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Technical Paper

Surrogate Fuel Formulation to Improve the Dual-Mode Dual-Fuel Combustion Operation at Different Operating Conditions

2020-09-15
2020-01-2073
Dual-mode dual-fuel combustion is a promising combustion concept to achieve the required emissions and CO2 reductions imposed by the next standards. Nonetheless, the fuel formulation requirements are stricter than for the single-fuel combustion concepts as the combustion concept relies on the reactivity of two different fuels. This work investigates the effect of the low reactivity fuel sensitivity (S=RON-MON) and the octane number at different operating conditions representative of the different combustion regimes found during the dual-mode dual-fuel operation. For this purpose, experimental tests were performed using a PRF 95 with three different sensitivities (S0, S5 and S10) at operating conditions of 25% load/950 rpm, 50%/1800 rpm and 100%/2200 rpm. Moreover, air sweeps varying ±10% around a reference air mass were performed at 25%/1800 rpm and 50%/1800 rpm. Conventional diesel fuel was used as high reactivity fuel in all the cases.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Timing on Equivalence Ratio Stratification of Methanol and Isooctane in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2069
CO2 is a greenhouse gas that is believed to be one of the main contributors to global warming. Recent studies show that a combination of methanol as a renewable fuel and advanced combustion concepts could be a promising future solution to alleviate this problem. However, high unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions can be stated as the main drawback in low load operations when using methanol under advanced combustion concepts. This issue can be mitigated by modifying the stratification of the local equivalence ratio to achieve a favorable level. The stratifications evolved, and the regimes that can simultaneously produce low emissions, and high combustion efficiency can be identified by sweeping the injection timing from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Understanding how the stratification of the local equivalence ratio for methanol evolves during the sweep is essential to gain these benefits.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Diffusive Flame Structure for Dodecane and OMEX Fuels for Conditions of Spray A of the ECN

2020-09-15
2020-01-2120
A comparison of the flame structure for two different fuels, dodecane and oxymethylene dimethyl ether (OMEX), has been performed under condition of Spray A of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). The experiments were carried out in a constant pressure vessel with wide optical access, at high pressure and temperature and controlled oxygen concentration. The flame structure analysis has been performed by measuring the formaldehyde and OH radical distributions using planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) techniques. To complement the analysis, this information was combined with that obtained with high-speed imaging of OH* chemiluminescence radiation in the UV. Formaldehyde molecules are excited with the 355-nm radiation from the third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser, whilst OH is excited with a wavelength of 281.00-nm from a dye laser.
Journal Article

A Quasi-1D Model for the Description of ECN Spray a Combustion Process

2020-04-14
2020-01-0661
An existing one-dimensional (1D) spray model, which successfully captures inert spray processes, has been extended to enable prediction of ignition delay and lift-off length under reacting conditions. For that purpose, an additional transport equation for the progress variable has been incorporated, which includes detailed chemistry effects by means of a tabulation method based upon an external flamelet solver. The transport equation for the progress variable is solved in a quasi-1D fashion, along presumed mixture fraction trajectories, while the 1D approach is retained for the mixture fraction and axial velocity fields. The paper includes the model development, as well as the validation against Spray A measurements from the Engine Combustion Network. In spite of the simplified approach, the model captures some of the experimental trends of the lift-off length and ignition delay with a quite low computational cost.
Technical Paper

