Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Surface Contamination Simulation for a Military Ground Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-1075
Vehicle surface contamination can degrade not only soldier vision but also the effectiveness of camera and sensor systems mounted externally on the vehicle for autonomy and situational awareness. In order to control vehicle surface contamination, a better understanding of dust particle generation, transport and accumulation is necessary. The focus of the present work is simulation of vehicle surface contamination on the rear part of the vehicle due to the interaction of the combat vehicle track with the ground and dust in the surrounding ambient atmosphere. A notional tracked military vehicle is used for the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. A CFD methodology with one-way-coupled Lagrangian particle modeling is used. The simulation is initially run with only air flow to solve the air pressure, velocity, and turbulence quantities in a steady state condition.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Electric Motor Cooling System for Hybrid Vehicles - Model and Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-1076
Enhanced electric motor performance in transportation vehicles can improve system reliability and durability over rigorous operating cycles. The design of innovative heat rejection strategies in electric motors can minimize cooling power consumption and associated noise generation while offering configuration flexibility. This study investigates an innovative electric motor cooling strategy through bench top thermal testing on an emulated electric motor. The system design includes passive (e.g., heat pipes) cooling as the primary heat rejection pathway with supplemental conventional cooling using a variable speed coolant pump and radiator fan(s). The integrated thermal structure, “cradle”, transfers heat from the motor shell towards an end plate for heat dissipation to the ambient surroundings or transmission to an external thermal bus to remote heat exchanger.
Technical Paper

Diminishment of Cuts in Durability Test Time Reduction Methods

2018-04-03
2018-01-0622
In this study, we extend and improve on the methods introduced by Brudnak et al. [1] by adding a second objective to the reduction of test time. This second objective under consideration is to diminish or reduce the number of cuts or deletions to the time histories during an editing process. As discussed in [1], segment-based methods consider each segment for retention or deletion based on its own localized severity, not considering the segments around it. As a result, retained segments can be widely scattered in the time domain depending on signal characteristics and therefore a large number of cuts can be induced unintentionally. Regardless of the joining method, such cuts and joins require artificial signal processing and should therefore be minimized. In this paper we present techniques to minimize these cuts while at the same time maintaining our original goals of time reduction and severity retention.
Technical Paper

A Fast Running Loading Methodology for Ground Vehicle Underbody Blast Events

2018-04-03
2018-01-0620
A full-system, end-to-end blast modeling and simulation of vehicle underbody buried blast events typically includes detailed modeling of soil, high explosive (HE) charge and air. The complex computations involved in these simulations take days to just capture the initial 50-millisecond blast-off phase, and in some cases, even weeks. The single most intricate step in the buried blast event simulation is in the modeling of the explosive loading on the underbody structure from the blast products; it is also one of the most computationally expensive steps of the simulation. Therefore, there is significant interest in the modeling and simulation community to develop various methodologies for fast running tools to run full simulation events in quicker turnarounds of time.
Journal Article

Reliability and Cost Trade-Off Analysis of a Microgrid

2018-04-03
2018-01-0619
Optimizing the trade-off between reliability and cost of operating a microgrid, including vehicles as both loads and sources, can be a challenge. Optimal energy management is crucial to develop strategies to improve the efficiency and reliability of microgrids, as well as new communication networks to support optimal and reliable operation. Prior approaches modeled the grid using MATLAB, but did not include the detailed physics of loads and sources, and therefore missed the transient effects that are present in real-time operation of a microgrid. This article discusses the implementation of a physics-based detailed microgrid model including a diesel generator, wind turbine, photovoltaic array, and utility. All elements are modeled as sources in Simulink. Various loads are also implemented including an asynchronous motor. We show how a central control algorithm optimizes the microgrid by trying to maximize reliability while reducing operational cost.
Journal Article

