Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Study of simple detection of gasoline fuel contaminants contributing to increase Particulate Matter Emissions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0384
The reduction of particulate emissions is one of the most important challenges facing the development of future gasoline engines. Several studies have demonstrated the impact of fuel chemical composition on the emissions of particulate matter, more particularly, the detrimental effect of high boiling point components such as heavy aromatics. Fuel contamination is likely to become a critical issue as new, more stringent regulations such as Real Driving Emissions RDE with market fuel. The objective of this study is to investigate several experimental approaches to detect the presence of Diesel fuel in Gasoline which is likely to alter pollutant emissions. To achieve this, a fuel matrix composed of 14 fuels was built presenting diesel fuel in varying concentrations from 0.1 to 2% v/v. The fuel matrix was characterized using several original techniques developed in this study.
Technical Paper

Model Based Control for Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Diesel Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-1150
Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion is effective to reduce diesel engine harmful exhaust gas and improve fuel consumption. However, PCCI combustion has a problem of low combustion stability compared to diesel diffusive combustion, and there are few examples of application to mass production engines. In addition to engine speed and load, it needs complicated injection control according to environmental conditions such as outside air temperature, pressure, and engine water temperature, and transient changes such as supercharging delay, EGR delay, and intake air temperature delay. Although there is example where the control maps are switched according to the intake condition, it needs huge maps considering all the parameters mentioned above. Thus it requires a significant calibration man-hour. And this may lead to deterioration of reliability such as combustion noise and torque fluctuation.
Technical Paper

The Development of JASO GLV-1 Next Generation Low Viscosity Automotive Gasoline Engine Oils Specification

2020-04-14
2020-01-1426
It is well understood that using lower viscosity engine oils can greatly improve fuel economy [1, 2, 3, 4]. However, it has been impossible to evaluate ultra-low viscosity engine oils (SAE 0W-12 and below) utilizing existing fuel economy test methods. As such, there is no specification for ultra-low viscosity gasoline engine oils [5]. We therefore developed firing and motored fuel economy test methods for ultra-low viscosity oils using engines from Japanese automakers [6, 7, 8]. This was done under the auspices of the JASO Next Generation Engine Oil Task Force (“TF” below), which consists mainly of Japanese automakers and entities working in the petroleum industry. Moreover, the TF used these test methods to develop the JASO GLV-1 specification for next-generation ultra-low viscosity automotive gasoline engine oils such as SAE 0W-8 and 0W-12. In developing the JASO GLV-1 specification, Japanese fuel economy tests and the ILSAC engine tests for evaluating engine reliability were used.
Technical Paper

Effects of the Feature Extraction from Road Surface Image for Road Induced Noise Prediction Using Artificial Intelligence

2019-06-05
2019-01-1565
Next generation vehicles driven by motor such as electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles have no engine noise. Therefore the balance of interior noise is different from the vehicles driven by conventional combustion engine. In particular, road induced noise tends to be conspicuous in the low to middle vehicle speed range, therefore, technological development to reduce it is important task. The purpose of this research is to predict the road induced noise from the signals of sensors adopted for automatic driving for utilizing the prediction result as a reference signal to reduce road induced noise by active noise control (ANC). Using the monocular camera which is one of the simplest image sensors, the road induced noise is predicted from the road surface image ahead of the vehicle by machine learning.
Technical Paper

Machine Learning Based Technology for Reducing Engine Starting Vibration of Hybrid Vehicles

2019-06-05
2019-01-1450
Engine starting vibration of hybrid vehicle with Toyota hybrid system has variations even in the same vehicle, and a large vibration that occurs rarely may cause stress to the passengers. The contribution analysis based on the vibration theory and statistical analysis has been done, but the primary factor of the rare large vibration has not been clarified because the number of factors is enormous. From this background, we apply machine learning that can reproduce multivariate and complicated relationships to analysis of variation factors of engine starting vibration. Variations in magnitude of the exciting force such as motor torque for starting the engine and in-cylinder pressure of the engine and timing of these forces are considered as factors of the variations. In addition, there are also nonlinear factors such as backlash of gears as a factor of variations.
Technical Paper

Development of Innovative Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0332
This paper describes the development of an innovative AWD system called Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD for all-wheel drive (AWD) vehicles based on a front-wheel drive configuration. The Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD system helps to achieve high levels of both dynamic performance and fuel efficiency. Significant fuel economy savings are achieved by using a new compact disconnection mechanism at the transfer and rear units, which prevents any unnecessary rotation of the propeller shaft. In addition, the system is also capable of independently distributing torque to the rear wheels by utilizing electronically controlled couplings on the left and right sides of the rear differential. This greatly enhances both on-road cornering performance and off-road driving performance.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy NOx Sensor

