durability and OSC of the catalyst support material. An optimized formulation of a CeO2-ZrO2 and a ZrO2 material was developed to have excellent durability, improved OSC, enhanced interaction between precious metals and support materials, and increase thermal stability. Using these newly developed support materials, catalysts with increased performance was designed.
Technical Paper

Development of New Manual Transmission Gear Oil for Fuel Economy

2005-05-11
2005-01-2182
We developed a new Manual Transmission Gear Oil (MTF) named LV for improved fuel economy and CO2 reduction. MTF LV is a low viscosity fluid to reduce stir losses at lower temperatures. In general, low viscosity fluids can cause metal fatigue, wear and seizure. The MTF LV was designed to overcome these problems by maintaining the oil film thickness after it is deteriorated and improving the wear characteristics with additives. As a result, the MTF LV provides equal or better durability than the current MTF. In addition, it also has good performance at low temperatures, better shift feeling characteristics, and improved oxidation stability.
Technical Paper

Development of New Automatic Transmission Fluid for Fuel Economy

2003-10-27
2003-01-3258
It is important to reduce the viscosity of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) in order to improve fuel economy. However, in general, low viscosity fluid can cause metal fatigue, wear, and seizure. It is necessary to increase the viscosity of the fluid at higher temperatures to maintain the durability of the automatic transmission (AT). The key point is the selection of the base oil and the viscosity index improver (VII) with both a high viscosity index (VI) and excellent shear stability. On the basis of this concept, a new generation high performance ATF named WS was developed. WS can achieve the highest level of fuel economy, while maintaining the durability of the AT.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst

2002-03-04
2002-01-0732
In order to further improve the performance of NOx storage-reduction catalysts (NSR catalysts), focus was placed on their high temperature performance deterioration via sulfur poisoning and heat deterioration. The reactions between the basicity or acidity of supports and the storage element, potassium, were analyzed. It was determined that the high temperature performance of NSR catalysts is enhanced by the interaction between potassium and zirconia, which is a basic metal oxide. Also, a new zirconia-titania complex metal oxides was developed to improve high temperature performance and to promote the desorption of sulfur from the supports after aging.
Technical Paper

Development of Planar Oxygen Sensor

2001-03-05
2001-01-0228
In preparation for compliance with California's SULEV standard and Euro STAGE 4 standard, which will take effect in 2002 and 2005, respectively, we have developed a laminated planar oxygen sensor. The developed sensor has the following characteristics: high thermal conductivity and superior dielectric characteristic, due to direct joining of the heater element alumina substrate and the sensor element zirconia electrolyte; low heat stress at temperature rise, due to optimized heater design; superior sensor protection from water droplets, and improved sensor response, due to optimized arrangement of intake holes in the sensor cover. With these characteristics, the developed oxygen sensor can be activated in 10 seconds after cold start. This report describes the technologies we used to develop the early-activation oxygen sensor.
Technical Paper

Retention of Friction Reducing Performance of MoDTC-Containing Fuel Efficient Gasoline Engine Oils During Use

2000-06-19
2000-01-2053
The deterioration of the friction reducing properties of engine oils containing molybdenum dithiocarbamates (MoDTCs) in service was studied. A quantitative analysis of MoDTCs and zinc dithiophosphates (ZDTPs) remaining in aged oils revealed that ZDTPs were consumed faster than MoDTCs. The consumption rate of ZDTPs was slow in the presence of MoDTCs and peroxide-decomposing antioxidants. The frictional properties of aged oils were evaluated with a reciprocating friction tester (SRV tester). The friction coefficient measured with the SRV tester was correlated to the properties of the aged oils, such as the TAN increase, TBN, and concentration of remaining ZDTPs.
Technical Paper

Development of open laboratory automation system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0170
We urgently need to develop the next generation of automotive technology to support energy conservation and the global environment. For this we need an advancement of the Laboratory Automation System (LAS). However, restructuring the hardware and software of the LAS requires enormous amounts of time and costs. To solve the problems of the LAS development, we formed a user-vendor working group, which then established the common rules of LAS and IMACS (Integrated Measurement And Control System). IMACS are software-centered rules, characterized by the stratification of LAS and the interface called software parts. So far, we have integrated IMACS into five engineering fields. A total of 11 testing machine vendors participated in the development. We manufactured about 350 software parts and made their specifications openly available. As the next step, we are collecting software parts by deleting redundant functions.
Technical Paper

Development of P/M Titanium Engine Valves

2000-03-06
2000-01-0905
In October 1998, a new mass-produced car with titanium engine-valves was released from TOYOTA Motor Corporation. Both intake and exhaust valves were manufactured via a newly developed cost-effective P/M forging process. Furthermore, the material which was specially designed for the exhaust one is a unique titanium metal matrix composite (MMC). This paper discusses the materials and manufacturing methods used. The tensile, fatigue strength and creep resistance of the MMC are always superior to those for the typical heat-resistant steel of 21-4N. Both valves have achieved sufficient durability and reliability with a manufacturing cost acceptable for mass-produced automobile parts.
Technical Paper

Studies on Carbon Canester to Satisfy LEVII EVAP Regulations

2000-03-06
2000-01-0895
Recently, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) has proposed a new set of evaporative emissions and “Useful Life” standards, called LEVII EVAP regulations, which are more stringent than those of the enhanced EVAP emissions regulations. If the new regulations are enforced, it will become increasingly important for the carbon canister to reduce Diurnal Breathing Loss (DBL) and to prevent deterioration of the canister. Therefore, careful studies have been made on the techniques to meet these regulations by clarifying the working capacity deterioration mechanism and the phenomenon of DBL in a carbon canister. It has been found that the deterioration of working capacity would occur if high boiling hydrocarbons, which are difficult to purge, fill up the micropores of the activated carbon, and Useful Life could be estimated more accurately according to the saturated adsorption mass of the activated carbon and the canister purge volume.
Technical Paper

Method of Fatigue Life Estimation for Spot-Welded Structures

2000-03-06
2000-01-0779
A method of fatigue life estimation for the spot-welds of vehicle body structures by means of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was studied. 6 general forces applied to a nugget of spot-weld under multiaxial loads were determined and the Nominal Structural Stress (σns) was calculated from them. It was confirmed that fatigue strength of the spot-welds under various multiaxial loads could be estimated universally by using σns. Based on the theory of elasticity of plates, stress of spot-weld nugget was analyzed. The theoretical equations for determining the principal stress at the nugget edge from6 general forces acting on a nugget were derived. And the principal stress was defined as the σns. The value of σns was determined by FEM that used a solid model and compared with the theoretical calculation value. They agreed quite well. Fatigue tests of DC specimens under various multiaxial loads (shear plus cross tension and tensile shear plus torsion) were conducted.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction for Stainless Steel Exhaust Manifold

1998-02-23
980841
This paper describes the application of a life prediction method for stainless steel exhaust manifolds. Examination of the exhaust manifold cracks indicated that many of the failures could be attributed to out-of-phase thermal fatigue due to compressive strains that occur at high temperatures. Therefore, the plastic strain range was used as the crack initiation criteria. In addition, the comparison of the calculated thermal fatigue stress-strain hysteresis to the experimental hysteresis made it clear that it was essential to use the stress-strain data that was obtained through tensile and compression testing by keeping the test specimens at the maximum temperature of the thermal fatigue test mode. A finite element crack prediction method was developed using the aforementioned material data and good results were obtained.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

1997-10-01
972837
Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
X