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Journal Article

The Measured Impact of Vehicle Mass on Road Load Forces and Energy Consumption for a BEV, HEV, and ICE Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1457
The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy initiated a study that conducted coastdown testing and chassis dynamometer testing of three vehicles, each at multiple test weights, in an effort to determine the impact of a vehicle's mass on road load force and energy consumption. The testing and analysis also investigated the sensitivity of the vehicle's powertrain architecture (i.e., conventional internal combustion powertrain, hybrid electric, or all-electric) on the magnitude of the impact of vehicle mass. The three vehicles used in testing are a 2012 Ford Fusion V6, a 2012 Ford Fusion Hybrid, and a 2011 Nissan Leaf. Testing included coastdown testing on a test track to determine the drag forces and road load at each test weight for each vehicle. Many quality measures were used to ensure only mass variations impact the road load measurements.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Fuel Economy Impact of “Cold-Start” for Reformed Gasoline Fuel Cell Vehicles

2003-06-23
2003-01-2253
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) appear to be a promising solution for the future of clean and efficient personal transportation. Issues of how to generate the hydrogen and then store it on-board to provide satisfactory driving range must still be resolved before they can compete with conventional vehicles. Alternatively, FCVs could obtain hydrogen from on-board reforming of gasoline or other fuels such as methanol or ethanol. On-board reformers convert fuel into a hydrogen-rich fuel stream through catalytic reactions in several stages. The high temperatures associated with fuel processing present an engineering challenge to warm up the reformer quickly and efficiently in a vehicle environment. Without a special warmup phase or vehicle hybridization, the reformer and fuel cell system must provide all power to move the vehicle, including ¼ power in 30 s, and ½ power in 3 min to satisfy the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle demands.
Technical Paper

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Testing

2002-06-03
2002-01-1916
Today's advanced-technology vehicles (ATVs) feature hybrid-electric engines, regenerative braking, advanced electric drive motors and batteries, and eventually fuel cell engines. There is considerable environmental and regulatory pressure on fleets to adopt these vehicles, resulting in high-risk purchase decisions on vehicles that do not have documented performance histories. The Department of Energy's Field Operations Program tests ATVs and disseminates the results to provide accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance (http://ev.inel.gov/fop). Enhancing the fleet manager's knowledge base increases the likelihood that ATVs will be successfully and optimally placed into fleet missions. The ATVs are tested using one or more methods - Baseline Performance, Accelerated Reliability, and Fleet Testing. The Program and its 10 testing partners have tested over three-dozen electric and hybrid electric vehicle models, accumulating over 4 million miles of testing experience.
Technical Paper

Platinum: Too Precious for Fuel Cell Vehicles?

2002-06-03
2002-01-1896
One of the biggest barriers to commercialization of fuel cell vehicles is the high cost of materials and manufacturing of fuel cell components. Precious metal materials in the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) account for more than 17 percent of the total cost of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. Precious metals such as platinum may also be required for fuel processing catalysts. The Department of Energy (DOE) is addressing the important issue of the cost of fuel cell components by supporting R&D projects aimed at improving the performance of fuel cells which would lead to reduced platinum loading, as well as developing low-cost automated industrial processes for the manufacture of electrodes and MEAs. Other projects include development of a supply-demand elasticity model. The long term reserves and availability of platinum is a serious issue facing the commercial viability of fuel cell vehicles.
Technical Paper

What FutureCar MPG Levels and Technology Will be Necessary?

2002-06-03
2002-01-1899
The potential peaking of world conventional oil production and the possible imperative to reduce carbon emissions will put great pressure on vehicle manufacturers to produce more efficient vehicles, on vehicle buyers to seek them out in the marketplace, and on energy suppliers to develop new fuels and delivery systems. Four cases for stabilizing or reducing light vehicle fuel use, oil use, and/or carbon emissions over the next 50 years are presented. Case 1 - Improve mpg so that the fuel use in 2020 is stabilized for the next 30 years. Case 2 - Improve mpg so that by 2030 the fuel use is reduced to the 2000 level and is reduced further in subsequent years. Case 3 - Case 1 plus 50% ethanol use and 50% low-carbon fuel cell vehicles by 2050. Case 4 - Case 2 plus 50% ethanol use and 50% low-carbon fuel cell vehicles by 2050. The mpg targets for new cars and light trucks require that significant advances be made in developing cost-effective and very efficient vehicle technologies.
Technical Paper

