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Journal Article

Development of Engine Lubrication System with New Internal Gear Fully Variable Discharge Oil Pump

2017-10-08
2017-01-2431
Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction. Reducing friction under cold conditions is becoming more important in hybrid vehicle (HV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) systems due to the lower oil temperatures of these systems, which results in higher friction loss. To help resolve this issue, a new internal gear fully variable discharge oil pump (F-VDOP) was developed. This new oil pump can control the oil pressure freely over a temperature range from -10°C to hot conditions. At 20°C, this pump lowers the minimum main gallery pressure to 100 kPa, thereby achieving a friction reduction effect of 1.4 Nm. The developed oil pump achieves a pressure response time constant of 0.17 seconds when changing the oil pressure from 120 kPa to 200 kPa at a temperature of 20°C and an engine speed of 1,600 rpm.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Transmission Loss for Lightweight Body Structures

2017-06-05
2017-01-1812
In an effort to reduce mass, future automotive bodies will feature lower gage steel or lighter weight materials such as aluminum. An unfortunate side effect of lighter weight bodies is a reduction in sound transmission loss (TL). For barrier based systems, as the total system mass (including the sheet metal, decoupler, and barrier) goes down the transmission loss is reduced. If the reduced surface density from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, however, performance can be restored (though, of course, this eliminates the mass savings). In fact, if all of the saved mass from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, the TL performance may be improved over the original system. This is because the optimum performance for a barrier based system is achieved when the sheet metal and the barrier have equal surface densities. That is not the case for standard steel constructions where the surface density of the sheet metal is higher than the barrier.
Journal Article

Multiplex Communication Protocol for Switch/Sensor/Actuator Network: “CXPI”

2016-04-05
2016-01-0057
The growing functionality and complexity of recent vehicle electronic systems have made inter-device communication (on-board LAN) technology vital to vehicle design. By field of application, the LAN (Local Area Network) systems currently in use are LIN (Local Interconnect Network) used for body systems, CAN (Controller Area Network) used for control systems, and MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport ) used for multimedia and camera systems, and work to standardize the next-generation communication technology for each of those fields is underway. This paper provides a technical overview of the CXPI (Clock Extension Peripheral Interface) communication protocol, which satisfies the body system requirements (rapid response, system extensibility, high reliability, and low cost). It also presents the progress made on standardization at SAE and other organizations.
Technical Paper

Pre-Collision System for Toyota Safety Sense

2016-04-05
2016-01-1458
Toyota Safety Sense is a safety system package developed to help drivers avoid accident types with a high frequency of occurrence. This paper deals with pre-collision system which forms the core of Toyota Safety Sense, especially Toyota Safety Sense P which uses a combined sensor configuration consisting of a monocular camera paired with millimeter wave radar, in order to achieve both high recognition performance and reliability. The use of a wide-angle monocular camera, millimeter wave radar integrated in the front grill emblem, and a collision determination algorithm for pedestrian targets enabled the development of a pre-collision system comprising detection capability of crossing pedestrians. Toyota has developed warning and pre-collision brake assist for driver to assist in avoiding a collision effectively; In addition, Pre-collision brake has achieved high level of performance for the drivers who cannot avoid a collision.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 2.0-Liter Fuel-Efficient Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0310
Toyota Motor Corporation aims to develop vehicles that are both fun to drive and fuel efficient, using highly reliable, low cost, and fundamental technology. This approach focuses on the accumulation of incremental improvements to combustion characteristics and friction, making the best use of the maximum potential of the displacement of a new 2.0-liter fuel-efficient diesel engine. This new engine has been launched in several markets around the world for the Avensis, the Auris, the RAV4, and the Verso since November of 2011. This paper presents an outline of this new engine and its technology.
Technical Paper

Development of Side Impact Dummy FE Models using Reverse Engineering

2012-04-16
2012-01-0091
This paper describes the development of dummy FE models to be used for side impact simulations. The precise geometries of the ES-2re dummy and the SID-IIs dummy were measured at a pitch of 1.0 mm using X-ray CT scan. The material properties and the mechanical responses of the components were measured in static and dynamic tests and were used for the model validation. The models were further validated to US-NCAP side impact requirements. Good correlation was seen for both response time history, and to peak deformation values. It is shown that modeling the precise dummy internal structure in addition to the external geometry and applying accurate material properties enabled simulation of deformation kinematics and load transfer inside the dummies. As a result, it was possible to accurately simulate the injury value time histories in an actual test, and understand the mechanisms causing changes to the loading.
Technical Paper

CAE Methodology for Optimizing NVH, Functional Reliability, and Mass Reduction at Engine Concept Design Phase

2011-05-17
2011-01-1511
Due to the global economic downturn and higher environmental awareness, the social demands for low cost and fuel efficient vehicles are increasing. At the same time the engine power is increasing and customer expectations of reliability and NVH levels are increasing. To meet all the requirements, engineers are challenged to design light weight parts with higher performance. However, unconsidered mass reduction carries a risk of compromised NVH, Functional Reliability, and other functional demands. In order to resolve this contradiction, it is important to establish a basic structure with minimum necessary mass at the concept design phase, when there are still many degrees of freedom in the design space. Hence, a multi-objective optimization CAE methodology applicable for designing the basic structure of the Engine system was developed and is detailed below.
Technical Paper

A Study of Mixed-FAME and Trace Component Effects on the Filter Blocking Propensity of FAME and FAME Blends

