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Technical Paper

A Study of Mechanism of Engine Idling Rattle Noise in Hybrid Transaxles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0421
Quietness is one of the most important characteristics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle quality. Reduction of the rattle noise caused by the torque fluctuation of an internal combustion engine can contribute to get a customer satisfaction. Toyota Hybrid System(THS) also has same requirement. Especially, the rattle noise during idling may happen discontinuously despite of periodical engine combustion excitation. It is necessary to study the mechanism and reduce the rattle noise. At lower engine torque range, decreasing the torsional damper’s stiffness can improve this condition as the manual transaxle done. However, the rattle noise can occur easily in conditions of relatively large torque spike inputs to the torsional system, such as the engine start/stop function of THS using the motor/generator in the transaxle.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Personal Routing Preference from Probe Data in Cloud

2020-04-14
2020-01-0740
Routing quality always dominates the top 20% of in vehicle- navigation customer complaints. In vehicle navigation routing engines do not customize results based on customer behavior. For example, some users prefer the quickest route while some prefer direct routes. This is because in vehicle navigation systems are traditionally embedded systems. Toyota announced that new model vehicles in JP, CN, US will be connected with routing function switching from the embedded device to the cloud in which there are plenty of probe data uploaded from the vehicles. Probe data makes it possible to analyze user preferences and customize routing profile for users. This paper describes a method to analyze the user preferences from the probe data uploaded to the cloud. The method includes data collection, the analysis model of route scoring and user profiling. Furthermore, the evaluation of the model will be introduced at the end of the paper.
Technical Paper

Development of Quantitative Fuel Film Distribution Measurement by LIEF Technique and Application to Gasoline Spray

2020-04-14
2020-01-1159
From the point of global and local environment, internal combustion engine is facing the need for significant improvement of exhaust emission. Especially, important is the reduction of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) from fuel film on liner under cold condition. In this study, at first, quantitative fuel film measurement technique by using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF) was developed. For the light source, 4th harmonic pulse yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser (266nm) was used. For the tracer, the combination of N,N-Dimethylaniline (DMA) and naphthalene was used and quantitative concentration was decided by calibration test. With LIEF, the distribution of fuel film can be obtained by measuring the fluorescence only from the liquid phase. In order to evaluate the effect of fuel film on exhaust HC emission from engine, the film distribution was measured using quartz glass liner. For the injector, a prototype 6-hole gasoline injector was used.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Unburned Hydrocarbon Generated from Wall under Lean Combustion

2020-04-14
2020-01-0295
Combustion of a lean air-fuel mixture diluted with a large amount of air or Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) gas is one of the important technologies that can reduce thermal NOx and improve gasoline engine fuel economy by reducing cooling loss. On the other hand, lean combustion increases unburned Hydro Carbon (HC) and unburned loss compared to stoichiometric combustion. This is because lean combustion reduces the burning rate of the air-fuel mixture and forms a thick quenching layer near the wall surface. In this study, the relationship between the thickness of the unburned HC and the excess air ratio is analyzed using Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) method and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) of combustion. The HC distribution near the engine liner when the excess air ratio is increased is investigated by LIF. As a result, it is found that the quenching distance of the flame in the cylinder is larger for lean conditions than the general single-wall quenching relationship.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Gas Sensor with High Water Splash Resistant Layer for Lower Emission

2020-04-14
2020-01-0565
Increasingly stringent regulations call for the reduction of emissions at engine startup to purify exhaust gas and reduce the amount of CO2 emitted. Air-fuel ratio (A/F) sensors detect the composition of exhaust gas and provide feedback to control the fuel injection quantity in order to ensure the optimal functioning of the catalytic converter. Reducing the time needed to obtain feedback control and enabling the restriction-free installation of A/F sensors can help meet regulations. Conventional sensors do not activate feedback control immediately after engine startup as the combination of high temperatures and splashes of condensed water in the exhaust pipe can cause thermal shock to the sensor element. Moreover, sensors need to be installed near the engine to increase the catalyst reaction efficiency. This increases the possibility of water splash from the condensed water in the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Low-Emission and Fuel-Efficient Exhaust System with New Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor

2020-04-14
2020-01-0655
This paper describes an exhaust system using a new air-fuel ratio (hereinafter, A/F) sensor that contributes to low emissions and low fuel consumption of gasoline engines. As the first technical feature, the water splash resistance of the A/F sensor has been substantially improved which allows A/F control to be enabled without delay during engine cold start. To realize this capability, it is important that the sensor characteristics are not affected by the condensed water generated in the exhaust pipe. Therefore, a technique that has the effectiveness of a water splash resistance layer with water repellent function is demonstrated. As the second technical feature, the power consumption of the sensor has been substantially reduced. This is achieved by improving thermal efficiency of the sensor that the element can be activated at a low temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of New Hybrid Transaxle for Mid-Size Sports Utility Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0850
Toyota has developed a new Hybrid (HV) transaxle P810 for Mid-Size SUVs to improve fuel efficiency and power performance. The transaxle was developed based on Toyota's new development strategy - Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA). By adopting technologies to shorten overall length of the transaxle, installation into the same engine compartment of Mid-Size sedans have been realized while also improving the motor output. This paper will introduce technologies regarding the new mount structure for shortening overall length, and furthermore, noise reduction related to this mount structure.
Technical Paper

