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Technical Paper

Development of Model Predictive Control Strategy of SCR System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines with a One-State Control-Oriented SCR Model

2018-09-10
2018-01-1763
Urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxides (NOx) is a key technology for heavy-duty diesel engines to achieve the increasingly stringent NOx emission standards. The aqueous urea injection control is critical for urea-SCR systems in order to achieve high NOx conversion efficiency while restricting the tailpipe ammonia (NH3) slip. For Euro VI emission regulation, an advanced control strategy is essential for SCR systems since its NOx emission limits are tighter and test procedure are more stringent compared to Euro IV and Euro V. The complex chemical kinetics of the SCR process has motivated model-based control design approaches. However, the model is too complex to allow real-time implementation. Therefore, it is very important to have a reduced order model for SCR control system.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis on the Potential of Reducing DPF Size Using Low Ash Lubricant Oil

2018-09-10
2018-01-1760
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is necessary for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Many studies have demonstrated that the lubricant derived ash has a significant effect on DPF pressure drop and engine fuel economy, and this effect becomes more and more severe with the increasing of operating hours of the DPF because the ash accumulated in the DPF cannot be removed by regeneration. It is reported that most of the DPFs operated with more ash than soot in the filter for more than three quarters of the time during its lifetime [1]. In order to mitigate this problem, the original engine manufacturers (OEM) tend to use an oversized DPF for the engine. However, it will increase the costs of the DPF and reduce the compactness of the engine aftertreatment system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study and Numerical Interpretation on the Temperature Field of DPF during Active Regeneration with Hydrocarbon Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-1257
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is indispensable for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Both the peak temperature and the maximum temperature gradient of the DPF during active regeneration should be well controlled in order to enhance the reliability and durability of the filter. In this paper, the temperature field of the DPF during active regeneration with hydrocarbon (HC) injection was investigated with engine bench tests and numerical simulation. For the experimental study, 24 thermocouples were inserted into the DPF channels to measure the inner temperature of the filter to capture its temperature field, and the circumferential, axial and radial distribution of the filter temperature was analyzed to understand the DPF temperature field behavior during active regeneration.
Technical Paper

Development of Model Based Closed Loop Control Strategy of SCR System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2383
Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a key technology for heavy-duty diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent nitric oxides (NOx) emission limits of regulations. The urea water solution injection control is critical for urea SCR systems to achieve high NOx conversion efficiency while keeping the ammonia (NH3) slip at a required level. In general, an open loop control strategy is sufficient for SCR systems to satisfy Euro IV and Euro V NOx emission limits. However, for Euro VI emission regulation, advanced control strategy is essential for SCR systems due to its more tightened NOx emission limit and more severe test procedure compared to Euro IV and Euro V. This work proposed an approach to achieve model based closed loop control for SCR systems to meet the Euro VI NOx emission limits. A chemical kinetic model of the SCR catalyst was established and validated to estimate the ammonia storage in the SCR catalyst.
Technical Paper

PLII-LEM and OH* Chemiluminescence Study on Soot Formation in Spray Combustion of PODEn-Diesel Blend Fuels in a Constant Volume Vessel

2017-10-08
2017-01-2329
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) are promising alternative fuel candidates for diesel engines because they present advantages in soot reduction. This study uses a PODEn mixture (contains PODE3-6) from mass production to provide oxygen component in blend fuels. The spray combustion of PODEn-diesel bend fuels in a constant volume vessel was studied using high speed imaging, PLII-LEM and OH* chemiluminescence. Fuels of several blend ratios are compared with pure diesel. Flame luminance data show a near linear decrease tendency with the blend ratio increasing. The OH* images reveal that the ignition positions of all the cases have small differences, which indicates that using a low PODEn blend ratio of no more than 30% does not need significant adjustment in engine combustion control strategies. It is found that 30% PODEn blended with diesel (P30) can effectively reduce the total soot by approximately 68% in comparison with pure diesel.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of WDF in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine over Wide Load Range