2019-04-02
2019-01-0749
This paper presents an improvement in the accuracy of NOx sensors at high NOx concentration regions by optimizing the manufacturing process, sensor electrode materials and structure, in order to suppress the deterioration mechanism of sensor electrodes. Though NOx sensors generally consist of Pt/Au alloy based oxygen pump electrodes and Pt/Rh alloy based sensor electrodes, detailed experimental analysis of aged NOx sensors showed changes in the surface composition and morphology of the sensor electrode. The surface of the sensor electrode was covered with Au, which is not originally contained in the electrode, resulting in a diminished active site for NOx detection on the sensor electrode and a decrease in sensor output. Theoretical analysis using CAE with molecular dynamics supported that Au tends to be concentrated on the surface of the sensor electrode.
Technical Paper

Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

2019-04-02
2019-01-1012
Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
Journal Article

Development of Fuel Cell (FC) System for New Generation FC Bus

2019-04-02
2019-01-0372
Toyota Motor Corporation has been actively pursuing the development of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to respond to global environmental concerns and demands for clean energy. Toyota developed the first fuel cell (FC) bus to receive vehicle type certification in Japan. Subsequently, a new FC bus has been developed, which adopts two FC systems and four high-voltage batteries to achieve the required high power performance and durability. For enhanced durability, the FC system is controlled to maximize usage of the high-voltage batteries and to reduce the number of electric potential changes of the fuel cell. To accomplish this, the voltage of the FC stack must be kept high and FC power must be kept low. The high-voltage batteries were used to actively minimize FC power during acceleration.
Journal Article

Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1023
Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions.
Technical Paper

Effect of High RON Fuels on Engine Thermal Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0629
Historically, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles have focused on tailpipe emissions. However, sound environmental policy requires a more holistic well-to-wheels (WTW) assessment that includes both production of the fuel and its use in the vehicle. The present research explores the net change in WTW GHG emissions associated with moving from regular octane (RO) to high octane (HO) gasoline. It considers both potential increases in refinery emissions from producing HO fuel and potential reductions in vehicle emissions through the use of fuel-efficient engines optimized for such fuel. Three refinery configurations of varying complexity and reforming capacity were studied. A set of simulations covering different levels of HO gasoline production were run for each refinery configuration.
Journal Article

Color and Height Characteristics of Surrogate Grass for the Evaluation of Vehicle Road Departure Mitigation Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1026
In recent years Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS) is introduced to the market for avoiding roadway departure collisions. To support the performance testing of the RDMS, the most commonly seen road edge, grass, is studied in this paper for the development of standard surrogate grass. This paper proposes a method for defining the resembling grass color and height features due to significant variations of grass appearances in different seasons, temperatures and environments. Randomly selected Google Street View images with grass road edges are gathered and analyzed. Image processing techniques are deployed to obtain the grass color distributions. The height of the grass is determined by referencing the gathered images with measured grass heights. The representative colors and heights of grass are derived as the specifications of surrogate grass for the standard evaluation of RDMS.
Technical Paper

Application of Models of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions to Spark Ignition Simulation

2018-09-10
2018-01-1727
This report describes the implementation of the spark channel short circuit and blow-out submodels, which were described in the previous report, into a spark ignition model. The spark channel which is modeled by a particle series is elongated by moving individual spark particles along local gas flows. The equation of the spark channel resistance developed by Kim et al. is modified in order to describe the behavior of the current and the voltage in high flow velocity conditions and implemented into the electrical circuit model of the electrical inductive system of the spark plug. Input parameters of the circuit model are the following: initial discharge energy, inductance, internal resistance and capacitance of the spark plug, and the spark channel length obtained by the spark channel model. The instantaneous discharge current and the voltage are obtained as outputs of the circuit model.
Technical Paper

Critical Analysis of PM Index and Other Fuel Indices: Impact of Gasoline Fuel Volatility and Chemical Composition

2018-09-10
2018-01-1741
Among the challenges for the future facing the development of gasoline engines, one of the most important is the reduction of particles emissions. This study proposes a critical and objective evaluation of the influence of fuel characteristics on gasoline particles emission through the use of Fuel Particle Indices. For this, a selected fuel matrix composed of 22 fuels was built presenting different volatility and chemical composition (content in total aromatics, heavy cuts and ethanol). To represent the fuel sooting tendency, seven Fuel Particle Indices were selected based on a literature review, namely, Particulate Matter Index (PMI), Particulate Number index (PNI), Threshold Sooting index (TSI), Smoke point (SP), Oxygen Extended Sooting Index (OESI), Simplified index 1 and 2 (sPMI 1, sPMI 2). These indices were computed on the fuel matrix and compared on the basis of three main axes. First, the sensitivity to fuel variation.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Constituents and Fuel Composition on DISI Engine Knock: An Experimental and Modeling Study

