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Journal Article

Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0314
This review paper covers major regulatory and technology developments in 2018 pertinent to tailpipe emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Europe has proposed ambitious reductions in CO2 limits for both light- and heavy-duty sectors. The challenge is compounded with changing measurement norms and a significant shift away from fuel efficient diesels in the light-duty (LD) space. Both incremental and step changes are being made to advance internal combustion. New studies show that in-use NOx emissions from diesels can be much lower than required by the Euro 6 regulation. Discussions have already started on Euro 7 regulations, and the leading regulatory concepts and proposed technical solutions are provided. In the heavy-duty (HD) sector, the progress is outlined in improving engine and vehicle fuel efficiency through the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) SuperTruck II program and other representative studies.
Book

Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines

2018-11-28
For years, diesel engines have been the focus of particulate matter emission reductions. Now, however, modern diesel engines emit less particles than a comparable gasoline engine. This transformation necessitates an introduction of particulate reduction strategies for the gasoline-powered vehicle. Many strategies can be leveraged from diesel engines, but new combustion and engine control technologies will be needed to meet the latest gasoline regulations across the globe. Particulate reduction is a critical health concern in addition to the regulatory requirements. This is a vital issue with real-world implications. Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines encompasses the current strategies and technologies used to reduce particulates to meet regulatory requirements and curtail health hazards - reviewing principles and applications of these techniques.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ash on Gasoline Particulate Filter Using an Accelerated Ash Loading Method

2018-04-03
2018-01-1258
Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is considered a suitable solution to meet the increasingly stringent particle number (PN) regulations for both gasoline direct injection (GDI) and multi-port fuel injection (MPI) engines. Generally, GDI engines emit more particulate matter (PM) and PN. In recent years, GDI engines have gained significant market penetration in the automobile industry owing to better fuel economy and drivability. In this study, an accelerated ash loading method was tested by doping lubricating oil into the fuel for a GDI engine. Emission tests were performed at different ash loads with different driving cycles and GPF combinations. The results showed that the GPF could significantly reduce particle emissions to meet the China 6 regulation. With further ash loading, the filtration efficiency increased above 99% and the effects on fuel consumption and backpressure were found to be limited, even with an ash loading of up to 50 g/l.
Technical Paper

Optical Advantages of Thin Window Hybrid Windshields

2018-04-03
2018-01-0468
The adoption of head-up displays (HUDs) is increasing in modern automobiles. Yet integrating this technology into vehicles with standard windshield (WS) laminates can create negative effects for drivers, primarily due to the thickness of glass used. The double ghosting in HUD images is typically overcome by employing a wedged PVB between the two glass plies of the laminate. Another solution is to reduce the thickness of the glass without impacting the overall windshield toughness. Although this still requires the use of a wedged PVB to eliminate HUD ghosting, the thinner glass provides opportunity to increase the image size. However, reducing the thickness of a soda-lime glass (SLG) ply or plies in a conventional soda-lime glass (SLG) laminate can significantly impact the robustness of the laminate to external impact events.
Journal Article

Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0329
This review article summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle emissions regulations, engine efficiency, and emission control from 2017. The article starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed European light-duty (LD) CO2 regulations (15 and 30% cuts in 2025 and 2030, respectively, from 2020 levels) and technical improvements of the Euro 6 real driving emissions (RDE) regulations. China finalized their new energy vehicle (NEV) mandates for 2019 and 2020. LD and heavy-duty (HD) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations. Several LD gasoline concepts are achieving 10-15% and some up to 35% reductions relative to gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines of today.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Lightweight Automotive Glass Solutions on Interior Noise Levels & Sound Quality

2017-06-05
2017-01-1814
The automotive industry continues to develop technologies for reducing vehicle fuel consumption. Specifically, vehicle lightweighting is expected to be a key enabler for achieving fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Hybrid glass laminates that incorporate fusion draw and ion exchange innovations are thinner and thereby, offer more than 30% weight reduction compared to conventional automotive laminates. These lightweight hybrid laminates provide additional benefits, including improved toughness and superior optics. However, glazing weight reduction leads to an increase in transmission of sound through the laminates for certain frequencies. This paper documents a study that uses a systematic test-based approach to understand the sensitivity of interior vehicle noise behavior to changes in acoustic attenuation driven by installation of lightweight glass.
Technical Paper

Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0907
This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle engine efficiency and emissions regulations and technologies from 2016. The paper starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed European RDE (real driving emissions) particle number regulations, and Euro 6 type regulations for China and India in the 2020 timeframe. China will be tightening 30-40% relative to Euro 6 in 2023. The California heavy duty (HD) low-NOx regulation is advancing and the US EPA is anticipating developing a harmonized proposal for implementation in 2023+. The US also finalized the next round of HD GHG (greenhouse gas) regulations for 2021-27, requiring 5% engine CO2 reductions. LD (light duty) and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas regulations.
Journal Article

Low Cost LEV-III, Tier-III Emission Solutions with Particulate Control using Advanced Catalysts and Substrates