An Integrated Cooling System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors: Design and Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1108
Hybrid electric vehicles offer the advantages of reduced emissions and greater travel range in comparison to conventional and electric ground vehicles. Regardless of propulsion strategy, efficient cooling of electric motors remains an open challenge due to the operating cycles and ambient conditions. The onboard thermal management system must remove the generated heat so that the motors and other vehicle components operate within their designed temperature ranges. In this article, an integrated thermal structure, or cradle, is designed to efficiently transfer heat within the motor housing to the end plates for transmission to an external heat exchanger. A radial array of heat pipes function as an efficient thermal connector between the motor and heat connector, or thermal bus, depending on the configuration. Cooling performance has been evaluated for various driving cycles.
Journal Article

A Hybrid Thermal Bus for Ground Vehicles Featuring Parallel Heat Transfer Pathways

2018-04-03
2018-01-1111
Improved propulsion system cooling remains an important challenge in the transportation industry as heat generating components, embedded in ground vehicles, trend toward higher heat fluxes and power requirements. The further minimization of the thermal management system power consumption necessitates the integration of parallel heat rejection strategies to maintain prescribed temperature limits. When properly designed, the cooling solution will offer lower noise, weight, and total volume while improving system durability, reliability, and power efficiency. This study investigates the integration of high thermal conductivity (HTC) materials, carbon fibers, and heat pipes with conventional liquid cooling to create a hybrid “thermal bus” to move the thermal energy from the heat source(s) to the ambient surroundings. The innovative design can transfer heat between the separated heat source(s) and heat sink(s) without sensitivity to gravity.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Resiliency Definitions for Smart Microgrids Based on Utility Theory

2017-03-28
2017-01-0205
Reliability and resiliency (R&R) definitions differ depending on the system under consideration. Generally, each engineering sector defines relevant R&R metrics pertinent to their system. While this can impede cross-disciplinary engineering projects as well as research, it is a necessary strategy to capture all the relevant system characteristics. This paper highlights the difficulties associated with defining performance of such systems while using smart microgrids as an example. Further, it develops metrics and definitions that are useful in assessing their performance, based on utility theory. A microgrid must not only anticipate load conditions but also tolerate partial failures and remain optimally operating. Many of these failures happen infrequently but unexpectedly and therefore are hard to plan for. We discuss real life failure scenarios and show how the proposed definitions and metrics are beneficial.
Technical Paper

What Is a Ton of Weight Worth? A Discussion of Military Ground System Weight Considerations

2017-03-28
2017-01-0270
The recently published Lightweight Combat Vehicle Science and Technology Campaign [1] recommended the Army develop a quantitative understanding of the operational impact that weight reduction has to the Army and create appropriate metrics that would better reflect the performance trade with regards to weight. That paper raised the question of what a ton of weight is worth in operational effectiveness and cost. This paper is an attempt to clarify this complex topic. The impact of select programmatic considerations, operational considerations, and financial considerations are discussed. Throughout, the paper provides example analyses based on vehicle weight, performance, and cost data. The paper closes with a discussion of the issues presented, research recommendations, and closing comments.
Journal Article

A Thermal Bus for Vehicle Cooling Applications - Design and Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0266
Designing an efficient cooling system with low power consumption is of high interest in the automotive engineering community. Heat generated due to the propulsion system and the on-board electronics in ground vehicles must be dissipated to avoid exceeding component temperature limits. In addition, proper thermal management will offer improved system durability and efficiency while providing a flexible, modular, and reduced weight structure. Traditional cooling systems are effective but they typically require high energy consumption which provides motivation for a paradigm shift. This study will examine the integration of passive heat rejection pathways in ground vehicle cooling systems using a “thermal bus”. Potential solutions include heat pipes and composite fibers with high thermal properties and light weight properties to move heat from the source to ambient surroundings.
Journal Article

