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Technical Paper

Development of New Hybrid System for Mid-Size SUV

2020-04-14
2020-01-0842
Fuel economy and emission regulations for Light-duty Trucks (LDT) are becoming increasingly restrictive year by year. At the same time, Mid-size SUV demands are increasing all over the world. The advancement of Toyota Hybrid System (THS) aims to meet increasingly strict fuel economy regulations and rapidly advance vehicle technologies to meet electrification goals by 2050 (Figure 1). Toyota has been committed to the evolution of hybrid technology starting with the first Prius in 1997 and continues to develop industry leading electrification technologies. The updated hybrid system for the brand-new Highlander was developed to meet worldwide regulations and have competitive class leading fuel economy with an affordable price. This technology is necessary not only to anticipate expanding SUV sales around the world, but to also keep environmental impact to a minimum.
Technical Paper

Development of New Hybrid Transaxle for Mid-Size Sports Utility Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0850
Toyota has developed a new Hybrid (HV) transaxle P810 for Mid-Size SUVs to improve fuel efficiency and power performance. The transaxle was developed based on Toyota's new development strategy - Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA). By adopting technologies to shorten overall length of the transaxle, installation into the same engine compartment of Mid-Size sedans have been realized while also improving the motor output. This paper will introduce technologies regarding the new mount structure for shortening overall length, and furthermore, noise reduction related to this mount structure.
Technical Paper

Low-Emission and Fuel-Efficient Exhaust System with New Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor

2020-04-14
2020-01-0655
This paper describes an exhaust system using a new air-fuel ratio (hereinafter, A/F) sensor that contributes to low emissions and low fuel consumption of gasoline engines. As the first technical feature, the water splash resistance of the A/F sensor has been substantially improved which allows A/F control to be enabled without delay during engine cold start. To realize this capability, it is important that the sensor characteristics are not affected by the condensed water generated in the exhaust pipe. Therefore, a technique that has the effectiveness of a water splash resistance layer with water repellent function is demonstrated. As the second technical feature, the power consumption of the sensor has been substantially reduced. This is achieved by improving thermal efficiency of the sensor that the element can be activated at a low temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of Power Control Unit for Compact-Class Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0456
Toyota Motor has developed a new compact class hybrid vehicle (HV). This vehicle incorporates a new hybrid system to improve fuel efficiency. For this system, a new power control unit (PCU) has been developed that is downsizing, lightweight, and high efficiency. It is also important to have a highly adaptable function that can be applied to various car models. This paper describes the development of PCUs that play an important role in new systems.
Technical Paper

Development of RC-IGBT with a New Structure That Contributes to Both Reduced Size of Power Control Unit and Low Loss in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0596
In order to improve the fuel efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), it is necessary to reduce the size and power loss of the HEV Power Control Units (PCUs). The loss of power devices (IGBTs and FWDs) used in a PCU accounts for approximately 20% of electric power loss of an HEV. Therefore, it is important to reduce the power loss while size reduction of the power devices. In order to achieve the newly developed PCU target for compact-size vehicles, the development targets for the power device were to achieve low power loss equivalent to its previous generation while size reduction by 25%. The size reduction was achieved by developing a new RC-IGBT (Reverse Conducting IGBT) with an IGBT and a FWD integration. As for the power loss aggravation, which was a major issue due to this integration, we optimized some important parameters like the IGBT and FWD surface layout and backside FWD pattern.
Technical Paper

Improving Winter Fuel Economy by Using Weather Information

2020-04-14
2020-01-1241
When the air conditioning (A/C) is turned on, the intake air to the HVAC is cooled at the evaporator. This is not only used for cooling the air temperature but also to dehumidify. Therefore, for a typical automatic climate control system, A/C will automatically operate even in winter (cold ambient temperature conditions) in order to prevent the windows from fogging despite its effect on fuel economy. In some applications, a humidity sensor is installed on top of the windshield and when the probability of fogging is low the A/C operation is disabled automatically to prevent unnecessary compressor operation which can increase fuel consumption. However, humidity sensor is not widely adopted as it requires some space to be installed and the cost is relatively expensive compared with other HVAC equipped sensors. In this study, a system was invented that disables the compressor operation when the fogging probability is low without using the conventional humidity sensor.
Technical Paper

Development of Ultra Low Viscosity 0W-8 Engine Oil

2020-04-14
2020-01-1425
Further fuel economy improvement of the internal combustion engine is indispensable for CO2 reduction in order to cope with serious global environmental problems. Although lowering the viscosity of engine oil is an effective way to improve fuel economy, it may reduce the wear resistance. Therefore, it is important to achieve both improved fuel economy and reliability. We have developed new 0W- 8 engine oil of ultra-low viscosity and achieved an improvement in fuel economy by 0.8% compared to the commercial 0W-16 engine oil. For this new oil, we reduced the friction coefficient under boundary lubrication regime by applying an oil film former and calcium borate detergent. The film former increased the oil film thickness without increasing the oil viscosity. The calcium borate detergent enhanced the friction reduction effect of molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC).
Technical Paper