2016-04-05
2016-01-0925
A production calibrated GTDI 1.6L Ford Fusion was used to demonstrate low HC, CO, NOx, PM (particulate mass), and PN (particulate number) emissions using advanced catalyst technologies with newly developed high porosity substrates and coated GPFs (gasoline particulate filters). The exhaust system consisted of 1.2 liters of TWC (three way catalyst) in the close-coupled position, and 1.6L of coated GPF in the underfloor position. The catalysts were engine-aged on a dynamometer to simulate 150K miles of road aging. Results indicate that ULEV70 emissions can be achieved at ∼$40 of PGM, while also demonstrating PM tailpipe performance far below the proposed California Air Resources Board (CARB) LEV III limit of 1 mg/mi. Along with PM and PN analysis, exhaust system backpressure is also presented with various GPF designs.
Journal Article

Reliability Evaluation of Thin, Lightweight Laminates for Windshield Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1401
The use of lightweight materials to produce automotive glazing is being pursued by vehicle manufacturers in an effort to improve fuel economy. As glazing’s become thinner, reduced rigidity means that the critical flaw size needed to create fracture becomes much smaller due to increased strain under load or impact. This paper documents experiments focused on the impact performance of several alternative thin laminate constructions under consideration for windshield applications (including conventional annealed soda-lime glass as well as laminates utilizing chemically strengthened glass), for the purpose of identifying new and unique failure modes that result from thickness reduction. Regulatory impact tests and experiments that focused on functional performance of laminates were conducted. Given the increased sensitivity to flaw size for thin laminates, controlled surface damage was introduced to parts prior to conducting the functional performance tests.
Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2016-04-05
2016-01-0919
This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies from 2015. The paper starts with the key regulatory advancements in the field, including newly proposed Euro 6 type regulations for Beijing, China, and India in the 2017-20 timeframe. Europe is continuing developments towards real driving emissions (RDE) standards with the conformity factors for light-duty diesel NOx ramping down to 1.5X by 2021. The California heavy duty (HD) low-NOx regulation is advancing and may be proposed in 2017/18 for implementation in 2023+. LD (light duty) and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas regulations. LD gasoline concepts are achieving 45% BTE (brake thermal efficiency or net amount of fuel energy gong to the crankshaft) and closing the gap with diesel.
Journal Article

Impact of SCR Integration on N2O Emissions in Diesel Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-1034
Significant reduction in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions will be required to meet LEV III/Tier III Emissions Standards for Light Duty Diesel (LDD) passenger vehicles. As such, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are exploring all possible aftertreatment options to find the best balance between performance, durability and cost. The primary technology adopted by OEMs in North America to achieve low NOx levels is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The critical parameters needed for SCR to work properly are: an appropriate reductant such as ammonia (NH3) provided as Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF), which is an aqueous urea solution 32.5% concentration in weight with water (CO(NH2)2 + H2O), optimum operating temperatures, and optimum nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to NOx ratios (NO2/NOx). The NO2/NOx ratio is most influenced by Precious Group Metals (PGM) containing catalysts upstream of the SCR catalyst.
Journal Article

Review of Vehicular Emissions Trends

2015-04-14
2015-01-0993
This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies from 2014. The paper starts with the key regulatory advancements in the field, including newly proposed Non-Road Mobile Machinery regulations for 2019-20 in Europe, and the continuing developments towards real driving emissions (RDE) standards. An expert panel in India proposed a roadmap through 2025 for clean fuels and tailpipe regulations. LD (light duty) and HD (heavy-duty) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are demonstrating more than 50% brake thermal efficiency using methods that can reasonably be commercialized. Next, NOx control technologies are summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction), lean NOx traps, and combination systems. Emphasis is on durability and control.
Technical Paper

Development of a Super-Light Substrate for LEV III/Tier3 Emission Regulation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1001
With the increasing number of automobiles, the worldwide problem of air pollution is becoming more serious. The necessity of reducing tail-pipe emissions is as high as ever, and in countries all over the world the regulations are becoming stricter. The emissions at times such as after engine cold start, when the three-way catalyst (TWC) has not warmed up, accounts for the majority of the emissions of these pollutants from vehicles. This is caused by the characteristic of the TWC that if a specific temperature is not exceeded, TWC cannot purify the emissions. In other words, if the catalyst could be warmed up at an early stage after engine start, this would provide a major contribution to reducing the emissions. Therefore, this research is focused on the substrate weight and investigated carrying out major weight reduction by making the porosity of the substrate larger than that of conventional products.
Technical Paper

High Porosity Substrates for Fast-Light-Off Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1009
Regulations that limit emissions of pollutants from gasoline-powered cars and trucks continue to tighten. More than 75% of emissions through an FTP-75 regulatory test are released in the first few seconds after cold-start. A factor that controls the time to catalytic light-off is the heat capacity of the catalytic converter substrate. Historically, substrates with thinner walls and lower heat capacity have been developed to improve cold-start performance. Another approach is to increase porosity of the substrate. A new material and process technology has been developed to significantly raise the porosity of thin wall substrates (2-3 mil) from 27-35% to 55% while maintaining strength. The heat capacity of the material is 30-38% lower than existing substrates. The reduction in substrate heat capacity enables faster thermal response and lower tailpipe emissions. The reliance on costly precious metals in the washcoat is demonstrated to be lessened.
Technical Paper

