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Technical Paper

Analysis of Active Collision Avoidance Performance Based on Cooperative Regenerative Auxiliary Braking System

2019-11-04
2019-01-5027
Active collision avoidance can assist drivers to avoid longitudinal collision through active brake. Regenerative braking can improve the driving range and braking response speed. At this stage, conventional hydraulic braking system limits the implements of above technologies because of its poor performance of response speed and coordinated control. While the brake-by-wire system is a better actuator that can fulfill requirements of automotive electric and intelligent development due to its rapid response and flexible adjustment. However, the system control algorithm becomes more complicated with introduction of regenerative braking and active collision avoidance function, which is also the main problem solved in this paper.
Technical Paper

Optimal Speed Profile for Minimum Vibration during Engine Start Using Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle Approach

2019-11-04
2019-01-5026
An imperceptible engine start is critical to the acceptance of hybrid vehicles. This paper focusses on an optimal control problem that tries to reduce vibration during engine start. Efforts are made to obtain the optimal speed trajectory that could cause minimum vibration during engine start. In the first section, the target diesel powertrain is introduced. A four cylinder diesel engine is coaxially paralleled with an ISG motor. The ISG motor serves as the engine starter and engine flywheel. Its dynamic model is established using crank-link dynamics. Secondly, an index is brought out to evaluate the severity of vibration. The cylinder pressure variation is the main cause of engine torque ripple, which in turn results in engine speed fluctuation. The square of the angular acceleration is chosen as the index of vibration. The index shows a positive relation of cylinder pressure in terms of amplitude.
Technical Paper

A Novel Three Steps Composited Parameter Matching Method of an Electromagnetic Regenerative Suspension System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0173
The electromagnetic regenerative suspension has attracted much attention recently due to its potential to improve ride comfort and handling stability, at the same time recover kinetic energy which is typically dissipated in traditional shock absorbers. The key components of a ball-screw regenerative suspension system are a motor, a ball screw and a nut. For this kind of regenerative suspension, its damping character is determined by the motor's torque-speed capacity, which is different from the damping character of the traditional shock absorber. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a systematic approach for the parameter matching of ball-screw regenerative suspension, so that the damping character provided by it can ensure ride comfort and handling stability. In this paper, a 2-DOF quarter vehicle simulation model with regenerative suspension is constructed. The effects of the inertia force on ride comfort and handling stability are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermodynamic Conditions on Spark Ignition to Compression Ignition in Ultra-Lean Mixture Using Rapid Compression Machine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0963
Compression ratio and specific heat ratio are two dominant factors influencing engine thermal efficiency. Therefore, ultra-lean burn may be one method to deal with increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations in the approaching future. To achieve high efficiency and clean combustion, innovative combustion modes have been applied on research engines including homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), and gasoline direct-injection compression ignition (GDCI), etc. Compared to HCCI, SACI can extend the load range and more easily control combustion phase while it is constrained by the limit of flame propagation. For SACI with ultra-lean burn in engines, equivalence ratio (φ), rich-fuel mixture around spark plug, and supercharging are three essentials for combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation of a Magnetorheological Fluid Damper with Multi-Accumulator during Mode Shifting

2019-04-02
2019-01-0856
In a monotube magnetorheological fluid damper (MRFD), there usually exists a compensation chamber with designated initial gas pressure. This enclosed compensation chamber works as an air spring to some degree to provide force to the working piston. In this work, in order to extend the external damping force range and improve the controlling efficiency, a structure of MRFD with three additional accumulators is proposed. These additional accumulators are connected to the atmosphere through an air pump and the compensation chamber with a barometric valve. The external damping force range thus can be rapidly adjusted through mode shifting with this configuration. A mathematical model of this damper with coupled effects between the air and the magnetorheological fluid (MRF) is developed. Comparing the bench tests results with some simulation outcomes, the simulation model of this MRFD is validated.
Technical Paper

Simulation Research on Engine Speed Fluctuation Suppression Based on Engine Torque Observer by Using a Flywheel ISG

2019-04-02
2019-01-0787
This paper conducts simulation research on engine torque ripple suppression based on the engine torque observer by using a flywheel-ISG (integrated starter generator). Usually, engine torque can be suppressed by using a passive method such as by installing a flywheel or torsional damper. However, failure problems arise in hybrid system because of different mechanical characters of the engine and its co-axial ISG motor. On the prototype test bench, the flywheel of the engine has been removed and replaced by an ISG rotor, namely FISG (flywheel ISG). Besides, the crank and FISG rotor are directly connected, which means no dampers or clutches are installed. If the engine torque ripples can be suppressed by the same level as the flywheel and damper by FISG active torque compensation, the new system can be more compact and economical. Simulation efforts are made to verify its feasibility. Firstly, based on the experimental test bench, which is currently under construction.
Technical Paper