Coasting Technology for Real-World Fuel Economy Improvement of a Hybrid Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-1195
Automobile manufactures need to adopt new technologies to meet global CO2 (carbon dioxide) emission regulations and better fuel efficiency demands from customers. Also, the production cost should be as low as possible for an affordable vehicle. Therefore, it is advantageous for OEMs to develop fuel efficient technologies which can be controlled by software without additional hardware costs. The coasting control is a fuel efficiency improvement technology that can be implemented by the change of vehicle software only. The coasting control is a technology that reduces the driving resistance (Deceleration) when the driver releases the gas pedal. This technology leads to reducing the energy required for the vehicle to drive and results in improving the real-world fuel economy. In an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle, the coasting state is achieved by changing the gear to neutral, and the effect has been discussed and clarified by many previous studies.
Technical Paper

Research of Fuel Components to Enhance Engine Thermal Efficiency Part I: Concepts for Fuel Molecule Candidate

2019-12-19
2019-01-2255
As part of efforts to address climate change and improve energy security, researchers have improved the thermal efficiency of engines by expanding the lean combustion limit. To further expand the lean combustion limit, the authors focused not only on engine technology but the chemical reactivity of various fuel molecules. Furan and anisole were among the fuel molecules selected, based on the idea that promising candidates should enhance the flame propagation speed and have good knocking resistance. Engine testing showed that the lean limit can be expanded by using fuels with the right molecular structures, resulting in higher thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development Strategy for 4th Generation PCU

2019-12-19
2019-01-2309
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed new Hybrid Vehicle (HV) and Plug in Hybrid Vehicles (PHV) from Compact class to Medium class. These vehicles incorporate newly developed hybrid systems for the improvement of fuel efficiency. The feature of these new generation power control unit is smaller, lighter, and higher efficiency than the previous generation. To adapt to various output systems, a development strategy of new generation Power Control Unit (PCU) was established. Based on the strategy, the development efficiency was improved. In this Paper, the strategy is described.
Technical Paper

Real-time Long Horizon Model Predictive Control of a Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Power-Split Utilizing Trip Preview

2019-12-19
2019-01-2341
Given a forecast of speed and load demands during a trip, a hybrid powertrain power-split Trajectory Optimization Problem (TOP) can be solved to optimize fuel consumption. This can be done on desktop to set performance benchmarks; however, it has been believed that the TOP could not be solved in real-time and is not a realizable controller. As such, several approximations of the TOP have been made in the interest of obtaining a real-time near-optimal controller, for example, Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategies (ECMS) and their adaptive counterparts. These strategies decide on the power-split by, at each sampled time instant, minimizing a Horizon-0 (without predicting forward in time) composite function of fuel consumption and equivalent battery energy. The fuel economy that results from these strategies is highly sensitive to the calibration of the associated equivalence factor, and furthermore, must be chosen differently for different drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvement by Engine Oil with Ultra-High Viscosity Index

2019-12-19
2019-01-2203
With the electrification of automobiles, such as hybridization, engines on these vehicles operate more frequently at low oil temperatures, while engines are more specifically run at low engine speed and high load condition for driving vehicles. Hence, engine oils are required to reduce their viscosity at low temperature for friction reduction to improve fuel economy and maintain high temperature viscosity enough to protect engine parts for robustness at the same time. This leads to the improvement of viscosity index, the "ultra-high viscosity index (UHVI)" concept. The novel engine oil technology with a new high performance polymer was investigated. One of experimental oils showed the 100°C viscosity equivalent to SAE 0W-16 grade and the better fuel economy than that of SAE 0W-8 oil by an engine motoring friction test.
Journal Article

On the Role of Nitric Oxide for the Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of EGR in a DISI Engine Operated with Various Gasoline Fuels

2019-12-19
2019-01-2150
The knock-suppression effectiveness of exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) can vary between implementations that take EGR gases after the three-way catalyst and those that use pre-catalyst EGR gases. A main difference between pre-and post-catalyst EGR gases is the level of trace species like NO, UHC, CO and H2. To quantify the role of NO, this experiment-based study employs NO-seeding in the intake tract for select combinations of fuel types and compression ratios, using simulated post-catalyst EGR gases as the diluent. The four investigated gasoline fuels share a common RON of 98, but vary in octane sensitivity and composition. To enable probing effects of near-zero NO levels, a skip-firing operating strategy is developed whereby the residual gases, which contain trace species like NO, are purged from the combustion chamber. Overall, the effects of NO-seeding on knock are consistent with the differences in knock limits for preand post-catalyst EGR gases.
Technical Paper

