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Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Type Oil Deterioration Sensor

According to the principle of pH measurement, an on-board type engine oil deterioration sensor has been developed. The developed sensor is composed of a Pb and oxidized stainless steel electrodes. The sensor signal shows a good linear relationship to the quasi-pH value of the oil. Especially in the region where the oil deterioration proceeds, the remaining basic additives in the oil is easily estimated from the sensor signal.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Poor Engine Response Caused by MTBE-Blended Gasoline from the Standpoint of Fuel Evaporation

Fifty percent distillation temperature (T50) can be used as a warm-up driveability indicator for a hydrocarbon-type gasoline. MTBE-blended gasoline, however, provides poorer driveability than a hydrocarbon-type gasoline with the same T50. The purposes of this paper are to examine the reason for poor engine driveability caused by MTBE-blended gasolines, and to propose a new driveability indicator for gasolines including MTBE-blended gasolines. The static and dynamic evaporation characteristics of MTBE-blended gasolines such as the evaporation rate and the behavior of each component during evaporation were analyzed mainly by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The results of the analysis show that the MTBE concentration in the vapor, evaporated at ambient temperature (e.g. 24°C), is higher than that in the original gasoline. Accordingly, the fuel vapor with enriched MTBE flows into the combustion chamber of an engine just after the throttle valve is opened.
Technical Paper

Effects of Phosphorus and Ash Contents of Engine Oils on Deactivation of Monolithic Three-Way Catalysts and Oxygen Sensors

The effects of the phosphorus and sulfated ash contents of engine oils on the deactivation of monolithic three-way catalysts and oxygen sensors were studied. The effect of temperature was evaluated as well. The catalysts and oxygen sensors were poisoned in a 100-hour engine bench test. As a result, it was learned that engine oils with higher phosphorus contents showed a higher concentration of phosphorus on the catalyst surfaces, and the ability of the catalysts to convert carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen decreased. However, the phosphorus content was not observed to have any effect on hydrocarbons. The sulfated ash reduced the phosphorus concentration on the catalyst surface, but it also had a negative effect on the catalytic activity. The deactivation of the catalysts was much more noticeable at 800°C than at 720°C. In the tests at 720°C and 800°C, no deactivation of the oxygen sensors was observed, regardless of the composition of the engine oil.