The DOE/NREL Environmental Science Program

2001-05-14
2001-01-2069
This paper summarizes the several of the studies in the Environmental Science Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Environmental Science Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources. The Program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. Each project in the Program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Current projects in the Environmental Science Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements; emission inventory development/improvement; ambient impacts, including health effects.
Technical Paper

The DOE/NREL Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program - An Overview

2001-05-14
2001-01-2068
This paper summarizes the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NG-NGV) Program that is led by the U.S. Department Of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of this program is to develop and implement one Class 3-6 compressed natural gas (CNG) prototype vehicle and one Class 7-8 liquefied natural gas (LNG) prototype vehicle in the 2004 to 2007 timeframe. OHVT intends for these vehicles to have 0.5 g/bhp-hr or lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by 2004 and 0.2 g/bhp-hr or lower NOx by 2007. These vehicles will also have particulate matter (PM) emissions of 0.01 g/bhp-hr or lower by 2004. In addition to ambitious emissions goals, these vehicles will target life-cycle economics that are compatible with their conventionally fueled counterparts.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: A Fleet Start-Up Experience

2000-10-16
2000-01-2821
Previous studies have shown that regenerating particulate filters are very effective at reducing particulate matter emissions from diesel engines. Some particulate filters are passive devices that can be installed in place of the muffler on both new and older model diesel engines. These passive devices could potentially be used to retrofit large numbers of trucks and buses already in service, to substantially reduce particulate matter emissions. Catalyst-type particulate filters must be used with diesel fuels having low sulfur content to avoid poisoning the catalyst. A project has been launched to evaluate a truck fleet retrofitted with two types of passive particulate filter systems and operating on diesel fuel having ultra-low sulfur content. The objective of this project is to evaluate new particulate filter and fuel technology in service, using a fleet of twenty Class 8 grocery store trucks. This paper summarizes the truck fleet start-up experience.
Technical Paper

Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies

2000-06-19
2000-01-2198
The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (aftertreatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R&D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.
Technical Paper

Breaking Down Technology Barriers for Advanced Vehicles: The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

2000-04-02
2000-01-1595
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT), in partnership with industry, is developing transportation technologies that will improve the energy efficiency of our transportation system. Most OAAT programs are focused exclusively on technology development. However, the twin goals of developing innovative technologies and transferring them to industry led OAAT to realize the growing need for people trained in non-traditional, emerging technologies. The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program combines graduate-level education with technology development and transfer by training a new generation of automotive engineers in critical multi-disciplinary technologies, by fostering cooperative research in those technologies, and by transferring those technologies directly to industrial organizations.
Technical Paper

The Cooperative Automotive Research for Advanced Technology Program (CARAT): Accelerating the Commercialization of Innovative Technology

2000-04-02
2000-01-1594
The Cooperative Automotive Research for Advanced Technology (CARAT) program is designed to accelerate the commercialization of innovative technologies that will overcome barriers to achieving the goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles Program. Aimed at harnessing the creativity and capabilities of American small businesses and colleges and universities, this unique technology R&D program seeks to develop and bring advanced technologies into use in production vehicles at a faster rate. CARAT's focus is developing and commercializing technology that overcomes key technical barriers preventing the production of vehicles with ultra-high fuel efficiency. CARAT begins with technologies that already have a firm technical basis and, through a unique three-stage process, ends with fully validated technologies ready for mass production. The program is open to all U.S. entrepreneurs and small businesses, colleges, and universities.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Large Tow-Size Carbon Fiber for Reducing the Cost of CNG Storage Tanks

2000-04-02
2000-01-1526
The performance of large tow-size carbon fiber was evaluated to determine any design impacts that would prohibit their introduction into the fabrication process of compressed natural gas (CNG) storage tanks. The evaluation was based on manufacturing process trials and mechanical property tests. The tests consisted of impregnated strand, composite ring, and composite subscale cylinder tests for static strength, fatigue, and stress rupture. Modifications required in the wet-filament winding process are documented as well as the development of test methodologies required for testing large tow-size impregnated strands.
Technical Paper

Scenario Analysis of Hybrid Class 3-7 Heavy Vehicles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0989
The effects of hybridization on heavy-duty vehicles are not well understood. Heavy vehicles represent a broader range of applications than light-duty vehicles, resulting in a wide variety of chassis and engine combinations, as well as diverse driving conditions. Thus, the strategies, incremental costs, and energy/emission benefits associated with hybridizing heavy vehicles could differ significantly from those for passenger cars. Using a modal energy and emissions model, we quantify the potential energy savings of hybridizing commercial Class 3-7 heavy vehicles, analyze hybrid configuration scenarios, and estimate the associated investment cost and payback time.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

