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Technical Paper

A Methodology of Design for Fatigue Using an Accelerated Life Testing Approach with Saddlepoint Approximation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0159
We present an Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) methodology along with a design for fatigue approach, using Gaussian or non-Gaussian excitations. The accuracy of fatigue life prediction at nominal loading conditions is affected by model and material uncertainty. This uncertainty is reduced by performing tests at a higher loading level, resulting in a reduction in test duration. Based on the data obtained from experiments, we formulate an optimization problem to calculate the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) values of the uncertain model parameters. In our proposed ALT method, we lift all the assumptions on the type of life distribution or the stress-life relationship and we use Saddlepoint Approximation (SPA) method to calculate the fatigue life Probability Density Functions (PDFs).
Technical Paper

A Software Tool for Injury Analysis of Blast and Crash Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-1225
In recent years the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) has been investigating the survivability and injury mechanisms of underbody blast and crash, and their effects on personnel, with the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD), or crash test dummies. Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARV) for crash have been researched for decades, and the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL), some years ago, also developed IARVs for underbody blast for the Hybrid III 50th percentile ATD. More recently, TARDEC extended these IARVs for the 5th and 95th percentile. With the advent of TARDEC’s Occupant Protection Laboratory large amounts of data were accumulated, which brought an interest in automating the analysis, and so a software tool was developed. The interactive in-house written software, called ICalc, allows the user to open test data files acquired from blast testing, drop tower testing, and crash testing.
Technical Paper

Surface Contamination Simulation for a Military Ground Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-1075
Vehicle surface contamination can degrade not only soldier vision but also the effectiveness of camera and sensor systems mounted externally on the vehicle for autonomy and situational awareness. In order to control vehicle surface contamination, a better understanding of dust particle generation, transport and accumulation is necessary. The focus of the present work is simulation of vehicle surface contamination on the rear part of the vehicle due to the interaction of the combat vehicle track with the ground and dust in the surrounding ambient atmosphere. A notional tracked military vehicle is used for the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. A CFD methodology with one-way-coupled Lagrangian particle modeling is used. The simulation is initially run with only air flow to solve the air pressure, velocity, and turbulence quantities in a steady state condition.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Electric Motor Cooling System for Hybrid Vehicles - Model and Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-1076
Enhanced electric motor performance in transportation vehicles can improve system reliability and durability over rigorous operating cycles. The design of innovative heat rejection strategies in electric motors can minimize cooling power consumption and associated noise generation while offering configuration flexibility. This study investigates an innovative electric motor cooling strategy through bench top thermal testing on an emulated electric motor. The system design includes passive (e.g., heat pipes) cooling as the primary heat rejection pathway with supplemental conventional cooling using a variable speed coolant pump and radiator fan(s). The integrated thermal structure, “cradle”, transfers heat from the motor shell towards an end plate for heat dissipation to the ambient surroundings or transmission to an external thermal bus to remote heat exchanger.
Journal Article

An Integrated Cooling System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors: Design and Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1108
Hybrid electric vehicles offer the advantages of reduced emissions and greater travel range in comparison to conventional and electric ground vehicles. Regardless of propulsion strategy, efficient cooling of electric motors remains an open challenge due to the operating cycles and ambient conditions. The onboard thermal management system must remove the generated heat so that the motors and other vehicle components operate within their designed temperature ranges. In this article, an integrated thermal structure, or cradle, is designed to efficiently transfer heat within the motor housing to the end plates for transmission to an external heat exchanger. A radial array of heat pipes function as an efficient thermal connector between the motor and heat connector, or thermal bus, depending on the configuration. Cooling performance has been evaluated for various driving cycles.
Journal Article

A Hybrid Thermal Bus for Ground Vehicles Featuring Parallel Heat Transfer Pathways