Simulating the Mobility of Wheeled Ground Vehicles with Mercury

2017-03-28
2017-01-0273
Mercury is a high-fidelity, physics-based object-oriented software for conducting simulations of vehicle performance evaluations for requirements and engineering metrics. Integrating cutting-edge, massively parallel modeling techniques for soft, cohesive and dry granular soil that will integrate state-of-the-art soil simulation with high-fidelity multi-body dynamics and powertrain modeling to provide a comprehensive mobility simulator for ground vehicles. The Mercury implements the Chrono::Vehicle dynamics library for vehicle dynamics, which provides multi-body dynamic simulation of wheeled and tracked vehicles. The powertrain is modeled using the Powertrain Analysis Computational Environment (PACE), a behavior-based powertrain analysis based on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Autonomie software. Vehicle -terrain interaction (VTI) is simulated with the Ground Contact Element (GCE), which provides forces to the Chrono-vehicle solver.
Journal Article

Development of a Stationary Axle Efficiency Test Stand and Methodology for Identifying Fuel Efficient Gear Oils for Military Applications - Part 1

2017-03-28
2017-01-0889
For existing fleets such as the U.S. military ground vehicle fleet, there are few ways to reduce vehicle fuel consumption that don’t involve expensive retrofitting. Replacing standard lubricants with those that can achieve higher vehicle efficiencies is one practical and inexpensive way to improve fleet fuel efficiency. In an effort to identify axle gear lubricants that can reduce the fuel consumption of its fleet, the U.S. Army is developing a stationary axle efficiency test stand and procedure. In order to develop this capability, on-track vehicle fuel consumption testing was completed using light, medium, and heavy tactical wheeled vehicles following a modified SAE J1321 type test procedure. Tested lubricants included a baseline SAE 80W-90, a fuel efficient SAE 75W-90, and a fuel efficient SAE 75W-140. Vehicle testing resulted in reductions in fuel consumption of up to 2%.
Journal Article

Fire Suppression Modeling & Simulation Framework for Ground Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1351
The US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) has developed a unique physics based modeling & simulation (M&S) capability using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques to optimize automatic fire extinguishing system (AFES) designs and complement vehicle testing for both occupied and unoccupied spaces of military ground vehicles. The modeling techniques developed are based on reduced global kinetics for computational efficiency and are applicable to fire suppressants that are being used in Army vehicles namely, bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301), heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea, trade name FM200), sodium-bicarbonate (SBC) powder, water + potassium acetate mixture, and pentafluoroethane (HFC-125, trade name, FE-25). These CFD simulations are performed using High Performance Computers (HPC) that enable the Army to assess AFES designs in a virtual world at far less cost than physical-fire tests.
Journal Article

Warranty Forecasting of Repairable Systems for Different Production Patterns

2017-03-28
2017-01-0209
Warranty forecasting of repairable systems is very important for manufacturers of mass produced systems. It is desired to predict the Expected Number of Failures (ENF) after a censoring time using collected failure data before the censoring time. Moreover, systems may be produced with a defective component resulting in extensive warranty costs even after the defective component is detected and replaced with a new design. In this paper, we present a forecasting method to predict the ENF of a repairable system using observed data which is used to calibrate a Generalized Renewal Processes (GRP) model. Manufacturing of products may exhibit different production patterns with different failure statistics through time. For example, vehicles produced in different months may have different failure intensities because of supply chain differences or different skills of production workers, for example.
Technical Paper

Motion Cueing Evaluation of Off-Road Heavy Vehicle Handling

2016-09-27
2016-01-8041
Motion cueing algorithms can improve the perceived realism of a driving simulator, however, data on the effects on driver performance and simulator sickness remain scarce. Two novel motion cueing algorithms varying in concept and complexity were developed for a limited maneuvering workspace, hexapod/Stuart type motion platform. The RideCue algorithm uses a simple swing motion concept while OverTilt Track algorithm uses optimal pre-positioning to account for maneuver characteristics for coordinating tilt adjustments. An experiment was conducted on the US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Ride Motion Simulator (RMS) platform comparing the two novel motion cueing algorithms to a pre-existing algorithm and a no-motion condition.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Analysis and Computational Environment (PACE) for Multi-Physics Simulations Using High Performance Computing