1999-05-03
1999-01-1512
Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels.
Technical Paper

The DOE/NREL Environmental Science & Health Effects Program - An Overview

1999-04-27
1999-01-2249
This paper summarizes current work in the Environmental Science & Health Effects (ES&HE) Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. The goal of the ES&HE Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based and alternative transportation fuels. Each project in the program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Studies in the ES&HE Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements, emission inventory development/improvement; and ambient impacts, including health effects.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas as a Fuel Option for Heavy Vehicles

1999-04-27
1999-01-2248
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) is promoting the use of natural gas as a fuel option in the transportation energy sector through its natural gas vehicle program [1]. The goal of this program is to eliminate the technical and cost barriers associated with displacing imported petroleum. This is achieved by supporting research and development in technologies that reduce manufacturing costs, reduce emissions, and improve vehicle performance and consumer acceptance for natural gas fueled vehicles. In collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, projects are currently being pursued in (1) liquefied natural gas production from unconventional sources, (2) onboard natural gas storage (adsorbent, compressed, and liquefied), (3) natural gas delivery systems for both onboard the vehicle and the refueling station, and (4) regional and enduse strategies.
Technical Paper

Overview of the DOE Heavy Vehicle Technologies R&D Program

1999-04-26
1999-01-2235
The DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) focuses its research and development efforts on technologies that are critical to the needs of the U.S. heavy vehicle industry because of the importance of trucks and other heavy vehicles to economic activity and growth. A strategy has been crafted in collaboration with OHVT's industry customers (truck and engine manufacturers, fuel developers/producers, and their suppliers, truck users, and others) that will enable future energy demand of the U.S. heavy vehicle industry to be met, with reduced dependence on imported oil, and without adverse environmental effects. This strategy is centered on the technical strengths of the advanced compression-ignition (Diesel cycle) engine and its potential to use fuels from alternative feedstocks, and to reduce exhaust emissions to very low levels.
Technical Paper

Diethyl Ether (DEE) as a Renewable Diesel Fuel

1997-10-01
972978
Producing and using renewable fuels for transportation is one approach for a sustainable energy future for the United States, as well as the rest of the world. Renewable fuels may also substantially reduce contributions to global climate change. In the transportation sector, ethanol produced from biomass shows promise as a future fuel for spark-ignited engines because of its high octane quality. Ethanol, however, is not a high-quality compression-ignition fuel. Ethanol can be easily converted through a dehydration process to produce diethyl ether (DEE), which is an excellent compression-ignition fuel with higher energy density than ethanol. DEE has long been known as a cold-start aid for engines, but little is known about using DEE as a significant component in a blend or as a complete replacement for diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

The Role of Alternative Fuels in the New Generation of Vehicles

1995-10-01
952379
The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) is linking the research efforts of a broad spectrum of U.S. Federal agencies and laboratories with those of the domestic auto manufacturers in pursuit of three specific, interrelated goals: 1) reduce manufacturing production costs and product development times for all car and truck production; 2) pursue advanced technologies for near-term vehicle improvements that increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions of standard vehicles; and 3) within the next decade, develop a new class of vehicle that will achieve up to three times the fuel efficiency of today's comparable vehicle, and, at the same time, cost no more to own and drive than today's automobile, maintain performance, size, and utility of comparable vehicles, and meet or exceed safety and emission requirements.
Technical Paper

Options for the Introduction of Methanol as a Transportation Fuel

1987-11-01
872166
It is generally recognized chat methanol is the best candidate for long-term replacement of petroleum-based fuels at soma time in the future. The transition from an established fuel to a new fuel, and vehicles that can use the new fuel, is difficult, however. This paper discusses two independent investigations of possible transition uses of methanol, which, when combined, may provide an option for introduction of methanol that takes advantage of the existing industrial base, and provides economic incentives to the consumer. The concept combines the intermediate blends of methanol and gasoline (50%-70% methanol) with the Flexible Fuel Vehicle. In addition to a possible maximum cost effectiveness, these fuels ease vehicle range restrictions due to refueling logistics, and mitigate cold starting problems, while at the same time providing most of the performance of the higher concentration blends.
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