2018-04-03
2018-01-1111
Improved propulsion system cooling remains an important challenge in the transportation industry as heat generating components, embedded in ground vehicles, trend toward higher heat fluxes and power requirements. The further minimization of the thermal management system power consumption necessitates the integration of parallel heat rejection strategies to maintain prescribed temperature limits. When properly designed, the cooling solution will offer lower noise, weight, and total volume while improving system durability, reliability, and power efficiency. This study investigates the integration of high thermal conductivity (HTC) materials, carbon fibers, and heat pipes with conventional liquid cooling to create a hybrid “thermal bus” to move the thermal energy from the heat source(s) to the ambient surroundings. The innovative design can transfer heat between the separated heat source(s) and heat sink(s) without sensitivity to gravity.
Technical Paper

Cooling Parasitic Considerations for Optimal Sizing and Power Split Strategy for Military Robot Powered by Hydrogen Fuel Cells

2018-04-03
2018-01-0798
Military vehicles are typically armored, hence the open surface area for heat rejection is limited. Hence, the cooling parasitic load for a given heat rejection can be considerably higher and important to consider upfront in the system design. Since PEMFCs operate at low temp, the required cooling flow is larger to account for the smaller delta temperature to the air. This research aims to address the combined problem of optimal sizing of the lithium ion battery and PEM Fuel Cell stack along with development of the scalable power split strategy for small a PackBot robot. We will apply scalable physics-based models of the fuel cell stack and balance of plant that includes a realistic and scalable parasitic load from cooling integrated with existing scalable models of the lithium ion battery. This model allows the combined optimization that captures the dominant trends relevant to component sizing and system performance.
Journal Article

Reliability and Cost Trade-Off Analysis of a Microgrid

2018-04-03
2018-01-0619
Optimizing the trade-off between reliability and cost of operating a microgrid, including vehicles as both loads and sources, can be a challenge. Optimal energy management is crucial to develop strategies to improve the efficiency and reliability of microgrids, as well as new communication networks to support optimal and reliable operation. Prior approaches modeled the grid using MATLAB, but did not include the detailed physics of loads and sources, and therefore missed the transient effects that are present in real-time operation of a microgrid. This article discusses the implementation of a physics-based detailed microgrid model including a diesel generator, wind turbine, photovoltaic array, and utility. All elements are modeled as sources in Simulink. Various loads are also implemented including an asynchronous motor. We show how a central control algorithm optimizes the microgrid by trying to maximize reliability while reducing operational cost.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Occupant Restraint Systems for Tactical Vehicles in Frontal Crashes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0621
The objective of this study was to optimize the occupant restraint systems for a light tactical vehicle in frontal crashes. A combination of sled testing and computational modeling were performed to find the optimal seatbelt and airbag designs for protecting occupants represented by three size of ATDs and two military gear configurations. This study started with 20 sled frontal crash tests to setup the baseline performance of existing seatbelts, which have been presented previously; followed by parametric computational simulations to find the best combinations of seatbelt and airbag designs for different sizes of ATDs and military gear configurations involving both driver and passengers. Then 12 sled tests were conducted with the simulation-recommended restraint designs. The test results were further used to validate the models. Another series of computational simulations and 4 sled tests were performed to fine-tune the optimal restraint design solutions.
Technical Paper

A Fast Running Loading Methodology for Ground Vehicle Underbody Blast Events

2018-04-03
2018-01-0620
A full-system, end-to-end blast modeling and simulation of vehicle underbody buried blast events typically includes detailed modeling of soil, high explosive (HE) charge and air. The complex computations involved in these simulations take days to just capture the initial 50-millisecond blast-off phase, and in some cases, even weeks. The single most intricate step in the buried blast event simulation is in the modeling of the explosive loading on the underbody structure from the blast products; it is also one of the most computationally expensive steps of the simulation. Therefore, there is significant interest in the modeling and simulation community to develop various methodologies for fast running tools to run full simulation events in quicker turnarounds of time.
Technical Paper