Emission Prediction with Detailed Chemistry

2019-12-19
2019-01-2215
Numerical modeling of engine combustion products requires detailed chemistry and therefore large computational resources and time. This becomes a constraint when engine optimization at system level is desired. In this paper, a 1D modeling approach is proposed for fast computation to predict emission level at various engine running conditions. A new chemical solver within 1D framework is developed along with suitable reduced chemical mechanism. The reduced reaction scheme is validated against detailed chemistry on 0D and 1D reactors. It is confirmed that the new fast 1D solver achieves more than 100X speed improvement. Now larger mechanisms can be used for better accuracy with reasonable turnaround time. This methodology allows virtual engine emission map generation, with a refined emission map completed within 12 hours of computational time.
Technical Paper

Research of Fuel Components to Enhance Engine Thermal Efficiency Part I: Concepts for Fuel Molecule Candidate

2019-12-19
2019-01-2255
As part of efforts to address climate change and improve energy security, researchers have improved the thermal efficiency of engines by expanding the lean combustion limit. To further expand the lean combustion limit, the authors focused not only on engine technology but the chemical reactivity of various fuel molecules. Furan and anisole were among the fuel molecules selected, based on the idea that promising candidates should enhance the flame propagation speed and have good knocking resistance. Engine testing showed that the lean limit can be expanded by using fuels with the right molecular structures, resulting in higher thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Research of Fuel Components to Enhance Engine Thermal Efficiency Part II: Consideration of Engine Combustion Characteristics

2019-12-19
2019-01-2256
To correspond to the social requirements such as climate change, air pollution, and energy security, enhancing the engine thermal efficiency is strongly required in these days. As for the specific engine technologies to improve the engine thermal efficiency, Atkinson cycle, cooled EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), and low friction technologies have been developed [1–4]. In regard to combustion technology, lean boosted concept has a potential to reduce CO2 emission because lean boosted concept is expected to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Although expanding lean combustion limit is important for both increasing the engine thermal efficiency and reducing NOx emission, there is a limitation to realize stable lean combustion with SI (Spark Ignition) gasoline engine. In this study, fuel effects on the combustion characteristics from the viewpoint of chemical reaction capability are focused on.
Journal Article

On the Role of Nitric Oxide for the Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of EGR in a DISI Engine Operated with Various Gasoline Fuels

2019-12-19
2019-01-2150
The knock-suppression effectiveness of exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) can vary between implementations that take EGR gases after the three-way catalyst and those that use pre-catalyst EGR gases. A main difference between pre-and post-catalyst EGR gases is the level of trace species like NO, UHC, CO and H2. To quantify the role of NO, this experiment-based study employs NO-seeding in the intake tract for select combinations of fuel types and compression ratios, using simulated post-catalyst EGR gases as the diluent. The four investigated gasoline fuels share a common RON of 98, but vary in octane sensitivity and composition. To enable probing effects of near-zero NO levels, a skip-firing operating strategy is developed whereby the residual gases, which contain trace species like NO, are purged from the combustion chamber. Overall, the effects of NO-seeding on knock are consistent with the differences in knock limits for preand post-catalyst EGR gases.
Journal Article

Development of Motor Cooling Technology in Hybrid Vehicles

2019-12-19
2019-01-2312
1 In order to reduce the size and weight of the hybrid motor, improving motor cooling performance is essential. Therefore, we have been working on the development. This paper will explain the development of cooling technology TOYOTA has been working on, specifically the evolution of the hybrid motor cooling system and structure from the 1st generation Prius to the current model.
Technical Paper

Research of Knocking Deterioration due to Accumulated Carbon Deposits on Piston Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-1141
The quantity of heavy components in fuel is increasing as automotive fuels diversify, and engine oil formulations are becoming more complex. These trends result in the formation of larger amounts of carbon deposits as reaction byproducts during combustion, potentially worsening the susceptibility of the engine to knock [1]. The research described in this paper aimed to identify the mechanism that causes knocking to deteriorate due to carbon deposits in low to medium engine load ranges, which are mainly used when the vehicle drives off and accelerates. With this objective, the cylinder temperature and pressure with and without deposits were measured, and it was found that knocking deteriorates in a certain range of ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