Development of Firing Fuel Economy Engine Dyno Test Procedure for JASO Ultra Low Viscosity Engine Oil Standard (JASO GLV-1)

2019-10-19
2019-01-2296
Fuel economy measurement test is one of important engine tests to establish fuel economy engine oil performance standard to support CO2 emission reduction efforts in the automotive industry. On the other hand, it is difficult to develop an engine test without appropriate engine hardware that is designed to utilize low viscosity engine oils. A new firing fuel economy test was developed based on 2ZR-FXE engine designed for hybrid powertrain. The new test procedure aimed to provide the tool to evaluate new low viscosity grades such as 0W-8 and 0W-12 that were adapted in SAE J300 in 2015.
Technical Paper

Highly Decorative, Lightweight Flexible Solar Cells for Automotive Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0863
The strict CO2 emission limit for passenger cars have been set by US, EU, Japan, China and other countries. In order to meet the requirement, it is essential to develop an alternative power source for the future cars. Power generation by solar panels is a promising renewable energy candidate because the most environmentally friendly vehicles such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are equipped with large-capacity batteries that can be charged with electricity generated by solar panels. The requirements for the solar panels are paintable with desired color and to be lightweight. In this study, we developed a simple lift-off process for producing colorful and lightweight Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells for future automotive application. Our measurements show that the developed lift-off process can provide the lightweight solar panel that have nearly identical performance compared to that of the cell before the lift-off process.
Journal Article

Using Chemical Kinetics to Understand Effects of Fuel Type and Compression Ratio on Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of Various EGR Constituents

2019-04-02
2019-01-1140
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to mitigate knock in SI engines. However, experiments have shown that the effectiveness of various EGR constituents to suppress knock varies with fuel type and compression ratio (CR). To understand some of the underlying mechanisms by which fuel composition, octane sensitivity (S), and CR affect the knock-mitigation effectiveness of EGR constituents, the current paper presents results from a chemical-kinetics modeling study. The numerical study was conducted with CHEMKIN, imposing experimentally acquired pressure traces on a closed reactor model. Simulated conditions include combinations of three RON-98 (Research Octane Number) fuels with two octane sensitivities and distinctive compositions, three EGR diluents, and two CRs (12:1 and 10:1). The experimental results point to the important role of thermal stratification in the end-gas to smooth peak heat-release rate (HRR) and prevent acoustic noise.
Technical Paper

Research of Knocking Deterioration due to Accumulated Carbon Deposits on Piston Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-1141
The quantity of heavy components in fuel is increasing as automotive fuels diversify, and engine oil formulations are becoming more complex. These trends result in the formation of larger amounts of carbon deposits as reaction byproducts during combustion, potentially worsening the susceptibility of the engine to knock [1]. The research described in this paper aimed to identify the mechanism that causes knocking to deteriorate due to carbon deposits in low to medium engine load ranges, which are mainly used when the vehicle drives off and accelerates. With this objective, the cylinder temperature and pressure with and without deposits were measured, and it was found that knocking deteriorates in a certain range of ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

2019-04-02
2019-01-0502
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) using a heat pump system in cold weather. One advantage of an HV is the high efficiency of the vehicle system provided by the coupling and optimal control of an electric motor and an engine. However, in a conventional HV, fuel economy degradation is observed in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin using the engine results in a reduced efficiency of the vehicle system. In this study, a heat pump, combined with an engine, was used for thermal management to decrease fuel economy degradation. The heat pump is equipped with an electrically driven compressor that pumps ambient heat into a water-cooled condenser. The heat generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce emissions and the cabin needs heat to provide thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Pressure and High Performance GPF Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-1261
Awareness of environmental protection with respect to the particulate number (PN) in the exhaust emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine vehicles has increased. In order to decrease the emission of particulate matter (PM), suppressing emissions by improving engine combustion, and/or filtering PM with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is effective. This paper describes the improvement of the coated GPF to reduce pressure drop while securing three-way performance and PN filtration efficiency. It was necessary to load a certain amount of washcoat on the GPF to add the three-way function, but this led to an increase in pressure drop that affected engine power. The pressure drop was influenced by the gas permeation properties of the filter wall.
Technical Paper

Development of New Continuously Variable Transmission for 2.0-Liter Class Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1062
Toyota has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) called "Direct Shift-CVT" which is for 2.0-liter class vehicles. This CVT provided not only power transmission by a metal belt held with a conventional pulley but also additional gear mechanism. This CVT is developed to improve fuel efficiency, acceleration characteristic, and quietness. At this CVT, the startup low gear ratio is achieved by gear mechanism and the power is switched by clutches. Since the belt-pulley portion can be realized to be wide range by using only high gear ratio range, the input load into belt-pulley portion is reduced and unprecedented compact and high efficient belt-pulley portion is established. Consequently, the high efficiency in all fields from startup acceleration to high speed driving is achieved to improve fuel efficiency.
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