2017-10-08
2017-01-2265
Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) refers to the fuels with a distillation range from initial boiling point of gasoline to final boiling point of diesel. Recent experimental results have shown WDF by blending 50% gasoline and 50% diesel (G50) exhibits much lower soot emissions than diesel at medium load with similar thermal efficiency. However, the engine performances fueled by G50 at both low load end and high load end are still unknown. In this study, the combustion and emission characteristics of G50 and diesel are compared over a wide load range from 0.2 MPa IMEP to 1.4 MPa IMEP at a light-duty diesel engine. The results shown that at 0.2 MPa IMEP, G50 exhibits low combustion stability and thermal efficiency. With the increase of load, the poor combustion quality of G50 is improved. G50 can achieve soot-free combustion up to 1.0 MPa IMEP, while diesel cannot.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter for Active Regeneration Process Using Secondary Fuel Injection

2017-10-08
2017-01-2287
Advanced exhaust after-treatment technology is required for heavy-duty diesel vehicles to achieve stringent Euro VI emission standards. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the most efficient system that is used to trap the particulate matter (PM), and particulate number (PN) emissions form diesel engines. The after-treatment system used in this study is catalyzed DPF (CDPF) downstream of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) with secondary fuel injection. Additional fuel is injected upstream of DOC to enhance exothermal heat which is needed to raise the CDPF temperature during the active regeneration process. The objective of this research is to numerically investigate soot loading and active regeneration of a CDPF on a heavy-duty diesel engine. In order to improve the active regeneration performance of CDPF, several factors are investigated in the study such as the effect of catalytic in filter wall, soot distribution form along filter wall, and soot loads.
Technical Paper

Relative Impact of Chemical and Physical Properties of the Oil-Fuel Droplet on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2278
A conceptual approach to help understand and simulate droplet induced pre-ignition is presented. The complex phenomenon of oil-fuel droplet induced pre-ignition has been decomposed to its elementary processes. This approach helps identify the key fluid properties and engine parameters that affect the pre-ignition phenomenon, and could be used to control LSPI. Based on the conceptual model, a 3D CFD engine simulation has been developed which is able to realistically model all of the elementary processes involved in droplet induced pre-ignition. The simulation was successfully able to predict droplet induced pre-ignition at conditions where the phenomenon has been experimentally observed. The simulation has been able to help explain the observation of pre-ignition advancement relative to injection timing as experimentally observed in a previous study [6].
Journal Article

Identification of True Stress-Strain Curve of Thermoplastic Polymers under Biaxial Tension

2016-04-05
2016-01-0514
This article is concerned with identification of true stress-strain curve under biaxial tension of thermoplastic polymers. A new type of biaxial tension attachment was embedded first in a universal material test machine, which is able to transform unidirectional loading of the test machine to biaxial loading on the specimen with constant velocity. Cruciform specimen geometry was optimized via FE modeling. Three methods of calculating true stress in biaxial tension tests were compared, based on incompressibility assumption, linear elastic theory and inverse engineering method, respectively. The inverse engineering method is more appropriate for thermoplastic polymers since it considers the practical volume change of the material during biaxial tension deformation. The strategy of data processing was established to obtain biaxial tension true stress-strain curves of different thermoplastic polymers.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics Using Different Ambient Gases

2016-04-05
2016-01-0867
The spray characteristics is the key to achieve the clean combustion in diesel engines and the in-cylinder conditions are one of the factors affecting the spray process. In this work, the diesel spray characteristics were studied over a range of injection pressures and ambient pressures in a constant volume chamber and a single-hole common rail diesel injector was used. The present work is to decouple the effects of ambient pressure and ambient density on near-field spray processes by using different ambient gas (N2, and CO2). The spray processes were captured by a Photron SA X2 camera with speed of 300,000 fps and resolution of 256 by 80 pixels. The spray processes were analyzed in terms of penetration length and spray tip velocity. Difference in penetration length and tip velocity were found at the same ambient density and/or ambient pressure when different ambient gases were used.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the Effect of Flame Propagation in the Gasoline Compression Ignition by Coupling G-Equation and Reduced Chemical Kinetics Combustion Model