2016-04-05
2016-01-0308
The Powertrain Analysis and Computational Environment (PACE) is a forward-looking powertrain simulation tool that is ready for a High-Performance Computing (HPC) environment. The code, written in C++, is one actor in a comprehensive ground vehicle co-simulation architecture being developed by the CREATE-GV program. PACE provides an advanced behavioral modeling capability for the powertrain subsystem of a conventional or hybrid-electric vehicle that exploits the idea of reusable vehicle modeling that underpins the Autonomie modeling environment developed by the Argonne National Laboratory. PACE permits the user to define a powertrain in Autonomie, which requires a single desktop license for MATLAB/Simulink, and port it to a cluster computer where PACE runs with an open-source BSD-3 license so that it can be distributed to as many nodes as needed.
Technical Paper

Advantages of Simulation Based Reliability Growth Planning

2015-04-14
2015-01-0439
The current reliability growth planning model used by the US Army, the Planning Model for Projection Methodology (PM2), is insufficient for the needs of the Army. This paper will detail the limitations of PM2 that cause Army programs to develop reliability growth plans that incorporate unrealistic assumptions and often demand that infeasible levels of reliability be achieved. In addition to this, another reliability growth planning model being developed to address some of these limitations, the Bayesian Continuous Planning Model (BCPM), will be discussed along with its own limitations. This paper will also cover a third reliability growth planning model that is being developed which incorporates the advantageous features of PM2 and BCPM but replaces the unrealistic assumptions with more realistic and customizable ones.
Journal Article

Reduction of Steady-State CFD HVAC Simulations into a Fully Transient Lumped Parameter Network

2014-05-10
2014-01-9121
Since transient vehicle HVAC computational fluids (CFD) simulations take too long to solve in a production environment, the goal of this project is to automatically create a lumped-parameter flow network from a steady-state CFD that solves nearly instantaneously. The data mining algorithm k-means is implemented to automatically discover flow features and form the network (a reduced order model). The lumped-parameter network is implemented in the commercial thermal solver MuSES to then run as a fully transient simulation. Using this network a “localized heat transfer coefficient” is shown to be an improvement over existing techniques. Also, it was found that the use of the clustering created a new flow visualization technique. Finally, fixing clusters near equipment newly demonstrates a capability to track localized temperatures near specific objects (such as equipment in vehicles).
Journal Article

Flexible Design and Operation of a Smart Charging Microgrid

2014-04-01
2014-01-0716
The reliability theory of repairable systems is vastly different from that of non-repairable systems. The authors have recently proposed a ‘decision-based’ framework to design and maintain repairable systems for optimal performance and reliability using a set of metrics such as minimum failure free period, number of failures in planning horizon (lifecycle), and cost. The optimal solution includes the initial design, the system maintenance throughout the planning horizon, and the protocol to operate the system. In this work, we extend this idea by incorporating flexibility and demonstrate our approach using a smart charging electric microgrid architecture. The flexibility is realized by allowing the architecture to change with time. Our approach “learns” the working characteristics of the microgrid. We use actual load and supply data over a short time to quantify the load and supply random processes and also establish the correlation between them.
Journal Article

A New Metamodeling Approach for Time-Dependent Reliability of Dynamic Systems with Random Parameters Excited by Input Random Processes

2014-04-01
2014-01-0717
We propose a new metamodeling method to characterize the output (response) random process of a dynamic system with random parameters, excited by input random processes. The metamodel can be then used to efficiently estimate the time-dependent reliability of a dynamic system using analytical or simulation-based methods. The metamodel is constructed by decomposing the input random processes using principal components or wavelets and then using a few simulations to estimate the distributions of the decomposition coefficients. A similar decomposition is also performed on the output random process. A kriging model is then established between the input and output decomposition coefficients and subsequently used to quantify the output random process corresponding to a realization of the input random parameters and random processes. What distinguishes our approach from others in metamodeling is that the system input is not deterministic but random.
X