Diminishment of Cuts in Durability Test Time Reduction Methods

2018-04-03
2018-01-0622
In this study, we extend and improve on the methods introduced by Brudnak et al. [1] by adding a second objective to the reduction of test time. This second objective under consideration is to diminish or reduce the number of cuts or deletions to the time histories during an editing process. As discussed in [1], segment-based methods consider each segment for retention or deletion based on its own localized severity, not considering the segments around it. As a result, retained segments can be widely scattered in the time domain depending on signal characteristics and therefore a large number of cuts can be induced unintentionally. Regardless of the joining method, such cuts and joins require artificial signal processing and should therefore be minimized. In this paper we present techniques to minimize these cuts while at the same time maintaining our original goals of time reduction and severity retention.
Journal Article

Near Automatic Translation of Autonomie-Based Power Train Architectures for Multi-Physics Simulations Using High Performance Computing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0267
The Powertrain Analysis and Computational Environment (PACE) is a powertrain simulation tool that provides an advanced behavioral modeling capability for the powertrain subsystems of conventional or hybrid-electric vehicles. Due to its origins in Argonne National Lab’s Autonomie, PACE benefits from the reputation of Autonomie as a validated modeling tool capable of simulating the advanced hardware and control features of modern vehicle powertrains. However, unlike Autonomie that is developed and executed in Mathwork’s MATLAB/Simulink environment, PACE is developed in C++ and is targeted for High-Performance Computing (HPC) platforms. Indeed, PACE is used as one of several actors within a comprehensive ground vehicle co-simulation system (CRES-GV MERCURY): during a single MERCURY run, thousands of concurrent PACE instances interact with other high-performance, distributed MERCURY components.
Journal Article

Lightweight Stiffening Ribs in Structural Plates

2017-03-28
2017-01-0268
The aim of this analysis was to model the effect of adding stiffening ribs in structural aluminum components by friction stir processing (FSP) Nano material into the aluminum matrix. These stiffening ribs could dampen, redirect, or otherwise alter the transmission of energy waves created from automotive, ballistic, or blast shocks to improve noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) and structural integrity (reduced joint stress) response. Since the ribs are not created by geometry changes they can be space efficient and deflect blast / ballistic energy better than geometry ribbing, resulting in a lighter weight solution. The blast and ballistic performance of different FSP rib patterns in AL 5182 and AL 7075 were simulated and compared to the performance of an equivalent weight of RHA plate FSP helps to increase localized strength and stiffness of the base metal, while achieving light weighting of the base metal.
Journal Article

Optimal Power Management of Vehicle Sourced Military Outposts

2017-03-28
2017-01-0271
This paper considers optimal power management during the establishment of an expeditionary outpost using battery and vehicle assets for electrical generation. The first step in creating a new outpost is implementing the physical protection and barrier system. Afterwards, facilities that provide communications, fires, meals, and moral boosts are implemented that steadily increase the electrical load while dynamic events, such as patrols, can cause abrupt changes in the electrical load profile. Being able to create a fully functioning outpost within 72 hours is a typical objective where the electrical power generation starts with batteries, transitions to gasoline generators and is eventually replaced by diesel generators as the outpost matures. Vehicles with power export capability are an attractive supplement to this electrical power evolution since they are usually on site, would reduce the amount of material for outpost creation, and provide a modular approach to outpost build-up.
Technical Paper

What Is a Ton of Weight Worth? A Discussion of Military Ground System Weight Considerations

2017-03-28
2017-01-0270
The recently published Lightweight Combat Vehicle Science and Technology Campaign [1] recommended the Army develop a quantitative understanding of the operational impact that weight reduction has to the Army and create appropriate metrics that would better reflect the performance trade with regards to weight. That paper raised the question of what a ton of weight is worth in operational effectiveness and cost. This paper is an attempt to clarify this complex topic. The impact of select programmatic considerations, operational considerations, and financial considerations are discussed. Throughout, the paper provides example analyses based on vehicle weight, performance, and cost data. The paper closes with a discussion of the issues presented, research recommendations, and closing comments.
Journal Article