2015-09-01
2015-01-1799
Gasoline Compression Ignition has been widely studied in recent years. The in-cylinder stratified charge in gasoline Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) can extend the high load range with lower pressure rise rate than Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). However, it is still not clear that whether there is flame propagation in the gasoline compression igntion mode and how the flame propagation influences the combustion process and pollution formation. In order to investigate the effect of flame, several gasoline compression ignition cases, including the single-stage and two-stage heat release processes, are simulated with the KIVA-3V Release 2 code in this study. The G-equation is employed to account for flame propagation, and the reduced i-octane/n-heptane mechanism is used to handle the chemical reactions. The results show that the flame propagation exists in the combustion process and it can accelerate the heat release slightly.
Technical Paper

Injection Strategy Study of Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Naphtha

2015-09-01
2015-01-1797
This study investigates the performance of a diesel engine fueled with naphtha under different load by varying injection parameters and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate. The experiments were conducted on a 1.9-liter common rail diesel engine with a compression ratio of 17.5. Naphtha with a research octane number of 60.5 was tested. Three multi-injection strategies were designed. Each injection strategy, aided with EGR, conducts a characteristic combustion mode. Multi-injection strategies and single-injection strategy were tested and compared at one operating point under different main injection timing and EGR conditions. Results indicate that the well-designed multi-injection strategy has advantages over the single injection strategy in lowering noise, emissions and improving combustion efficiency. Among the three strategies, the strategy with 15-degree pilot timing and 2mg/cycle pilot injection could achieve both low NOx and PM emissions without sacrificing much fuel efficiency.
Journal Article

Large Eddy Simulation of an n-Heptane Spray Flame with Dynamic Adaptive Chemistry under Different Oxygen Concentrations

2015-04-14
2015-01-0400
Detailed chemical kinetics is essential for accurate prediction of combustion performance as well as emissions in practical combustion engines. However, implementation of that is challenging. In this work, dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) is integrated into large eddy simulations (LES) of an n-heptane spray flame in a constant volume chamber (CVC) with realistic application conditions. DAC accelerates the time integration of the governing ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for chemical kinetics through the use of locally (spatially and temporally) valid skeletal mechanisms. Instantaneous flame structures and global combustion characteristics such as ignition delay time, flame lift-off length (LOL) and emissions are investigated to assess the effect of DAC on LES-DAC results. The study reveals that in LES-DAC simulations, the auto-ignition time and LOL obtain a well agreement with experiment data under different oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper

Characterization Spray and Combustion Processes of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) in a Constant Volume Chamber

2015-04-14
2015-01-0919
Recent research has shown that butanol, instead of ethanol, has the potential of introducing a more suitable blend in diesel engines. This is because butanol has properties similar to current transportation fuels in comparison to ethanol. However, the main downside is the high cost of the butanol production process. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) is an intermediate product of the fermentation process of butanol production. By eliminating the separation and purification processes, using ABE directly in diesel blends has the potential of greatly decreasing the overall cost for fuel production. This could lead to a vast commercial use of ABE-diesel blends on the market. Much research has been done in the past five years concerning spray and combustion processes of both neat ABE and ABE-diesel mixtures. Additionally, different compositions of ABE mixtures had been characterized with a similar experimental approach.
Technical Paper

DEHB (Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System) Having a Holding Function

2015-03-10
2015-01-0017
Many types of brake by wire systems have been developed in past years, such as EMB (Electro-mechanical Brake) [1, 2], DEHB (Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System) [3] and EWB (Electric Wedge Brake) [4]. When the vehicle need braking in long period such as waiting for traffic light or downhill braking in those brake systems, the current will sustain very long time with very high level. This current will result in high temperature in motor, and will damage the power supplier. When a new DEHB is developing, a holding function is added in this DEHB. The holding function is self-energized when holding the brake, and automatic released after the brake. Advantageously, after activation of the holding function, the current delivered to the motor for braking is substantially decreased, especially, will be zero when the brake torque is not need to adjust.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter with Exhaust Fuel Injection System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1496
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an effective technology for particulate matter (PM) and particle number (PN) reduction. On heavy-duty diesel engines, the passive regeneration by Diesel Oxidation catalysts (DOC) and catalyzed DPFs (CDPF) is widely used for its simplicity and low cost, which is generally combined with the active regeneration of exhaust fuel injection. This study investigated a DOC-CDPF system with exhaust fuel injection upstream of the DOC. The system was integrated with a 7-liter diesel engine whose engine-out PM emission was below the Euro IV level and tested on an engine dynamometer. PM and PN concentrations were measured based on the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP), and the number/size spectrum for particles was obtained by a Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS). The filtration efficiency of DPF on PN was higher than 99% in ESC test, while the efficiency on PM was only 58%.
Technical Paper

