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Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Blend Fuels E10 and E85 on the Non-Legislated Emissions of a Flex Fuel Passenger Car

A well-balanced use of alternative fuels worldwide is an important objective for a sustainable development of individual transportation. Several countries have objectives to substitute a part of the energy of traffic by ethanol as the renewable energy source. The global share of Bioethanol used for transportation is continuously increasing. Investigations of limited and unregulated emissions of a flex fuel vehicle with gasoline-ethanol blend fuel have been performed in the present work on the chassis dynamometer according to the measuring procedures, which were established in the previous research in the Swiss Network to adequately consider the transient (WLTC) and the stationary operation (SSC). The investigated fuel contained ethanol (E), in the portions of 10% & 85% by volume. The investigated vehicle represented a newer state of technology and an emission level of Euro 5. The engine works with homogenous GDI concept and with 3-W-catalyst (3WC).
Technical Paper

Investigations of NO2 in Legal Test Procedure for Diesel Passenger Cars

As a result of increased use of catalytic exhaust aftertreatment systems of vehicles and the low-sulfur Diesel fuels there is an increasing share of nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the ambient air of several cities. This is in spite of lowering the summary nitric oxides NOx emissions from vehicles. NO2 is much more toxic than nitrogen monoxide NO and it will be specially considered in the next legal testing procedures. There are doubts about the accuracy of analyzing the reactive substances from diluted gas and this project has the objective to show how NO2 is changing as it travels down through the exhaust- and the CVS systems. For legal measurements of NO2 a WLTP-DTP subgroup (Worldwide Light Duty Test Procedures - Diesel Test Procedures) proposed different combinations of NOx-analyzers and analysis of NO and NOx. Some of these set-ups were tested in this work.
Technical Paper

Experiences from Nanoparticle Research on Four Gasoline Cars

The invisible nanoparticles (NP)*) from combustion processes penetrate easily into the human body through the respiratory and olfactory pathways and carry numerous harmful health effects potentials. NP count concentrations are limited in EU for Diesel passenger cars since 2013 and for gasoline cars with direct injection (GDI) since 2014. The limit for GDI was temporary extended to 6 × 1012 #/km, (regulation No. 459/2012/EU). Nuclei of metals as well as organics are suspected to significantly contribute especially to the ultrafine particle size fractions, and thus to the particle number concentration. In the project GasOMeP (Gasoline Organic & Metal Particulates) metal-nanoparticles (including sub 20nm) from gasoline cars are investigated for different engine technologies. In the present paper some results of investigations of nanoparticles from four gasoline cars - an older one with MPI and three newer with DI - are represented.
Technical Paper

Particle Emissions of Modern Handheld Machines

The progressing exhaust gas legislation for on- and off-road vehicles includes gradually the nanoparticle count limits. The invisible nanoparticles from different emission sources penetrate like a gas into the living organisms and may cause several health hazards. The present paper shows some results of a modern chain saw with & without oxidation catalyst, with Alkylate fuel and with different lube oils. The measurements focused specially on particulate emissions. Particulates were analysed by means of gravimetry (PM) and granulometry SMPS (PN). In this way the reduction potentials with application of the best materials (fuel, lube oil, ox-cat.) were indicated. It has been shown that the particle mass (PM) and the particle numbers (PN), which both consisting almost exclusively of unburned lube-oil, can attain quite high values, but can be influenced by the lube oil quality and can be considerably reduced with an oxidation catalyst.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Changes of the 2-Stroke Scooters Nanoparticles in the Exhaust- and CVS-System

Nanoparticle emissions of two 2-stroke scooters were investigated along the exhaust and the CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) systems. Two configurations were tested: regular full-flow dilution configuration (denoted as “closed”) and also a modified sampling configuration (denoted as “open”). The scooters represent two distinct modern technologies. One scooter had direct injection TSDI*) (Two-Stroke Direct Injection). The other had a carburettor. Depending on the technology, the scooters produce different kind of aerosols (state-of-oxidation and SOF content). Moreover, the scooters were operated with and without oxidation catalyst. The tests were performed at two constant vehicular speeds (20 km/h and 40 km/h). The measuring procedures are those established during the previous research of the Swiss Scooter Network. The nanoparticulate emissions were measured using SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) and DC (Diffusion Charging) sensors.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emissions with DPF & SCR and Toxic Potentials with BioDiesel (RME) Blend Fuels

The use of alternative fuels and among them the biofuels of 1st generation - fatty acid methyl esters FAME's and pure plants oils - for propulsion of IC engines is an important objective in several countries in order to save the fossil fuels and to limit the CO₂ production. The properties of bio-fuels and bio-blend-fuels can vary and this has an impact on the operation and emissions of diesel engines and on the modern exhaust aftertreatment systems. The present paper represents the most important results obtained with RME at AFHB, EMPA and EC-JRC. Most of the activities were performed in the network project BioExDi (Biofuels, Exhaust Systems Diesel) in collaboration between industry and research institutes.
Technical Paper

NO2-Formation in Diesel Particle Filter Systems

NO₂ is much more toxic than NO. The average proportion of NO₂ in exhaust gases of vehicles increases significantly due to the use of oxidation catalysts and catalytic coatings in the exhaust gas systems during the last decades combined with generalization of using low sulfur fuels. Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) and Pt-containing DPF coatings are widely used to support the regeneration of particle filters, being a source of strongly increased production of NO₂. The present work shows some examples and summarizes the experiences in this matter performed at the Laboratories for IC-Engines & Exhaust Emissions Control (AFHB) of the University of Applied Sciences Biel-Bienne, Switzerland, during some research activities on engine dynamometers in the years 2010-2012.
Technical Paper

DPF's Regeneration Procedures and Emissions with RME Blend Fuels

The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME's) - in Europe mostly RME (Rapeseed methyl ester) - are used in several countries as alternative biogene diesel fuels in various blending ratios with fossil fuels (Bxx). Questions often arise about the influences of these biocomponents on the modern exhaust aftertreatment systems and especially on the regeneration of diesel particle filters (DPF). In the present work different regeneration procedures of DPF systems were investigated with biofuels B0, B20 & B100. The tested regeneration procedures were: - passive regenerations: DOC + CSF; CSF alone, and - active regenerations: standstill burner; fuel injections & DOC. During each regeneration on-line measurements of regulated and unregulated emission components (nanoparticles & FTIR) were conducted. It can be stated that the increased portion of RME in fuel provokes longer time periods to charge the filter with soot.
Journal Article

Research on Emissions and Engine Lube Oil Deterioration of Diesel Engines with BioFuels (RME)

In the diesel sector the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME's) - in Europe mostly RME (rapeseed methyl ester) and in US mostly SME (soja oil methyl ester) - are used as a various share, % volume blends with the diesel fuel (B5, B7, B10, B20, Bxx). The present joint project focuses on RME being the most important representative of the biofuels of 1st generation in Europe. The influences of RME blend fuels on emissions and on lube oil deterioration are emphasized. Emissions were investigated on a modern engine with exhaust gas aftertreatment devices like SCR and (DPF+ SCR). Beside the legally limited exhaust emission components some non-legislated like NO₂, N₂O, NH₃ and nanoparticles were measured at stationary and dynamic engine operation.