2018-09-10
2018-01-1677
The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition engines has been shown to have a number of beneficial effects under specific operating conditions. These include reducing pumping work under part load conditions, reducing NOx emissions and heat losses by lowering peak combustion temperatures, and by reducing the tendency for engine knock (caused by end-gas autoignition) under certain operating regimes. In this study, the effects of EGR addition on knocking combustion are investigated through a combined experimental and modeling approach. The problem is investigated by considering the effects of individual EGR constituents, such as CO2, N2, and H2O, on knock, both individually and combined, and with and without traces species, such as unburned hydrocarbons and NOx. The effects of engine compression ratio and fuel composition on the effectiveness of knock suppression with EGR addition were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Ride Comfort Enhancement Using Active Stabilizer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0563
Ongoing research on active stabilizers involves not only control of the roll angle of the vehicle based on steering input but also improving ride comfort by reducing roll vibration caused by the antiphase road surface input. In that context, roll skyhook control, which applies skyhook theory to provide feedback on the vehicle roll and drive the actuators, has already been presented. Although vibration in all frequency bands can be reduced if there is no control delay, time lags or phase delays in control elements such as the communication, computation, low-pass filter, or actuators can amplify vibration. Consequently, a sufficient effect of controlling cannot be obtained. This paper will address wheelbase filtering, which produces a frequency that minimizes roll oscillation, and is used to suppress the influence of the undesirable vibration.
Technical Paper

The Color Specification of Surrogate Roadside Objects for the Performance Evaluation of Roadway Departure Mitigation Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0506
Roadway departure mitigation systems for helping to avoid and/or mitigate roadway departure collisions have been introduced by several vehicle manufactures in recent years. To support the development and performance evaluation of the roadway departure mitigation systems, a set of commonly seen roadside surrogate objects need to be developed. These objects include grass, curbs, metal guardrail, concrete divider, and traffic barrel/cones. This paper describes how to determine the representative color of these roadside surrogates. 24,762 locations with Google street view images were selected for the color determination of roadside objects. To mitigate the effect of the brightness to the color determination, the images not in good weather, not in bright daylight and under shade were manually eliminated. Then, the RGB values of the roadside objects in the remaining images were extracted.
Technical Paper

The Development of a New V6 3.5L Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0366
For the launch of the redesigned Lexus LS, a new 3.5 L V6 twin turbo engine has been developed aiming at unparalleled performance on four axes, “driving pleasure”, “power-performance”, “quietness” and “fuel economy”. To achieve outstanding power-performance and high thermal efficiency, the specifications have been optimized for high speed combustion. The maximum torque of 600 Nm, power of 310 kW (yielding specific power of 90 kW/L), and the maximum thermal efficiency of 37% have been achieved using several new technologies including a high efficiency turbocharger. A prototype vehicle equipped with this engine and Direct-Shift 10AT achieved a 0-60 mph acceleration time of 4.6 sec, with extremely good CAFE combined fuel economy of 23 mpg and power-performance aligned with V8 turbocharged offerings from competing OEM’s.
Journal Article

Effects of High Boiling Point Fuel Additives on Deposits in a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2299
The effects of high boiling point fuel additives on deposits were investigated in a commercial turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine. It is known that high boiling point substances have a negative effect on deposits. The distillation end points of blended fuels containing these additives may be approximately 15°C higher than the base fuel (end point: 175°C). Three additives with boiling points between 190 and 196°C were examined: 4-tert-Butyltoluene (TBT), N-Methyl Aniline (NMA), and 2-Methyl-1,5-pentanediamine (MPD). Aromatics and anilines, which may be added to gasoline to increase its octane number, might have a negative effect on deposits. TBT has a benzene ring. NMA has a benzene ring and an amino group. MPD, which has no benzene ring and two amino groups, was selected for comparison with the former two additives.
Journal Article

An Intake Valve Deposit (IVD) Engine Test Development to Investigate Deposit Build-Up Mechanism Using a Real Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2291
In emerging markets, Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology retains a higher market share than Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology. In these markets fuel quality remains a concern even despite an overall improvement in quality. Typical PFI engines are sensitive to fuel quality regardless of brand, engine architecture, or cylinder configuration. One of the well-known impacts of fuel quality on PFI engines is the formation of Intake Valve Deposits (IVD). These deposits steadily accumulate over time and can lead to a deterioration of engine performance. IVD formation mechanisms have been characterized in previous studies. However, no test is available on a state-of-the-art engine to study the impact of fuel components on IVD formation. Therefore, a proprietary engine test was developed to test several chemistries. Sixteen fuel blends were tested. The deposit formation mechanism has been studied and analysed.
X