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Technical Paper

Development of New Hybrid System for Mid-Size SUV

2020-04-14
2020-01-0842
Fuel economy and emission regulations for Light-duty Trucks (LDT) are becoming increasingly restrictive year by year. At the same time, Mid-size SUV demands are increasing all over the world. The advancement of Toyota Hybrid System (THS) aims to meet increasingly strict fuel economy regulations and rapidly advance vehicle technologies to meet electrification goals by 2050 (Figure 1). Toyota has been committed to the evolution of hybrid technology starting with the first Prius in 1997 and continues to develop industry leading electrification technologies. The updated hybrid system for the brand-new Highlander was developed to meet worldwide regulations and have competitive class leading fuel economy with an affordable price. This technology is necessary not only to anticipate expanding SUV sales around the world, but to also keep environmental impact to a minimum.
Technical Paper

Development of New Hybrid Transaxle for Mid-Size Sports Utility Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0850
Toyota has developed a new Hybrid (HV) transaxle P810 for Mid-Size SUVs to improve fuel efficiency and power performance. The transaxle was developed based on Toyota's new development strategy - Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA). By adopting technologies to shorten overall length of the transaxle, installation into the same engine compartment of Mid-Size sedans have been realized while also improving the motor output. This paper will introduce technologies regarding the new mount structure for shortening overall length, and furthermore, noise reduction related to this mount structure.
Technical Paper

Low-Emission and Fuel-Efficient Exhaust System with New Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor

2020-04-14
2020-01-0655
This paper describes an exhaust system using a new air-fuel ratio (hereinafter, A/F) sensor that contributes to low emissions and low fuel consumption of gasoline engines. As the first technical feature, the water splash resistance of the A/F sensor has been substantially improved which allows A/F control to be enabled without delay during engine cold start. To realize this capability, it is important that the sensor characteristics are not affected by the condensed water generated in the exhaust pipe. Therefore, a technique that has the effectiveness of a water splash resistance layer with water repellent function is demonstrated. As the second technical feature, the power consumption of the sensor has been substantially reduced. This is achieved by improving thermal efficiency of the sensor that the element can be activated at a low temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalyst with Advanced Coating Layer

2020-04-14
2020-01-0653
Further improvements in catalyst performance are required to help protect the atmospheric environment. However, from the viewpoint of resource availability, it is also necessary to decrease the amount of precious metals used at the active sites of the catalyst. Therefore, a high-performance three-way catalyst with an advanced coating layer has been developed to lower the amount of precious metal usage. Fuel efficiency improvement technologies such as high compression ratios and a large-volume exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) generally tend to increase the ratio of hydrocarbons (HC) to nitrogen oxides (NOx) in exhaust gas. This research focused on the palladium (Pd) loading depth in the coating layer with the aim of improving the hydrocarbon (HC) conversion activity of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Personal Routing Preference from Probe Data in Cloud

2020-04-14
2020-01-0740
Routing quality always dominates the top 20% of in vehicle- navigation customer complaints. In vehicle navigation routing engines do not customize results based on customer behavior. For example, some users prefer the quickest route while some prefer direct routes. This is because in vehicle navigation systems are traditionally embedded systems. Toyota announced that new model vehicles in JP, CN, US will be connected with routing function switching from the embedded device to the cloud in which there are plenty of probe data uploaded from the vehicles. Probe data makes it possible to analyze user preferences and customize routing profile for users. This paper describes a method to analyze the user preferences from the probe data uploaded to the cloud. The method includes data collection, the analysis model of route scoring and user profiling. Furthermore, the evaluation of the model will be introduced at the end of the paper.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Unburned Hydrocarbon Generated from Wall under Lean Combustion

2020-04-14
2020-01-0295
Combustion of a lean air-fuel mixture diluted with a large amount of air or Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) gas is one of the important technologies that can reduce thermal NOx and improve gasoline engine fuel economy by reducing cooling loss. On the other hand, lean combustion increases unburned Hydro Carbon (HC) and unburned loss compared to stoichiometric combustion. This is because lean combustion reduces the burning rate of the air-fuel mixture and forms a thick quenching layer near the wall surface. In this study, the relationship between the thickness of the unburned HC and the excess air ratio is analyzed using Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) method and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) of combustion. The HC distribution near the engine liner when the excess air ratio is increased is investigated by LIF. As a result, it is found that the quenching distance of the flame in the cylinder is larger for lean conditions than the general single-wall quenching relationship.
Technical Paper

A Study of Mechanism of Engine Idling Rattle Noise in Hybrid Transaxles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0421
Quietness is one of the most important characteristics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle quality. Reduction of the rattle noise caused by the torque fluctuation of an internal combustion engine can contribute to get a customer satisfaction. Toyota Hybrid System(THS) also has same requirement. Especially, the rattle noise during idling may happen discontinuously despite of periodical engine combustion excitation. It is necessary to study the mechanism and reduce the rattle noise. At lower engine torque range, decreasing the torsional damper’s stiffness can improve this condition as the manual transaxle done. However, the rattle noise can occur easily in conditions of relatively large torque spike inputs to the torsional system, such as the engine start/stop function of THS using the motor/generator in the transaxle.
Technical Paper