The Differential Braking Steering Control of Special Purpose Flat-Bed Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0440
Special purpose flat-bed vehicle is commonly utilized to move heavily items such as containers in warehouse, port and other freight handling scene, the hydraulic steering system have be gradually replaced by electric ones. However, the cost of electric steering system is high for commercial activities. Thus, for some corporates, the differential braking steering strategy becomes an ideal alternative. The purpose of this paper is to present a steering control method for flat-bed electric vehicle based on differential braking system. There are two main components of the control method, steering while moving forward and pivot steering, and each of them was composed by upper layer and executive layer. To evaluate the practicability of the control methods, a 7-DOF flat-bed vehicle model was established in Simulink.
Journal Article

Effects of Perforation Shapes on Water Transport in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

2019-04-02
2019-01-0380
Water management, particularly in the gas diffusion layers (GDL), plays an important role in the performance and reliability of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this study, a two-phase multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to simulate water transport in a reconstructed GDL and the effect of perforation shapes is investigated. The revised pseudopotential multiphase model is adopted to realize high-density ratio, good thermodynamic consistency, adjustable surface tension and high contact angle. The transport characteristics are analyzed in both vertical and horizontal transport directions. The LBM simulation provides detailed results in mesoscale and indicates that the surface tension dominates the process of water transport in the perforated GDL, which exhibits unexpectedly similarities in the vertical and horizontal transport.
Technical Paper

The Review of Present and Future Energy Structure in China

2019-04-02
2019-01-0612
Both the economy and energy demand increase rapidly in China. The government is facing severe problems from energy security, carbon emissions and environmental issues. The past trends and future plans of energy will have great influence on the transportation, construction and industry development. This paper summarizes the present and future energy structure in China. Conventional fossil energy, nuclear energy and renewable energy are all included. Electricity will account for more proportion in total energy consumption in the future, and the structure of electricity will be cleaner. That will promote the development of electric vehicles and the transformation of China’s automotive industry. The optimization of energy structure will accelerate the low-carbon development in China. China’s energy development will enter a new stage from the expansion of total quantity to the upgrading of quality and efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Topological Map-Based Path Coordination Strategy for Autonomous Parking

2019-04-02
2019-01-0691
This paper proposed a path coordination strategy for autonomous parking based on independently designed parking lot topological map. The strategy merges two types of paths at the three stages of path planning, to determinate mode switching timing between low-speed automated driving and automated parking. Firstly, based on the principle that parking spaces should be parallel or vertical to a corresponding path, a topological parking lot map is designed by using the point cloud data collected by LiDAR sensor. This map is consist of road node coordinates, adjacent matrix and parking space information. Secondly, the direction and lateral distance of the parking space to the last node of global path are used to decide parking type and direction at parking planning stage. Finally, the parking space node is used to connect global path and parking path at path coordination stage.
Technical Paper

Improving Combustion and Emission Characteristics in Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engine by Using Pistons Enhancing Turbulence

2018-09-10
2018-01-1685
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), because of its low cost, high H/C ratio, and high octane number, has great potential in automotive industry, especially for heavy-duty commercial vehicles. However, relative slow flame speed of natural gas leads to long combustion duration and low thermal efficiency and tends to cause knock combustion at high load, which will aggravate engine thermal load and reliability. Enhancing turbulence intensity in combustion chamber is an effective way to accelerate flame propagation speed and improve combustion performance. In this study, the flow simulations of several piston bowls with different inner-convex forms were carried out using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) software CONVERGE. The numerical results showed the piston bowls with inner-convex could disturb the charge swirl motion and enhance turbulence of different intensity. A hexagram geometry bowl was proved to have the best function in strengthening turbulence intensity.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Regulations and Technology Roadmaps of China and the US: Comparison and Outlook

2018-09-10
2018-01-1826
In order to address the increasing energy and environmental concerns, China and the US both launched the fuel economy regulations and aim to push the development of technology. In this study, the stringency of CAFC and CAFE regulations and the technology development of two countries are compared. Besides, the optimal technology pathways of America and automakers for the compliance of CAFE regulations are calculated based on the modified VOLPE model, and the results are used as reference for China. The results indicate that the annual regulation improvement rates of China is higher than America and the AIR of China 2015-2020 regulation reaches 6.2% and is the most stringent phase in 10 years from 2015 to 2025. From the perspective of technology, there are still big gaps between China and the US in the applications of advanced fuel saving technologies.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lean Mixture Combustion at Ultra-High Compression Ratios in a Rapid Compression Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1422
In order to meet increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations, more attentions are paid to improve engine efficiency. A large amount of energy-saving technologies have been applied in automotive field especially in gasoline engines. It is well known that lean burn and ultra-high compression ratio technologies are two basic and important methods to increase efficiency. In this paper, a rapid compression machine was employed to study combustion process of lean iso-octane mixture at ultra-high compression ratios (16 to 19:1). Regardless of flammability of the mixture, spark was triggered at the timing right after the end of compression, then, the flame propagation and/or auto-ignition can be recorded using high-speed photography simultaneously. The effects of equivalence ratio (φ), compression ratio (ε), dilution ratio, and effective temperature (Teff) on the combustion process was investigated.
Technical Paper

