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Technical Paper

Third Generation 980 Class AHSS: A Viable Alternative to Replace Press-Hardenable Steels (PHS) in Automotive Rear Rail Applications

2020-04-14
2020-01-0534
Commercially available Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steels (GEN3 AHSS) are qualified by automakers worldwide. With an excellent combination of strength and ductility, GEN3 AHSS are cold-formable and have shown potential to replace press hardenable steels (PHS) in structural applications. With overall formability equivalent to 590DP, U. S. Steel 980 GEN3 AHSS (980 XG3™ AHSS) may achieve cold-formed component geometries similar to those achieved by hot-formed PHS. Furthermore 980 GEN3 AHSS demonstrates a substantial increase in post-forming yield strength due to the combined effects of work-hardening and bake-hardening-thereby contributing strongly toward crash energy management performance. The technical challenges and attributes of cold-formed 980 GEN3 AHSS are explored in this paper for an automotive rear rail application (currently PHS), including: formability analysis, wrinkling elimination and springback compensation.
Technical Paper

Structural Performance Comparison between 980MPa Generation 3 Steel and Press Hardened Steel Applied in the Body-in-White A and B-Pillar Parts

2020-04-14
2020-01-0537
Commercially available Generation 3 (GEN3) advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have inherent capability of replacing press hardened steels (PHS) using cold stamping processes. 980 GEN3 AHSS is a cold stampable steel with 980 MPa minimum tensile strength that exhibits an excellent combination of formability and strength. Hot forming of PHS requires elevated temperatures (> 800°C) to enable complex deep sections. 980 GEN3 AHSS presents similar formability as 590 DP material, allowing engineers to design complex geometries similar to PHS material; however, its cold formability provides implied potential process cost savings in automotive applications. The increase in post-forming yield strength of GEN3 AHSS due to work and bake hardening contributes strongly toward crash performance in energy absorption and intrusion resistance.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction and Correlations for Third Generation High Strength Steel

2020-04-14
2020-01-0752
Third generation advanced high strength steels (3GAHSS) are increasingly used in automotive for light weighting and safety body structure components. However, high material strength usually introduces higher springback that affects the dimensional accuracy. The ability to accurately predict springback in simulations is very important to reduce time and cost in stamping tool and process design. In this work, tension and compression tests were performed and the results were implemented to generate Isotropic/Kinematic hardening (I/KH) material models on a 3GAHSS steel with 980 MPa minimum tensile strength. Systematic material model parametric studies and evaluations have been conducted. Case studies from full-scale industrial parts are provided and the predicted springback results are compared to the measured springback data. Key variables affecting the springback prediction accuracy are identified.
Technical Paper

Zebra Line Laser Heat Treated Die Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-0756
The thermal deflection associated with the conventional die heat treating procedure usually requires extra die grinding process to fine-tune the die surface. Due to the size of the production die, the grinding is time consuming and is not cost effective. The goal of the study is to develop a new die heat treating process utilizing the flexible laser heat treatment, which could serve the same purpose as the conventional die heat treating and avoid the thermal deflection. The unique look of the developed zebra pattern laser heat treating process is defined as the Zebra Line. The heat-treating parameters and processes were developed and calibrated to produce the laser heat treating on laboratory size dies, which were subjected to the die wear test in the laboratory condition. The USS HDGI 980 XG3TM steel was selected to be carried out on the developmental dies in the cyclic bend die wear test due to its high strength and coating characteristic.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterizations of the Fracture Data of a Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steel

2020-04-14
2020-01-0205
The simulation of a crash event in the design stage of a vehicle facilitates the optimization of crashworthiness and significantly reduces the design cost and time. The development of a fracture material card used in crash simulation is heavily dependent on laboratory testing data. In this paper, the experimental characterization process to generate fracture data for fracture model calibration is discussed. A third-generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS), namely the XG3TM steel, is selected as the example material. For fracture model calibration, fracture locus and load-displacement data are obtained using mechanical testing coupled with digital image correlation (DIC) technique. Test coupons with designed geometries are deformed under different deformation modes including shear, uniaxial tension, plane strain and biaxial stretch conditions. Mini-shear, sub-sized tensile, and Marciniak cup tests are employed to achieve these strain conditions.
Technical Paper

Residual Stress Distribution in a Hydroformed Advanced High Strength Steel Component: Neutron Diffraction Measurements and Finite Element Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0803
Today’s automotive industry is witnessing increasing applications of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) combined with innovative manufacturing techniques to satisfy fuel economy requirements of stringent environmental regulations. The integration of AHSS in novel automotive structure design has introduced huge advantages in mass reduction while maintaining their structural performances, yet several concerns have been raised for this relatively new family of steels. One of those concerns is their potentially high springback after forming, which can lead to geometrical deviation of the final product from its designed geometry and cause difficulties during assembly. From the perspective of accurate prediction, control and compensation of springback, further understanding on the effect of residual stress in AHSS parts is urged. In this work, the residual stress distribution in a 980GEN3 steel part after hydroforming is investigated via experimental and numerical approaches.
Journal Article