Aging of a Multi-Hole Diesel Injector and Its Effect on the Rate of Injection

2020-04-14
2020-01-0829
In order to comply with the increasingly restrictive limits of emissions and fuel consumption, researches are focusing on improving the efficiency of combustion engines. In this area, the aging of the injector and its effect on the injection development is not entirely analyzed. In this work, the rate of injection of a diesel injector at different stages of its lifetime is analyzed. To this end, a multi-hole piezoelectric injector was employed, comparing the injection rate measured at the beginning of its lifetime to the rate provided by the injector after aging, maintaining the same boundary conditions in both measurements. Injection pressures up to 200 MPa were used throughout the experiments. The results showed that the steady-state rate of injection was lower after the injector aged. Furthermore, the injector took a longer time to close the needle and end the injection, in comparison with the measurements done at earlier stages of its lifetime.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Active Pre-chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Stationary Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0819
Gas engines (fuelled with CNG, LNG or Biogas) for generation of power and heat are, to this date, taking up larger shares of the market with respect to diesel engines. In order to meet the limit imposed by the TA-Luft regulations on stationary engines, lean combustion represents a viable solution for achieving lower emissions as well as efficiency levels comparable with diesel engines. Leaner mixtures however affect the combustion stability as the flame propagation velocity and consequently heat release rate are slowed down. As a strategy to deliver higher ignition energy, an active pre-chamber may be used. This work focuses on assessing the performance of a pre-chamber combustion configuration in a stationary heavy-duty engine for power generation, operating at different loads, air-to-fuel ratios and spark timings.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Passive Pre-Chamber Ignition with EGR and Air Dilution for Future Generation Passenger Car Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-0238
Nowadays the combination of strict regulations for pollutant and CO2 emissions, together with the irruption of electric vehicles in the automotive market, is arising many concerns for internal combustion engine community. For this purpose, many research efforts are being devoted to the development of a new generation of high-performance spark-ignition (SI) engines for passenger car applications. Particularly, the PC ignition concept, also known as Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI), is the focus of several investigations for its benefits in terms of engine thermal efficiency. The passive or un-scavenged version of this ignition strategy does not require an auxiliary fuel supply inside the PC; therefore, it becomes a promising solution for passenger car applications as packaging and installation are simple and straightforward.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Ignition System Requirement on Diluted Mixture Spark Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-1116
In order to face the new challenges, spark ignition engines are evolving by following some strategies and technologies. Among them, alternative combustion processes based on the dilution of the homogeneous mixture, either with fresh air or with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), are being explored. In a higher or lower extent, these changes modify in-cylinder thermodynamic conditions during the engine operation (pressure, temperature and gas composition) thus conditioning the spark ignition system requirements that will have to evolve to become more reliable and powerful. In this framework, an experimental study on the effect of the key in-cylinder conditions on the ignition system performance has been carried out in a single-cylinder spark-ignition (SI) research engine. The study includes EGR, lambda and energizing time sweeps to assess the behavior of the engine in different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Multiple Injection Strategies on Performance and Emissions of Methanol PPC under Low Load Operation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0556
There is growing global interest in using renewable alcohols to reduce the greenhouse gases and the reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Recent studies show that methanol combined with partially premixed combustion provide clear performance and emission benefits compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. Nonetheless, high unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions can be stated as the main PPC drawback in light load condition when using high octane fuel such as Methanol with single injection strategy. Thus, the present experimental study has been carried out to investigate the influence of multiple injection strategies on the performance and emissions with methanol fuel in partially premixed combustion. Specifically, the main objective is to reduce HC, CO and simultaneously increase the gross indicated efficiency compared to single injection strategy.
Journal Article

Infrared/Visible Optical Diagnostics of RCCI Combustion with Dieseline in a Compression Ignition Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0557
Compression ignition engines are widely used for transport and energy generation due to their high efficiency and low fuel consumption. To minimize the environmental impact of this technology, the pollutant emissions levels at the exhaust are strictly regulated. To reduce the after-treatment needs, alternative strategies as the low temperature combustion (LTC) concepts are being investigated recently. The reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) uses two fuels (direct- and port- injected) with different reactivity to control the in-cylinder mixture reactivity by adjusting the proportion of both fuels. In spite of the proportion of the port-injected fuel is typically higher than the direct-injected one, the characteristics of the latter play a main role on the combustion process. Use of gasoline for direct injection is attractive to retard the start of combustion and to improve the air-fuel mixing process.
Technical Paper