Braking Force Identification of EMB Using Recursive Least-squares Method and Disturbance Observer Iteratively

2018-04-03
2018-01-1381
An identification method using recursive least-squares method with moving data window and reduced-order disturbance observer iteratively is proposed in this paper to identify fast time-varying braking force in the electronic mechanical braking system (EMB). For the type of EMB which generates braking force by balls screw and motor mounted beside wheel, the actuator will go rapidly to eliminate clearance at beginning of braking process by means of raising the braking response speed, and at the same time, increasing the motor output torque which might be far larger than required. The proposed identification method is able to identify the point of contact between the brake pads and the disk in time by identifying the change of break force, and the torque of motor will be changed in time to reduce the braking force overshoot so that brake locking is avoided.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study and Numerical Interpretation on the Temperature Field of DPF during Active Regeneration with Hydrocarbon Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-1257
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is indispensable for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Both the peak temperature and the maximum temperature gradient of the DPF during active regeneration should be well controlled in order to enhance the reliability and durability of the filter. In this paper, the temperature field of the DPF during active regeneration with hydrocarbon (HC) injection was investigated with engine bench tests and numerical simulation. For the experimental study, 24 thermocouples were inserted into the DPF channels to measure the inner temperature of the filter to capture its temperature field, and the circumferential, axial and radial distribution of the filter temperature was analyzed to understand the DPF temperature field behavior during active regeneration.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

2018-04-03
2018-01-0819
In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Design of In-Tire Energy Harvester for the Power Supply of Tire Sensors

2018-04-03
2018-01-1115
With the development of intelligent vehicle and active vehicle safety systems, the demand of sensors is increasing, especially in-tire sensors. Tire parameters are essential for vehicle dynamic control, including tire pressure, tire temperature, slip angle, longitudinal force, etc.. The diversification and growth of in-tire sensors require adequate power supply. Traditionally, embedded batteries are used to power sensors in tire, however, they must be replaced periodically because of the limited energy storage. The power limitation of the batteries would reduce the real-time data transmission frequency and deteriorate the vehicle safety. Heightened interest focuses on generating power through energy harvesting systems in replace of the batteries. Current in-tire energy harvesting devices include piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrostatic and electromechanical mechanism, whose energy sources include tire deformations, vibrations and rotations.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Behavior of Aluminum Adhesive Joints under Mixed-Mode Loading Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0105
In recent years, structural adhesives have rapidly become the preferred alternative to resistance spot welding in fabricating stronger, lighter aluminum connections. Connections inevitably undergo and must withstand complex quasi-static and/or dynamic loads during their service life. Therefore, understanding how loading conditions affect the mechanical behavior of adhesive joints is vital to their design and the advancement of structural safety. Quasi-static and dynamic tests are performed to analyze both the strength and failure modes of aluminum 6062 substrates bonded by an adhesive (Darbond EP-1506) for an array of loading directions. An Arcan test device, which enables application of mixed-mode loads ranging from pure peel (mode I) to pure shear (mode II) to the adhesive layer, is employed in quasi-static testing. A self-designed medium-speed test machine is utilized to perform dynamic testing.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Propane Flash Boiling Spray from Multi-Hole GDI Injector

2018-04-03
2018-01-0278
In this research, propane flash boiling sprays discharged from a five-hole gasoline direct injector were studied in a constant volume vessel. The fuel temperature (Tfuel) ranged from 30 °C to 90 °C, and the ambient pressure (Pamb) varied from 0.05 bar to 11.0 bar. Different flash boiling spray behavior compared to that under sub-atmospheric conditions was found at high Pamb. Specifically, at the sub-atmospheric pressures, the individual flashing jets merged into one single jet due to the strong spray collapse. In contrast, at Pamb above 3.0 bar and Tfuel above 50 °C, the spray collapse was mitigated and the flashing jets were separated from each other. Further analyses revealed that the mitigation of spray collapse at high Pamb was ascribed to the suppression of jet expansion. In addition, it was found that the spray structure was much different at similar Rp, indicating that Rp lacked the generality in describing the structure of flash boiling sprays.
Journal Article

Energy Harvesting in Tire: State-of-the-Art and Challenges

2018-04-03
2018-01-1119
Although energy harvesting systems are extensively used in different fields, studies on the application of energy harvesters embedded in tires for vehicle control are rare and mostly focus on solving power supply problems of tire pressure sensors. Sensors are traditionally powered by an embedded battery, which must be replaced periodically because of its limited energy storage. Heightened interest in vehicle safety is expected to drive increased design and manufacture of in-tire sensors, which in turn, translates to rising demand for power generation in tires. These challenges emphasize the need to investigate the substitution of batteries and in-tire energy harvesting systems. Current in-tire energy harvesting methods involve piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and electrostatic power generation, whose energy sources include tire vibrations, deformations, and rotations. Piezoelectric harvesters are generally compact but operate for short durations.
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