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Technical Paper

Effects of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Regulations on Exhaust Emission Reduction: Part 2

1995-10-01
952502
The 50% and 90% distillation temperature (T50 & T90), aromatics, olefins and sulfur content are regulated in California Phase2 Reformulated Gasoline. The effects of these properties on the exhaust emissions were investigated. Twelve test fuels with little interaction between T50, T90, aromatics and olefins were prepared. Exhaust emissions were measured using a TLEV according to 1975 Federal Test Procedure (75 FTP). T50 had a large effect on exhaust HC emissions. T90 also affected HC emissions. Both increasing and decreasing T50, T90 showed increasing exhaust HC emissions. These results suggest that an optimum range of T50 and T90 exist for lowering exhaust HC emissions. The effects of sulfur on exhaust emissions were also investigated. A Pt/Rh type catalyst (production type) and a Pd type catalyst (prototype) were prepared. These catalysts were put on a 94MY TLEV. Increase of sulfur lead to increase of the exhaust emissions with both catalysts.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gasoline and Gasoline Detergents on Combustion Chamber Deposit Formation

1994-10-01
941893
Engine dynamometer tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of detergent additives and gasoline components on Combustion Chamber Deposits (CCD). Additives with polyether amine (PEA) and with polyolefin amine (POA) chemicals were used. Three kinds of POA additives were used. Our results show that some kinds of additives and aromatics in gasoline increase CCD formation. Different polyolefin detergents show different tendency of CCD formation. The amount of CCD showed good relationship with the unwashed gum level of the gasoline. In general, smaller dosages produce less CCD. This means that detergents which have good IVD and PFID effectiveness at smaller dosage are better with regard to CCD. We analyzed the CCD by C13-NMR, GPC and IR method. The detergent contributes to CCD. Vehicle emissions tests were carried out to evaluate the effects of CCD on exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Type Oil Deterioration Sensor

1993-10-01
932840
According to the principle of pH measurement, an on-board type engine oil deterioration sensor has been developed. The developed sensor is composed of a Pb and oxidized stainless steel electrodes. The sensor signal shows a good linear relationship to the quasi-pH value of the oil. Especially in the region where the oil deterioration proceeds, the remaining basic additives in the oil is easily estimated from the sensor signal.
Technical Paper

Effects of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Specifications on Exhaust Emission Reduction

1992-10-01
922179
In response to various reformulated gasoline regulations, several studies have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between fuel properties and vehicle exhaust emissions. These studies, however, have focused on the fuel effect and have not examined the most promising advanced technology emission control systems on low emission vehicles. Toyota's reformulated gasoline research first set out to study the effect fuel compositions has on 2 different emission control systems. On both systems, non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions were significantly affected by the 50% and 90% distillation temperature (T50 and T90). A correlation was also found exhaust olefine content and the amount of MTBE contained in the fuel. Research was also conducted on the specific ozone reactivity (SOR) of exhaust hydrocarbons. Various fuels with similar specifications but blended from different feedstocks were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Poor Engine Response Caused by MTBE-Blended Gasoline from the Standpoint of Fuel Evaporation

1992-02-01
920800
Fifty percent distillation temperature (T50) can be used as a warm-up driveability indicator for a hydrocarbon-type gasoline. MTBE-blended gasoline, however, provides poorer driveability than a hydrocarbon-type gasoline with the same T50. The purposes of this paper are to examine the reason for poor engine driveability caused by MTBE-blended gasolines, and to propose a new driveability indicator for gasolines including MTBE-blended gasolines. The static and dynamic evaporation characteristics of MTBE-blended gasolines such as the evaporation rate and the behavior of each component during evaporation were analyzed mainly by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The results of the analysis show that the MTBE concentration in the vapor, evaporated at ambient temperature (e.g. 24°C), is higher than that in the original gasoline. Accordingly, the fuel vapor with enriched MTBE flows into the combustion chamber of an engine just after the throttle valve is opened.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Oil Consumption by Observing Oil Behavior Around Piston Ring Using a Glass Cylinder Engine

1989-09-01
892107
The reduction of engine oil consumption rate is one of the important concerns for automotive engineers. However, it has been difficult to solve this subject, since the oil consumption mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In this study, to clarify the oil loss mechanism via the piston rings, a transparent glass cylinder engine was used to observe oil behavior between cylinder wall and piston surface. For photographic observation, a high speed camera, a still camera. and a TV camera were used. Since the new photographic system by using TV camera with a synchro - flash and a synchro-memory was applied, it was also possible to observe the oil behavior in detail. Moreover, a new visual method by which colored oil was injected from the various points on the piston surface and traced was developed for easy analysis of oil movement around the piston ring.
Technical Paper

Study of Transient Oil Consumption of Automotive Engine

1989-09-01
892110
The oil consumption phenomena during transient engine operating condition is analyzed. The investigation of the oil consumption by means of the real-time oil consumption meter shows that higher intake manifold vacuum during engine-brake condition causes a larger amount of transient oil consumption. The reverse blowby gas flow into the combustion chamber from the crankcase is generated by the high vacuum under engine-brake condition. It is found that this reverse gas flow carries the oil into the chamber from the third land of the piston through the ring end gap of the compression rings. The oil on the piston skirt leaks into the third land through the clearance between the oil ring and the cylinder bore. The weakened bore-to-ring contact pressure by the piston slap motion increases the amount of the leakage oil. New ring sets and pistons are developed based on the results of this study.
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