Cause and Effect of Reversible Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2014-04-01
2014-01-1518
To meet TierII/LEVII emissions standards, light duty diesel (LDD) vehicles require high conversion efficiencies from the Aftertreatment Systems (ATS) for the removal of both Hydrocarbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) species. The most populous configuration for LDD ATS have the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned on the vehicle behind the close coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF). This SCR position may require active heating measures which rely on the DOC/CDPF to provide heat through the combustion of HC and CO in the exhaust. Although DOCs are always impacted by their aging conditions, some aging conditions are shown to be both reversible and irreversible.
Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2014-04-01
2014-01-1491
The review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies in 2013. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including proposed light-duty (LD) criteria pollutant tightening in the US; and in Europe, the continuing developments towards real-world driving emissions (RDE) standards. Significant shifts are occurring in China and India in addressing their severe air quality problems. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key developments in fuels. Projections are that we are in the early stages of oil supply stability, which could stabilize fuel prices. LD and HD (heavy-duty) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are or will soon be demonstrating 50% brake thermal efficiency using common approaches.
Journal Article

HC Traps for Gasoline and Ethanol Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1297
In-line hydrocarbon (HC) traps are not widely used to reduce HC emissions due to their limited durability, high platinum group metal (PGM) concentrations, complicated processing, and insufficient hydrocarbon (HC) retention temperatures required for efficient conversion by the three-way catalyst component. New trapping materials and system architectures were developed utilizing an engine dynamometer test equipped with dual Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers for tracking the adsorption and desorption of various HC species during the light-off period. Parallel laboratory reactor studies were conducted which show that the new HC trap formulations extend the traditional adsorption processes (i.e., based on physic-sorption and/or adsorption at acid sites) to chemical reaction mechanisms resulting in oligomerized, dehydro-cyclization, and partial coke formation.
Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2012-04-16
2012-01-0368
This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies (light-duty, heavy-duty, gasoline, diesel) in 2011. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including proposed criteria pollutant tightening in California; and in Europe, the newly proposed PN (particle number) regulation for direct injection gasoline engines, test cycle development, and in-use testing discussions. The proposed US LD (light-duty) greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation for 2017-25 is reviewed, as well as the finalized, first-ever, US HD (heavy-duty) GHG rule for 2014-17. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key emissions developments in LD and HD engine technology, covering both gasoline and diesel. Emissions challenges include lean NOx remediation for diesel and lean-burn gasoline to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations.
Technical Paper

Electronic and Atomistic Roles of Cordierite Substrate in Sintering of Washcoated Catalysts for Automotive Exhaust Gas Emissions Control: Multi-scale Computational Chemistry Approach based on Ultra-Accelerated Quantum Chemical Molecular Dynamics Method

2012-04-16
2012-01-1292
Multi-scale computational chemistry methods based on the ultra-accelerated quantum chemical molecular dynamics (UA-QCMD) are applied to investigate electronic and atomistic roles of cordierite substrate in sintering of washcoated automotive catalysts. It is demonstrated that the UA-QCMD method is effective in performing quantum chemical molecular dynamics calculations of crystals of cordierite, Al₂O₃ and CeZrO₄ (hereafter denoted as CZ). It is around 10,000,000 times faster than a conventional first-principles molecular dynamics method based on density-functional theory (DFT). Also, the accuracy of the UA-QCMD method is demonstrated to be as high as that of DFT. On the basis of these confirmations and comparison, we performed extensive quantum chemical molecular dynamics calculations of surfaces of cordierite, Al₂O₃ and CZ, and interfaces of Al₂O₃ and CZ with cordierite at various temperatures.
Journal Article

Meeting Nonroad Final Tier 4 Emissions on a 4045 John Deere Engine Using A Fuel Reformer and LNT System with An Optional SCR Showing Transparent Vehicle Operation, Vehicle Packaging and Compliance to End-of-Life Emissions

2011-09-13
2011-01-2206
The nonroad Final Tier 4 US EPA emission standards require 88% reduction in NOx emission from the Interim Tier 4 standards. It is necessary to utilize aftertreatment technologies to achieve the required NOx reduction. The development of a fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT) and optional selective catalytic reactor (SCR) on a John Deere 4045 nonroad engine is described in this paper. The paper discusses aftertreatment system performance, catalyst formulations and system controls of a fuel vaporizer, fuel reformer, LNT and SCR system designed to meet the nonroad Final Tier 4 emission standards. The 4045 John Deere engine was calibrated and integrated with the aftertreatment system. The system performance was characterized in an engine dynamometer performance test cell, durability test cell and on a vehicle. The catalyst performance was evaluated using aged catalysts and a detailed description of the LNT, DPF and SCR catalysts is provided.
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