PIV and DBI Experimental Characterization of Air Flow-Spray Interaction and Soot Formation in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine Using a Real Bowl Geometry Piston

2019-09-09
2019-24-0100
With demanding emissions legislations and the need for higher efficiency, new technologies for compression ignition engines are in development. One of them relies on reducing the heat losses of the engine during the combustion process as well as to devise injection strategies that reduce soot formation. Therefore, it is necessary a better comprehension about the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) distribution inside the cylinder and how it is affected by the interaction between air flow motion and fuel spray. Furthermore, new diesel engines are characterized by massive decrease of NOx emissions. Therefore, considering the well-known NOx-soot trade-off, it is necessary a better comprehension and overall quantification of soot formation and how the different injection strategies can impact it.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Ethanol-Diesel Technology Applied in Mild and Full Hybrid Powertrains

2019-09-09
2019-24-0115
The increasingly stringent emissions regulations together with the demand of highly efficient vehicles from the customers, lead to rapid developments of distinct powertrain solutions, especially when the electrification is present in a certain degree. The combination of electric machines with conventional powertrains diversifies the powertrain architectures and brings the opportunity to save energy in greater extents. On the other hand, alternative combustion modes as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) have shown to provide simultaneous ultra-low NOx and soot emissions with similar or better thermal efficiency than conventional diesel combustion (CDC). In addition, it is necessary to introduce more renewable fuels as ethanol to reduce the total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere, also called well-to-wheel (WTW) emission, in the transport sector.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Flow and Spray Development One-Way Coupling Methodology for a Multi-Hole GDi Injector

2019-09-09
2019-24-0031
The use of predictive models in the study of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) allows reducing developing cost and times. However, those models are challenging due to the complex and multi-phase phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber, but also because of the different spatial and temporal scales in different components of the injection systems. This work presents a methodology to accurately simulate the spray by Discrete Droplet Models (DDM) without experimentally measuring the injector mass flow rate and/or momentum flux. Transient nozzle flow simulations are used instead to define the injection conditions of the spray model. The methodology is applied to a multi-hole Gasoline Direct injection (GDi) injector. Firstly, the DDM constant values are calibrated comparing simulation results to Diffused Back-light Illumination (DBI) experimental technique results. Secondly, transient nozzle flow simulations are carried out.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Spray Mixing and Combustion Characteristics for Spray C/D Nozzles in a Constant Pressure Vessel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1783
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is a coordinate effort from research partners from all over the world which aims at creating a large experimental database to validate CFD calculations. Two injectors from ECN, namely Spray C and D, have been compared in a constant pressure flow vessel, which enables a field of view of more than 100 mm. Both nozzles have been designed with similar flow metrics, with Spray D having a convergent hole shape and Spray C a cylindrical one, the latter being therefore more prone to cavitation. Although the focus of the study is on reacting conditions, some inert cases have also been measured. High speed schlieren imaging, OH* chemiluminescence visualization and head-on broadband luminosity have been used as combustion diagnostics to evaluate ignition delay, lift off length and reacting tip penetration. Parametric variations include ambient temperature, oxygen content and injection pressure variations.
Technical Paper

Combined CFD - PIV Methodology for the Characterization of Air Flow in a Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1769
It is known that in-cylinder airflow structures during intake and compression strokes deeply affects the combustion process in compression ignition (CI) engines. This work presents a methodology for the analysis of the swirling structures by means of the CFD proprietary code Converge 2.3. The methodology is based on the CFD modelling and the comparison of results with in-cylinder velocity fields measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Furthermore, the analysis is extended to the accuracy evaluation of other methods available to define the flow in the cylinder of internal combustion engines, such as experiments in steady flow rigs. These methods, in junction with simple phenomenological models, have been traditionally used to determine some of the fundamental variables that define the in-cylinder flow in ICE engines. The CFD analysis is focused in the flow structures around top dead centre (TDC) at the end of the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Efficiency of a Conventional Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Dual-Fuel RCCI Diesel-Gasoline Combustion