2010-10-25
2010-01-2116
Previous studies have investigated the impacts of biofuel usage on the performance, drivability and durability of modern diesel engines and exhaust after-treatment systems including test work with different types, concentrations and mixtures of bio fuel components. During this earlier work vehicle fuel filter blocking issues were encountered during a field trial using various types of EN 14214 compliant Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) blended into EN 590 diesel. This paper summarises a subsequent literature review that was carried out looking into potential causes of this filter blocking and further work that was then carried out to expand on the findings. From this, a laboratory study was carried out to assess the increase in fuel filter blocking tendency (FBT) when various FAMEs from mixed sources were blended into EN 590 diesel at different concentrations, including levels above those currently allowed in the European market.
Journal Article

FEM System Development for Dynamic Response Analysis of Acoustic Trim

2009-05-19
2009-01-2213
The multilayer vehicle trim is well known for its effective influence upon noise and vibration characteristics not only in the high-frequency range but also in the low and mid-frequency ranges. FEM technologies which represent the accurate stiffness, mass and damping of trim parts such as the dash silencer and the floor carpet are essential in order to extend current body FEM capability to the road noise and the engine noise issues generated in the mid-frequency range. Conventional modeling methodologies such as local impedance and/or spring-mass modeling that express absorption and insulation properties of acoustic trim contain limitations in the mid-frequency range. There are few reliable FEM technologies to create practical vehicle models that represent the precise characteristics of the trim. In this paper, poroelastic modeling of acoustic multilayer trim was established by employing Biot theory.
Technical Paper

Study of Future Engine Oil (First Report): Future Engine Oil Scenario

2007-07-23
2007-01-1977
In recent years, problems such as global warming, the depletion of natural resources, and air pollution caused by emissions are emerging on a global scale. These problems call for efforts directed toward the development of fuel-efficient engines and exhaust gas reduction measures. As a solution to these issues, performance improvements should be achieved on the oil that lubricates the sliding sections of engines. This report points to features required of future engine oil-such as contribution to fuel consumption, minimized adverse effects on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system, and improved reliability achieved by sludge reduction-and discusses the significance of these features. For engine oil to contribution of engine oil to lower fuel consumption, we examined the effects of reduced oil viscosity on friction using gasoline and diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Significance of Electronics Platforms and the Motivation for JasPar

2006-10-16
2006-21-0020
In recent vehicles, E/E architecture is defined and used as a platform to accommodate various electronics features for better development efficiency, lower cost and higher quality. As electronics features increase and integrated control systems make vehicle electronics more complex, good electronics platforms are vital for today's and future vehicle development. This paper first describes the evolution of vehicle electronics and its recent trend and then addresses the challenges facing vehicle electronics: ✓ More integrated control systems ✓ More software ✓ More networks ✓ Shorter time to market Finally, why JasPar1), Japan Automotive Software Platform and Architecture, was founded and how it is organized will be described including the working group activities on FlexRay implementation.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Vehicles Lessons Learned and Future Prospects

2006-10-16
2006-21-0027
There exist many environmental and earth resource problems to be solved for the 21st century. Hybridization of both internal combustion powertrains and fuel cell powertrains holds great promise for next generation vehicles. This paper describes the lessons learned during design, development, production and marketing of nearly 700,000 hybrid vehicles to date. We review the evolution of major components with a focus on reducing cost, mass and volume while increasing power and efficiency. We also describe the future prospects for hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Trends of Future Powertrain Development and the Evolution of Powertrain Control Systems

2004-10-18
2004-21-0063
High fuel efficiency and low emission technologies, such as Direct Injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines and hybrid powertrains, have been developed to resolve environmental and energy resource issues. The hybrid powertrain system has achieved superior power performance as well as higher system efficiency and is expected to be a core powertrain technology because it is compatible with various power sources including fuel cells. It becomes important to control complicated hybrid systems that consist of not only a powertrain but also vehicle systems such as regenerative braking. Model-based control and calibration enables both control strategy optimization and control system development efficiency improvement.
Technical Paper

Experience and Perspective of Hybrids

2002-10-21
2002-21-0068
The Prius, Toyota Motor Corporation’s mass-produced hybrid vehicle (HV), was launched in Japan, other Asian countries, North America and Europe, and has now been accepted into the global market. Following the Prius, the Estima Hybrid and the Crown Mild Hybrid, although being based on different systems were released into the Japanese market in 2001. Over 100,000 Toyota HVs are currently on the road, and this proves that HVs are considered practical and reliable vehicles, not special vehicles. HVs have advantages in fuel economy and exhaust gas emissions compared with conventional ICE vehicles. HVs with differing kinds of hybrid systems will be introduced into the market in the future, and will gain in popularity coexisting with ICE vehicles.
Technical Paper

Engine Starting System Development by Belt Drive Mechanism

2002-03-04
2002-01-1086
The basic concept of the Toyota mild hybrid system is to provide a smooth and reliable engine restarting method from an idling stop, while at the same time being able to drive all of the accessories during the idling stop. This concept has been realized and marketed for the first time in the world, by utilizing a newly developed simulation of belt behavior to optimize the specification of the belt and its peripheral parts.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Flow in the Induction System of an Internal Combustion Engine -Multi-Dimensional Calculation Using a New Method of Lines

1990-02-01
900255
Multi-dimensional code has been developed to simulate the effect of geometry on mass flow rate and flow pattern in the induction system of an internal combustion engine. The unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates are solved by a new method of lines. In the method of lines, the governing equations are spatially discretized by a finite difference approximation and the resulting system of ordinary differential equations is integrated. As a time integration scheme, we newly propose to use the rational Runge-Kutta scheme in order to efficiently simulate the flows in the induction system. The domain-decomposition technique is introduced so that body-fitted structured grid can be easily generated for such complex geometry as a real intake port shape. The present code is applied to 2 and 3 dimensional steady flows in intake port/cylinder assembly with a valve.
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