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Journal Article

A Direct Torque-Controlled Induction Machine Bidirectional Power Architecture for More Electric Aircraft

The performance of a more-electric aircraft (MEA) power system electrical accumulator unit (EAU) architecture consisting of a 57000 rpm induction machine (IM) coupled to a controllable shaft load and controlled using direct torque control (DTC) is examined through transient modeling and simulation. The simplicity and extremely fast dynamic torque response of DTC make it an attractive choice for this application. Additionally, the key components required for this EAU system may already exist on certain MEA, therefore allowing the benefits of EAU technology in the power system without incurring a significant weight penalty. Simulation results indicate that this architecture is capable of quickly tracking system bus power steps from full regenerative events to peak load events while maintaining the IM's speed within 5% of its nominal value.
Technical Paper

Integrated Electrical System Model of a More Electric Aircraft Architecture

A primary challenge in performing integrated system simulations is balancing system simulation speeds against the model fidelity of the individual components composing the system model. Traditionally, such integrated system models of the electrical systems on more electric aircraft (MEA) have required drastic simplifications, linearizations, and/or averaging of individual component models. Such reductions in fidelity can take significant effort from component engineers and often cause the integrated system simulation to neglect critical dynamic behaviors, making it difficult for system integrators to identify problems early in the design process. This paper utilizes recent advancements in co-simulation technology (DHS Links) to demonstrate how integrated system models can be created wherein individual component models do not require significant simplification to achieve reasonable integrated model simulation speeds.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Power Extraction Using Different Real-Time Platforms

Aircraft power demands continue to increase with the increase in electrical subsystems. These subsystems directly affect the behavior of the power and propulsion systems and can no longer be neglected or assumed linear in system analyses. The complex models designed to integrate new capabilities have a high computational cost. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) is being used to investigate aircraft power systems by using a combination of hardware and simulations. This paper considers three different real-time simulators in the same HIL configuration. A representative electrical power system is removed from a turbine engine simulation and is replaced with the appropriate hardware attached to a 350 horsepower drive stand. Variables are passed between the hardware and the simulation in real-time to update model parameters and to synchronize the hardware with the model.
Technical Paper

Effects of Transient Power Extraction on an Integrated Hardware-in-the-Loop Aircraft/Propulsion/Power System

As aircraft continue to increase their power and thermal demands, transient operation of the power and propulsion subsystems can no longer be neglected at the aircraft system level. The performance of the whole aircraft must be considered by examining the dynamic interactions between the power, propulsion, and airframe subsystems. Larger loading demands placed on the power and propulsion subsystems result in thrust, speed, and altitude transients that affect the aircraft performance and capability. This results in different operating and control parameters for the engine that can be properly captured only in an integrated system-level test. While it is possible to capture the dynamic interactions between these aircraft subsystems by using simulations alone, the complexity of the resulting system model has a high computational cost.
Journal Article

Electrical Accumulator Unit for the Energy Optimized Aircraft

The movement to more-electric architectures during the past decade in military and commercial airborne systems continues to increase the complexity of designing and specifying the electric power system. In particular, the electrical power system (EPS) faces challenges in meeting the highly dynamic power demands of advanced power electronics based loads. This paper explores one approach to addressing these demands by proposing an electrical equivalent of the widely utilized hydraulic accumulator which has successfully been employed in hydraulic power system on aircraft for more than 50 years.
Technical Paper

Integrated Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of a Complex Turbine Engine and Power System

The interdependency between propulsion, power, and thermal subsystems on military aircraft such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and F-22 Raptor continues to increase as advanced war-fighting capabilities including solid-state radars, electronic attack, electric actuation, and Directed Energy Weaponry (DEW) expand to meet Air Force needs. Novel analysis and testing methodologies are required to predict these interdependencies and address adverse interactions prior to costly hardware prototyping. As a result, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has established a dynamic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test-bed wherein transient simulations can be integrated through advanced real-time simulation with prototype hardware for integrated system studies and analysis. This paper details a test-bed configuration where a dynamic simulation of an aircraft turbine engine is utilized to control a dual-head electric drive stand.
Technical Paper

Distributed Simulation of an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Power System

Future Air Force intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms, such as high-altitude Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAV), may drastically change the requirements of aircraft power systems. For example, there are potential interactions between large pulsed-power payloads and the turbine engine that could compromise the operation of the power system within certain flight envelopes. Until now, the development of large-scale, multi-disciplinary (propulsion, electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, thermal, etc.) simulations to investigate such interactions has been prohibitive due to the size of the system and the computational power required. Moreover, the subsystem simulations that are developed separately often are written in different commercial-off-the-shelf simulation programs.