Warranty Forecasting of Repairable Systems for Different Production Patterns

2017-03-28
2017-01-0209
Warranty forecasting of repairable systems is very important for manufacturers of mass produced systems. It is desired to predict the Expected Number of Failures (ENF) after a censoring time using collected failure data before the censoring time. Moreover, systems may be produced with a defective component resulting in extensive warranty costs even after the defective component is detected and replaced with a new design. In this paper, we present a forecasting method to predict the ENF of a repairable system using observed data which is used to calibrate a Generalized Renewal Processes (GRP) model. Manufacturing of products may exhibit different production patterns with different failure statistics through time. For example, vehicles produced in different months may have different failure intensities because of supply chain differences or different skills of production workers, for example.
Journal Article

Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis Using a Modified Composite Limit State Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-0206
Recent developments in time-dependent reliability have introduced the concept of a composite limit state. The composite limit state method can be used to calculate the time-dependent probability of failure for dynamic systems with limit-state functions of input random variables, input random processes and explicit in time. The probability of failure can be calculated exactly using the composite limit state if the instantaneous limit states are linear, forming an open or close polytope, and are functions of only two random variables. In this work, the restriction on the number of random variables is lifted. The proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient for linear instantaneous limit state functions of any number of random variables. An example on the design of a hydrokinetic turbine blade under time-dependent river flow load demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed general composite limit state approach.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Resiliency Definitions for Smart Microgrids Based on Utility Theory

2017-03-28
2017-01-0205
Reliability and resiliency (R&R) definitions differ depending on the system under consideration. Generally, each engineering sector defines relevant R&R metrics pertinent to their system. While this can impede cross-disciplinary engineering projects as well as research, it is a necessary strategy to capture all the relevant system characteristics. This paper highlights the difficulties associated with defining performance of such systems while using smart microgrids as an example. Further, it develops metrics and definitions that are useful in assessing their performance, based on utility theory. A microgrid must not only anticipate load conditions but also tolerate partial failures and remain optimally operating. Many of these failures happen infrequently but unexpectedly and therefore are hard to plan for. We discuss real life failure scenarios and show how the proposed definitions and metrics are beneficial.
Technical Paper

Faster Method of Simulating Military Vehicles Exposed to Fragmenting Underbody IED Threats

2017-03-28
2017-01-0264
In this paper, the capability of three methods of modelling detonation of high explosives (HE) buried in soil viz., (1) coupled discrete element & particle gas methods (DEM-PGM) (2) Structured - Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (S-ALE), and (3) Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE), are investigated. The ALE method of modeling the effects of buried charges in soil is well known and widely used in blast simulations today [1]. Due to high computational costs, inconsistent robustness and long run times, alternate modeling methods such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) [2, 9] and DEM are gaining more traction. In all these methods, accuracy of the analysis relies not only on the fidelity of the soil and high explosive models but also on the robustness of fluid-structure interaction. These high-fidelity models are also useful in generating fast running models (FRM) useful for rapid generation of blast simulation results of acceptable accuracy.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Jet Fuel Surrogates in an Optical Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0262
Three jet fuel surrogates were compared against their target fuels in a compression ignited optical engine under a range of start-of-injection temperatures and densities. The jet fuel surrogates are representative of petroleum-based Jet-A POSF-4658, natural gas-derived S-8 POSF-4734 and coal-derived Sasol IPK POSF-5642, and were prepared from a palette of n-dodecane, n-decane, decalin, toluene, iso-octane and iso-cetane. Optical chemiluminescence and liquid penetration length measurements as well as cylinder pressure-based combustion analyses were applied to examine fuel behavior during the injection and combustion process. HCHO* emissions obtained from broadband UV imaging were used as a marker for low temperature reactivity, while 309 nm narrow band filtered imaging was applied to identify the occurrence of OH*, autoignition and high temperature reactivity.
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