2019-04-02
2019-01-0502
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) using a heat pump system in cold weather. One advantage of an HV is the high efficiency of the vehicle system provided by the coupling and optimal control of an electric motor and an engine. However, in a conventional HV, fuel economy degradation is observed in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin using the engine results in a reduced efficiency of the vehicle system. In this study, a heat pump, combined with an engine, was used for thermal management to decrease fuel economy degradation. The heat pump is equipped with an electrically driven compressor that pumps ambient heat into a water-cooled condenser. The heat generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce emissions and the cabin needs heat to provide thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Pressure and High Performance GPF Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-1261
Awareness of environmental protection with respect to the particulate number (PN) in the exhaust emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine vehicles has increased. In order to decrease the emission of particulate matter (PM), suppressing emissions by improving engine combustion, and/or filtering PM with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is effective. This paper describes the improvement of the coated GPF to reduce pressure drop while securing three-way performance and PN filtration efficiency. It was necessary to load a certain amount of washcoat on the GPF to add the three-way function, but this led to an increase in pressure drop that affected engine power. The pressure drop was influenced by the gas permeation properties of the filter wall.
Technical Paper

Development of New Continuously Variable Transmission for 2.0-Liter Class Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1062
Toyota has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) called "Direct Shift-CVT" which is for 2.0-liter class vehicles. This CVT provided not only power transmission by a metal belt held with a conventional pulley but also additional gear mechanism. This CVT is developed to improve fuel efficiency, acceleration characteristic, and quietness. At this CVT, the startup low gear ratio is achieved by gear mechanism and the power is switched by clutches. Since the belt-pulley portion can be realized to be wide range by using only high gear ratio range, the input load into belt-pulley portion is reduced and unprecedented compact and high efficient belt-pulley portion is established. Consequently, the high efficiency in all fields from startup acceleration to high speed driving is achieved to improve fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

New 2.0L I4 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine with Toyota New Global Architecture Concept

2018-04-03
2018-01-0370
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new 2.0L Inline 4- Cylinder (I4) Gasoline Direct Injection Engine, the second Naturally Aspirated (NA) engine of the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) engine series, to meet our customers’ expectations for drivability, performance, and fuel economy. The high speed combustion technologies adopted previously in our 2.5 L NA conventional and Hybrid Vehicle (HV) engines for the 2018 Toyota Camry are necessary for high engine power and thermal efficiency. To adopt our high speed combustion technology on engines with different displacements, the turbulence intensity has been defined as the target index of combustion speed. The basic engine structure has been revised by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to achieve the combustion target.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Gasoline Metallic Additives on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

2018-04-03
2018-01-0936
Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is used as an octane-enhancing metallic additive for unleaded gasoline which can prevent engine knock by proactive reaction with the hydrocarbon free radicals before starting the auto-ignition of hydrocarbons. However it has been pointed out that MMT causes automotive catalysts clogging and spark plug severely fouling. Therefore, many countries have fuel standards that prohibit or limit the usage of MMT. Nevertheless, some countries still use MMT as there are no restrictions imposed by fuel standards. As mentioned in several papers, metallic additives of engine oil such as calcium cause an abnormal combustion phenomenon called low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in turbocharged spark ignition engines. In contrast, the effect of metallic additives of gasoline such as MMT on LSPI has not been studied.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 6-Speed FWD Manual Transmission

2018-04-03
2018-01-0392
Environmental awareness has increased on a global scale which pushed for a heavier demand for weight reduction and high transmission efficiency on manual transmissions (hereafter referred to as the “MT”) in improving vehicle driving and fuel economy performance. Comfortable shift feel is also continuously in demand by the customer because its sensitive performance can be directly recognized by the driver which may determine the transmission’s merchantability. The newly developed 6-speed MT (hereafter referred to as the “6MT”) has achieved size reduction (compact size), weight reduced, better fuel efficiency, and improvement in the shift feel which will continue to maintain its’ competitiveness in the future.
Journal Article

A Study on Optimal Powertrain Sizing of Plugin Hybrid Vehicles for Minimizing Criteria Emissions Associated with Cold Starts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0406
Plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have several attractive features in terms of reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Compared to conventional vehicles (CVs) that only have an internal combustion engine (ICE), PHEVs have better energy efficiency like regular hybrids (HEVs), allow for electrifying an appreciable portion of traveled miles, and have no range anxiety issues like battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs). However, in terms of criteria emissions (e.g., NOx, NMOG, HC), it is unclear if PHEVs are any better than HEVs or CVs. Unlike GHG emissions, criteria emissions are not continuously emitted in proportional quantities to fossil fuel consumption. Rather, the amount and type of criteria emissions is a rather complex function of many factors, including type of fuel, ICE temperature, speed and torque, catalyst temperature, as well as the ICE controls (e.g., fuel-to-air ratio, valve and ignition timing).
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