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Technical Paper

Investigation of NOx Predictions from Biodiesel-fueled HCCI Engine Simulations Using a Reduced Kinetic Mechanism

A numerical study was performed to compare the formation of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), collectively termed NOx, resulting from biodiesel and diesel combustion in an internal combustion engine. It has been shown that biodiesel tends to increase NOx compared to diesel, and to-date, there is no widely accepted explanation. Many factors can lead to increased NOx formation and it was of interest to determine if fuel chemistry plays a significant role. Therefore, in order to isolate the fuel chemistry from mixing processes typical in a compression ignition engine, sprays were not considered in the present investigation. The current study compares the NOx formation of surrogates for biodiesel (as represented by methyl butanoate and n-heptane) and diesel (n-heptane) under completely homogeneous conditions. Combustion of each fuel was simulated using the Senkin code for both an adiabatic, constant volume reactor, and an adiabatic, single-zone HCCI engine model.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Fuel Reactivity Controlled PCCI Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine

This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle, direct-injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at a medium engine load of 9 bar net IMEP and was also found to be effective to prevent excessive rates of pressure rise. Parameters used in the experiments were guided from the KIVA-CHEMKIN code with a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism including injection timings, fuel percentages, and intake valve closing (IVC) timings for dual-fuel PCCI combustion. The engine experiments were conducted with a conventional common rail injector (i.e., wide angle and large nozzle hole) and demonstrated control and versatility of dual-fuel PCCI combustion with the proper fuel blend, SOI and IVC timings.