2018-09-10
2018-01-1729
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion has demonstrated to be able to avoid the NOx-soot trade-off appearing during conventional diesel combustion (CDC), with similar or better thermal efficiency than CDC under a wide variety of engine platforms. However, a major challenge of this concept comes from the high hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, which are orders of magnitude higher than CDC and similar to those of port fuel injected (PFI) gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures during RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatment technologies. RCCI has been successfully implemented on different compression ignition engine platforms with only minor modifications on the combustion system to include a PFI for feeding the engine with the low reactivity fuel.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of the Combustion System of a HD Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with DME Considering Current and Future Emission Standards

2018-04-03
2018-01-0247
A genetic algorithm (GA) optimization methodology is applied to the design of the combustion system of a heavy-duty (HD) Diesel engine fueled with dimethyl ether (DME). The study has two objectives, the optimization of a conventional diffusion-controlled combustion system aiming to achieve US2010 targets and the optimization of a stoichiometric combustion system coupled with a three way catalyst (TWC) to further control NOx emissions and achieve US2030 emission standards. These optimizations include the key combustion system related hardware, bowl geometry and injection nozzle design as input factors, together with the most relevant air management and injection settings. The GA was linked to the KIVA CFD code and an automated grid generation tool to perform a single-objective optimization. The target of the optimizations is to improve net indicated efficiency (NIE) while keeping NOx emissions, peak pressure and pressure rise rate under their corresponding target levels.
Technical Paper

Influence of Direct-Injected Fuel Properties on Performance and Emissions from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Running Under RCCI Combustion Mode

2018-04-03
2018-01-0250
The dual-fuel combustion mode known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) allows an effective control of the combustion process by means of modulating the in-cylinder fuel reactivity depending on the engine operating conditions. This strategy has been found to be able to avoid the NOx-soot trade-off appearing during conventional diesel combustion (CDC), with diesel-like or better thermal efficiency in a great part of the engine map. The role of the low reactivity fuel properties and engine settings over RCCI combustion has been widely investigated in literature, concluding that the direct-injected fuel injection timing is a key parameter for controlling the in-cylinder fuel stratification. From this, it can be inferred that the physical and chemical characteristics of the direct-injected fuel should have also an important role on the RCCI combustion process.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Vortex Center Location Algorithms for Particle Image Velocimetry Data in an Optical Light-Duty Compression Ignition Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0209
Ever decreasing permitted emission levels and the necessity of more efficient engines demand a better understanding of in-cylinder phenomena. In swirl-supported compression ignition (CI) engines, mean in-cylinder flow structures formed during the intake stroke deeply influence mixture preparation prior to combustion, heat transfer and pollutant oxidation all of which could potentially improve engine performance. Therefore, the ability to characterize these mean flow structures is relevant for achieving performance improvements. CI mean flow structure is mainly described by a precessing vortex. The location of the vortex center is key for the characterization of the flow structure. Consequently, this work aims at evaluating algorithms that allow for the location of the vortex center both, in ensemble-averaged velocity fields and in instantaneous velocity fields.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Engine Combustion Network ‘Spray B’ in a Light Duty Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0220
Engine Combustion Network promotes fundamental investigations on a number of different spray configurations with the goal of providing experimental results under highly controlled conditions for CFD validation. Most of the available experiments up to now have been obtained in spray vessels, which miss some of the interactions governing spray evolution in the combustion chamber of an engine, such as the jet wall interaction and the transient conditions in the combustion chamber. The main aim of the present research is to compare the results obtained with a three-hole, 90 μm injector, known as ECN’s Spray B, in these constant-volume vessels and more recent Heavy-Duty engines with those obtained in a Light Duty Single Cylinder Optical Engine, under inert and reactive conditions, using n-dodecane. In-cylinder conditions during the injection were estimated by means of a 1-D and 0-D model simulation, accounting for heat transfer and in-cylinder mass evolution.
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