Forming Limit Curves of Advanced High Strength Steels: Experimental Determination and Empirical Prediction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0804
For the past decades, the adoption of empirical equations in the forming limit curve (FLC) calculation for conventional steels has greatly simplified the forming severity assessment in both forming simulations and on the stamping shop floor. Keeler’s equation based on the n-value and sheet thickness is the most popular one used in North America. However, challenges have been encountered on the validity of the equation for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) since Keeler’s equation was developed based on the FLC data mostly from mild steels and conventional high strength steels. In this study, forming limits of various AHSS grades under different strain conditions are experimentally determined using digital image correlation technique. Both Marciniak cup and Nakazima dome tests are exercised to demonstrate the differences in the resultant forming limits determined with different test methods.
Technical Paper

Replacing Press Hardenable Steel with 980 MPa Generation 3 Steel for Automotive Pillars

2018-04-03
2018-01-0117
Press hardenable ultra high strength steel (UHSS) is commonly used for automotive components to meet crash requirements with minimal mass addition to the vehicle. Press hardenable steel (PHS) is capable of forming complex geometries with deep sections since the forming takes place at elevated temperatures up to 900 degrees Celsius (in the Austenitic phase). This forming process is known as hot-stamping. The most commonly used PHS grade is often referred to as PHS1500. After hot-stamping, it is typically required to have a yield strength greater than 950 MPa and a tensile strength greater than 1300 MPa. Most automotive design and material engineers are familiar with PHS, the hot-stamping process, and their capabilities. What is less known is the capability of 3rd Generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) which are cold stamped, also capable of forming complex geometry, and are now in the process of, or have recently completed, qualification at most automotive manufacturers.
Journal Article

Effects of Punch Configuration on the AHSS Edge Stretchability

2017-03-28
2017-01-1705
The hole piercing process is a simple but important task in manufacturing processes. The quality requirement of the pierced hole varies between different applications. It can be either the size or the edge quality of the hole. Furthermore, the pierced hole is often subject to a secondary forming process, in which the edge stretchability is of a main concern. The recently developed advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and ultra high strength steels (UHSS) have been widely used for vehicle weight reduction and safety performance improvements. Due to the higher strength nature of these specially developed sheet steels, the hole piercing conditions are more extreme and challenging, and the quality of the pierced hole can be critical due to their relatively lower edge stretching limits than those for the conventional low and medium strength steels. The stretchability of the as-sheared edge inside the hole can be influenced by the material property, die condition and processing parameters.
Journal Article

Friction and Die Wear in Stamping Prephospated Advanced High Strength Steels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0356
Prephosphated steels have been developed by applying the phosphate coating on zinc coated sheet steels to increase the lubricity in the automotive stamping process and adding extra corrosion protection. The prephosphate coating was also found to be able to further absorb the lubricant, which can reduce the oil migration and excessive amount of lubricant dripping on the die surface and the press floor. Due to its enhanced lubricity characteristic, the applications have been expanded to more-recently developed advanced high strength steels (AHSS). Because of the higher strength of AHSS, it is crucial to understand their performance under more extreme forming conditions such as higher die temperature, contact pressure and sliding speed, etc. The intent of this study is to investigate the tribological performance and die wear behavior of prephosphated AHSS in the die tryout and production conditions.
Journal Article

Experimental Study of Edge Stretching Limits of DP980IBF Steel in Multistage Forming Process

2015-04-14
2015-01-0525
Automotive structural parts made out of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) are often produced in a multistage forming process using progressive dies or transfer dies. During each forming stage the steel is subjected to work hardening, which affects the formability of the steel in the subsequent forming operation. Edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching operations are forming modes that are typically employed in the last stage of the multistage forming processes. In this study, the multistage forming process was simulated by pre-straining a DP980 steel in a biaxial strain path with various strain levels followed by edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching. The biaxial prestrains were obtained using the Marciniak stretch test and edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching were accomplished by the hole expansion test using a flat punch and a conical punch, respectively.
Journal Article

Fatigue Based Lightweight Optimization of a Pickup Cargo Box with Advanced High Strength Steels

2014-04-01
2014-01-0913
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) offer a good balance of strength, durability, crash energy absorption and formability. Applications of AHSS for lightweight designs of automotive structures are accelerating in recent years to meet the tough new CAFE standard for vehicle fuel economy by 2025. At the same time, the new generation pickup cargo box is to be designed for a dramatic increase in payload. Upgrading the box material from conventional mild steels to AHSS is necessary to meet the conflicting requirements of vehicle light weighting and higher payload. In this paper, typical AHSS grades such as DP590 and DP780 were applied to selected components of the pickup cargo box for weight reduction while meeting the design targets for fatigue, strength and local stiffness.
Technical Paper