Mixing Effects of Early Injection in Diesel Spray Using LES Model with Different Subgrid Scale Models

2013-04-08
2013-01-1111
Early injection timing is an effective measure of pre-mixture formation for diesel low-temperature combustion. Three algebraic subgrid models (Smagorinsky model, dynamic Smagorinsky model and WALE model) and one-equation kinetic energy turbulent model using modified TAB breakup model (MTAB model) have been implemented into KIVA3V code to make a detailed large eddy simulation of the atomization and evaporation processes of early injection timing in a constant volume chamber and a Ford high-speed direct-injection diesel engine. The results show that the predictive vapor mass fraction and liquid penetration using LES is in good agreement with the experiment results. In combustion chamber, the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and viscosity using LES are less than with the RANS models, and following the increasing time, the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and viscosity also increase and are concentrated on the spray area.
Journal Article

Visualization of Partially Premixed Combustion of Gasoline-like Fuel Using High Speed Imaging in a Constant Volume Vessel

2012-04-16
2012-01-1236
Combustion visualizations were carried out in a constant volume vessel to study the partially premixed combustion of a gasoline-like fuel using high speed imaging. The test fuel (G80H20) is composed by volume 80% commercial gasoline and 20% n-heptane. The effects of ambient gas composition, ambient temperature and injection pressure on G80H20 combustion characteristics were analyzed. Meanwhile, a comparison of the EGR effect on combustion process between G80H20 and diesel was made. Four ambient gas conditions that represent the in-cylinder gas compositions of a heavy-duty diesel engine with EGR ratios of 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% were used to simulate EGR conditions. Variables also include two ambient temperature (910K and 870K) and two injection pressure (20 MPa and 50 MPa) conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Legform Impactor with 4-DOF Knee-Joint for Pedestrian Safety Assessment in Omni-Direction Impacts

2011-04-12
2011-01-0085
The issue of car-to-pedestrian impact safety has received more and more attention. For leg protection, a legform impactor with 2 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) proposed by EEVC is required in current regulations for injury assessment, and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association Inc. (JAMA) and Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI) have developed a more biofidelic pedestrian legform since 2000. However, studies show that those existing legforms may not be able to cover some car-to-pedestrian impact situations. This paper documents the development of a new pedestrian legform with 4 DOFs at the knee-joint. It can better represent the kinematics characteristics of human knee-joint, especially under loading conditions in omni-direction impacts. The design challenge is to solve the packaging problem, including design of the knee-joint mechanisms and layout of all the sensors in a limited space of the legform.
Technical Paper

Application of Narrow Cone Angle Injectors to Achieve Advanced Compression Ignition on a Mass-Production Diesel Engine - Control Strategy and Engine Performance Evaluation

2009-11-02
2009-01-2700
Advanced compression ignition combustion system which reduces simultaneously both nitride oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) is a promising approach to meet future emission regulations. In order to achieve advanced compression ignition, flexible fuel injection is required for ultra-early and post-TDC injections, which conventional injector fails to accomplish due to wall-wetting effect. In this work, special injectors with the spray angle of 60 degree are applied on a 4 cylinder mass-production diesel engine without modification of the engine configuration. For application-oriented study, sweep experiments of injection timings and durations, fuel injection pressure and the boost pressure are carried out to investigate the relationships between the control parameters and the engine performance. Model based calibration and real application tests validate the maximum applicable operation range of maximum speed of 2200 RPM and IMEP of 8.0 bar.
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