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Technical Paper

Review of ASTM D-2882 Hardware Problems and Suggested Solutions

The ASTM test method D-2882 (Standard Test Method for Indicating the Wear Characteristics of Petroleum and Non-Petroleum Hydraulic Fluids in a Constant Volume Vane Pump) is widely used to evaluate hydraulic fluids. Performing this method can be difficult due to problems with the pump hardware and the written procedure. This paper discusses the problems and suggests possible remedies.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Fluids: Foaming, Air Entrainment, and Air Release - A Review

The importance of minimizing air entrainment and enhancing air release in hydraulic fluids has been recognized for over 40 years. These properties are dependent on the composition of hydraulic fluids, especially on the presence of contaminants which inhibit air release and additives which promote it. One objective of this paper is to present an overview of this critically important technology as it has unfolded over the last 40 years. The second objective of this paper is to integrate into this summary recent research results on the impact of additives on air release properties.
Technical Paper

Water-Glycol Hydraulic Fluid Performance Monitoring: Fluid Performance and Analysis Strategy

Hydraulic fluid performance, including water-glycols (W/G), is dependent on the chemical composition of the fluid and cleanliness. An overview of W/G fluid chemistry on pump wear is provided here. Also provided, is a brief overview of the impact of fluid cleanliness on the potential wear properties of various components. Finally, an overview of recommended analytical procedures to assure adequate long-term fluid hydraulic and lubrication performance is provided. If these procedures are followed, substantial improvements in hydraulic pump longevity and performance will be realized.
Technical Paper

Historical Overview of the Development of Water-Glycol Hydraulic Fluids

Because of on-board fire problems during World War II, the us Navy initiated a program to develop hydraulic fluids that were more fire-resistant than the mineral oils that were in use at that time. Water-glycol hydraulic fluids were subsequently developed and first commercialized in 1947 which offered vastly improved fire resistance relative to mineral oils. Since 1947, in addition to formulation changes, there is significantly greater understanding of the impact of these changes on pump wear performance. This paper will present a selected overview of water-glycol formulation chemistry, some of the fluid formulation issues that have been encountered and the evolutionary improvement of hydraulic pump wear performance.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Premature Water Pump Seal Failures

Automotive water pump seals which have failed prematurely during in-service use have been characterized using a variety of analytical methods. Nearly one hundred failed seals collected over the past several years from local automotive dealerships, major automotive manufacturers, coolant related fleet tests, and pump seal manufacturers have been examined as part of this study. This has enabled us to determine the chemical composition and morphology of surface deposits on failed seals and classify their failure mode. The main failure mode found for domestic in-service automobiles is filming, a term used to describe a failure type in which deposits form between the sealing surfaces resulting in a leak path. This paper reports on the composition, morphology and possible causes of in-service filming failures. In addition, the results of this study will be contrasted with those reported in other studies which found film transfer as the main type of failure.