Optimal Production Trimming Process for AHSS Sheared Edge Stretchability Improvement

2014-04-01
2014-01-0994
Edge fracture is one of the major issues for stamping Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS). Recent studies have showed this type of fracture is greatly affected by an improper trimming process. The current production trimming process used for the conventional mild steels has not been modified for AHSS trimming. In addition to the high-energy requirement, the current mechanical trimming process would generate a rough edge (burr) with microcracks in trimmed edges for AHSS trimming, which could serve as the crack initiation during forming. The purpose of this study is to develop a proper production trimming process for AHSS and elucidate the effect of the trimmed edge conditions on edge fracture. A straight edge shearing device with the capability of adjusting the shearing variables is used in this study.
Technical Paper

Studies on Edge Strain Hardening Produced by Trimming Operations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1774
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are widely used in the automotive industry for various applications especially for structural and safety parts. One of the concerns for AHSS in stamping operations is edge fracture originating from sheared blanked edges. This type of failure cannot be predicted by computer simulations using the conventional forming limit as the failure criterion. The reason for this is that edge damage produced by the blanking operation is not incorporated into the computer models to properly simulate the material edge formability. This study presents a method to evaluate edge damage in terms of the residual stress at the sheared edge produced by the blanking operation. The method uses the level and distribution of edge strain hardening (ESH) through the material thickness as an index to characterize the edge damage caused by the shearing operation.
Technical Paper

The Prestrain Effect on the Sheared Edge Flangeability of Dual Phase 780 Steels

2012-04-16
2012-01-0533
Edge flanging represents one of the forming modes employed in multistage forming, and advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are more prone to edge cracking during sheared edge flanging than the conventional high strength steels (HSS) and mild steels. The performance of the sheared edge in flanging operation depends on the remaining ductility of the material in the sheared edge after the work hardening (WH) and damage produced by blanking and subsequent forming operations. Therefore, it is important to analyze the effect of work hardening produced by blanking and subsequent forming operations prior to edge flanging on the edge flanging performance. In this study, the effect of different forming operation sequences prior to edge flanging on the edge flanging performance was analyzed for a dual phase 780 steel.
Journal Article

Axial Crash Testing and Finite Element Modeling of A 12-Sided Steel Component

2010-04-12
2010-01-0379
To improve the energy absorption capacity of front-end structures during a vehicle crash, a novel 12-sided cross-section was developed and tested. Computer-aided engineering (CAE) studies showed superior axial crash performance of the 12-sided component over more conventional cross-sections. When produced from advanced high strength steels (AHSS), the 12-sided cross-section offers opportunities for significant mass-savings for crash energy absorbing components such as front or rear rails and crush tips. In this study, physical crash tests and CAE modeling were conducted on tapered 12-sided samples fabricated from AHSS. The effects of crash trigger holes, different steel grades and bake hardening on crash behavior were examined. Crash sensitivity was also studied by using two different part fabrication methods and two crash test methods. The 12-sided components showed regular folding mode and excellent energy absorption capacity in axial crash tests.
Journal Article

Optimized Design Solutions for Roof Strength Using Advanced High Strength Steels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0214
In August 2005, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed to increase the roof strength requirement under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 216 from 1.5 to 2.5 times unloaded vehicle weight (UVW). To meet the new requirement with a minimum impact on vehicle weight and cost, the automotive community is working actively to develop improved roof architectures using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and other lightweight materials such as structural foam. The objective of this study is to develop an optimized steel-only solution with low material and part-manufacturing costs. Since the new regulation will present a particular challenge to the roof architectures of large vans, pickup trucks and SUVs due to their large mass and size, a validated roof crush model on a B-Pillar-less light truck is utilized in this study.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Plastic Deformation of Sheared Edges of Dual Phase 780 Steel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0441
One of the concerns for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in stamping operations is the failure of sheared edges in stretching modes. When a forming operation requires stretching edges, local formability becomes a very important factor of the material application, particularly for the AHSS. The local formability of a material is usually characterized by the hole expansion ratio (HER). During edge stretching, the sheared edge can be in contact with the tool or it can be free. These two conditions can be simulated by the hole expansion (HE) test using a conical punch and a flat bottom punch, respectively. In this study, the local formability of a dual phase (DP) 780 steel is evaluated using the HE test. The hole expansion tests were performed using a digital record and measurement system (DRMS) which allows the measurement of the final diameter of the hole at the moment of a localized fracture or a through-thickness crack at the hole edge.
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