Development of Power Control Unit for Compact-Class Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0456
Toyota Motor has developed a new compact class hybrid vehicle (HV). This vehicle incorporates a new hybrid system to improve fuel efficiency. For this system, a new power control unit (PCU) has been developed that is downsizing, lightweight, and high efficiency. It is also important to have a highly adaptable function that can be applied to various car models. This paper describes the development of PCUs that play an important role in new systems.
Technical Paper

Development of Simplified Finite Element Model for Ultra-High-Strength Steel Resistance Spot Weld Fractures

2020-04-14
2020-01-0220
This paper describes the development of a simplified fracture finite element (FE) model for resistance spot welds (RSW) of ultra-high-strength steel (UHSS) that can be incorporated into large-scale vehicle FE model. It is known that the RSW of UHSS generates two types of fracture modes: heat-affected zone (HAZ) and nugget zone fractures. Lap shear and peeling coupon tests using UHSS sheets found that the different RSW fracture modes occurred at different nugget diameters. To analyze this phenomenon, detailed simulated coupon tests were carried out using solid hexahedral elements. The analytical results revealed that RSW fractures are defined by both the application of plastic strain on the elements and the stress triaxiality state of the elements. A detailed model incorporating a new fracture criteria model recreated the different UHSS RSW fracture modes and achieved a close correlation with the coupon test results.
Technical Paper

Development of RC-IGBT with a New Structure That Contributes to Both Reduced Size of Power Control Unit and Low Loss in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0596
In order to improve the fuel efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), it is necessary to reduce the size and power loss of the HEV Power Control Units (PCUs). The loss of power devices (IGBTs and FWDs) used in a PCU accounts for approximately 20% of electric power loss of an HEV. Therefore, it is important to reduce the power loss while size reduction of the power devices. In order to achieve the newly developed PCU target for compact-size vehicles, the development targets for the power device were to achieve low power loss equivalent to its previous generation while size reduction by 25%. The size reduction was achieved by developing a new RC-IGBT (Reverse Conducting IGBT) with an IGBT and a FWD integration. As for the power loss aggravation, which was a major issue due to this integration, we optimized some important parameters like the IGBT and FWD surface layout and backside FWD pattern.
Technical Paper

Super High Transfer Efficiency Application for Body Coating

2020-04-14
2020-01-0901
In order to achieve the Toyota Environmental Challenge of 2050 (zero CO2 emissions), we have developed an innovative coating system that achieves more than 95% transfer efficiency. In order to reduce paint loss in the painting process, it is necessary to eliminate overdust and bounce dust. The most important point is how to spray (atomization, particle flight, adhesion) without shaping air. We have developed a “super high transfer efficiency system” that eliminates the need for shaping air. We continue to challenge the development of innovative technologies to view the paint shop as clean and eco-friendly environment.
Technical Paper

Development of a New High Orientation Paint System to Achieve Outstanding Real Metallic Designs

2020-04-14
2020-01-0899
Silver metallic colors with thin and smooth aluminum flake pigments have been introduced for luxury brand OEMs. Regarding the paint formulation for these types of colors, low non-volatile(NV) and high aluminum flake pigment contents are known as technology for high metallic appearance designs. However, there are two technical concerns. First is mottling which is caused by uneven distribution of the aluminum flake pigments in paint film and second is poor film property due to high aluminum pigment concentration in paint film. Therefore, current paint systems have limitation of paint design. As a countermeasure for those two concerns, we had investigated cellulose nanofiber (CNF) dispersion liquid as both the coating binder and rheology control agent in a new type of waterborne paint system. CNF is an effective rheology control agent because it has strong hydrogen bonds with other fiber surfaces in waterborne paint.
Technical Paper

Improving Winter Fuel Economy by Using Weather Information

2020-04-14
2020-01-1241
When the air conditioning (A/C) is turned on, the intake air to the HVAC is cooled at the evaporator. This is not only used for cooling the air temperature but also to dehumidify. Therefore, for a typical automatic climate control system, A/C will automatically operate even in winter (cold ambient temperature conditions) in order to prevent the windows from fogging despite its effect on fuel economy. In some applications, a humidity sensor is installed on top of the windshield and when the probability of fogging is low the A/C operation is disabled automatically to prevent unnecessary compressor operation which can increase fuel consumption. However, humidity sensor is not widely adopted as it requires some space to be installed and the cost is relatively expensive compared with other HVAC equipped sensors. In this study, a system was invented that disables the compressor operation when the fogging probability is low without using the conventional humidity sensor.
Technical Paper

Development of Quantitative Fuel Film Distribution Measurement by LIEF Technique and Application to Gasoline Spray

2020-04-14
2020-01-1159
From the point of global and local environment, internal combustion engine is facing the need for significant improvement of exhaust emission. Especially, important is the reduction of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) from fuel film on liner under cold condition. In this study, at first, quantitative fuel film measurement technique by using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF) was developed. For the light source, 4th harmonic pulse yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser (266nm) was used. For the tracer, the combination of N,N-Dimethylaniline (DMA) and naphthalene was used and quantitative concentration was decided by calibration test. With LIEF, the distribution of fuel film can be obtained by measuring the fluorescence only from the liquid phase. In order to evaluate the effect of fuel film on exhaust HC emission from engine, the film distribution was measured using quartz glass liner. For the injector, a prototype 6-hole gasoline injector was used.
Technical Paper

Development of Ultra Low Viscosity 0W-8 Engine Oil

2020-04-14
2020-01-1425
Further fuel economy improvement of the internal combustion engine is indispensable for CO2 reduction in order to cope with serious global environmental problems. Although lowering the viscosity of engine oil is an effective way to improve fuel economy, it may reduce the wear resistance. Therefore, it is important to achieve both improved fuel economy and reliability. We have developed new 0W- 8 engine oil of ultra-low viscosity and achieved an improvement in fuel economy by 0.8% compared to the commercial 0W-16 engine oil. For this new oil, we reduced the friction coefficient under boundary lubrication regime by applying an oil film former and calcium borate detergent. The film former increased the oil film thickness without increasing the oil viscosity. The calcium borate detergent enhanced the friction reduction effect of molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC).
Technical Paper

Coasting Technology for Real-World Fuel Economy Improvement of a Hybrid Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-1195
Automobile manufactures need to adopt new technologies to meet global CO2 (carbon dioxide) emission regulations and better fuel efficiency demands from customers. Also, the production cost should be as low as possible for an affordable vehicle. Therefore, it is advantageous for OEMs to develop fuel efficient technologies which can be controlled by software without additional hardware costs. The coasting control is a fuel efficiency improvement technology that can be implemented by the change of vehicle software only. The coasting control is a technology that reduces the driving resistance (Deceleration) when the driver releases the gas pedal. This technology leads to reducing the energy required for the vehicle to drive and results in improving the real-world fuel economy. In an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle, the coasting state is achieved by changing the gear to neutral, and the effect has been discussed and clarified by many previous studies.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Gas Sensor with High Water Splash Resistant Layer for Lower Emission

2020-04-14
2020-01-0565
Increasingly stringent regulations call for the reduction of emissions at engine startup to purify exhaust gas and reduce the amount of CO2 emitted. Air-fuel ratio (A/F) sensors detect the composition of exhaust gas and provide feedback to control the fuel injection quantity in order to ensure the optimal functioning of the catalytic converter. Reducing the time needed to obtain feedback control and enabling the restriction-free installation of A/F sensors can help meet regulations. Conventional sensors do not activate feedback control immediately after engine startup as the combination of high temperatures and splashes of condensed water in the exhaust pipe can cause thermal shock to the sensor element. Moreover, sensors need to be installed near the engine to increase the catalyst reaction efficiency. This increases the possibility of water splash from the condensed water in the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Emission Prediction with Detailed Chemistry

2019-12-19
2019-01-2215
Numerical modeling of engine combustion products requires detailed chemistry and therefore large computational resources and time. This becomes a constraint when engine optimization at system level is desired. In this paper, a 1D modeling approach is proposed for fast computation to predict emission level at various engine running conditions. A new chemical solver within 1D framework is developed along with suitable reduced chemical mechanism. The reduced reaction scheme is validated against detailed chemistry on 0D and 1D reactors. It is confirmed that the new fast 1D solver achieves more than 100X speed improvement. Now larger mechanisms can be used for better accuracy with reasonable turnaround time. This methodology allows virtual engine emission map generation, with a refined emission map completed within 12 hours of computational time.
Technical Paper

Research of Fuel Components to Enhance Engine Thermal Efficiency Part I: Concepts for Fuel Molecule Candidate

2019-12-19
2019-01-2255
As part of efforts to address climate change and improve energy security, researchers have improved the thermal efficiency of engines by expanding the lean combustion limit. To further expand the lean combustion limit, the authors focused not only on engine technology but the chemical reactivity of various fuel molecules. Furan and anisole were among the fuel molecules selected, based on the idea that promising candidates should enhance the flame propagation speed and have good knocking resistance. Engine testing showed that the lean limit can be expanded by using fuels with the right molecular structures, resulting in higher thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Research of Fuel Components to Enhance Engine Thermal Efficiency Part II: Consideration of Engine Combustion Characteristics

2019-12-19
2019-01-2256
To correspond to the social requirements such as climate change, air pollution, and energy security, enhancing the engine thermal efficiency is strongly required in these days. As for the specific engine technologies to improve the engine thermal efficiency, Atkinson cycle, cooled EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), and low friction technologies have been developed [1–4]. In regard to combustion technology, lean boosted concept has a potential to reduce CO2 emission because lean boosted concept is expected to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Although expanding lean combustion limit is important for both increasing the engine thermal efficiency and reducing NOx emission, there is a limitation to realize stable lean combustion with SI (Spark Ignition) gasoline engine. In this study, fuel effects on the combustion characteristics from the viewpoint of chemical reaction capability are focused on.
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