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Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Active Pre-chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Stationary Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0819
Gas engines (fuelled with CNG, LNG or Biogas) for generation of power and heat are, to this date, taking up larger shares of the market with respect to diesel engines. In order to meet the limit imposed by the TA-Luft regulations on stationary engines, lean combustion represents a viable solution for achieving lower emissions as well as efficiency levels comparable with diesel engines. Leaner mixtures however affect the combustion stability as the flame propagation velocity and consequently heat release rate are slowed down. As a strategy to deliver higher ignition energy, an active pre-chamber may be used. This work focuses on assessing the performance of a pre-chamber combustion configuration in a stationary heavy-duty engine for power generation, operating at different loads, air-to-fuel ratios and spark timings.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Spray Mixing and Combustion Characteristics for Spray C/D Nozzles in a Constant Pressure Vessel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1783
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is a coordinate effort from research partners from all over the world which aims at creating a large experimental database to validate CFD calculations. Two injectors from ECN, namely Spray C and D, have been compared in a constant pressure flow vessel, which enables a field of view of more than 100 mm. Both nozzles have been designed with similar flow metrics, with Spray D having a convergent hole shape and Spray C a cylindrical one, the latter being therefore more prone to cavitation. Although the focus of the study is on reacting conditions, some inert cases have also been measured. High speed schlieren imaging, OH* chemiluminescence visualization and head-on broadband luminosity have been used as combustion diagnostics to evaluate ignition delay, lift off length and reacting tip penetration. Parametric variations include ambient temperature, oxygen content and injection pressure variations.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of the Combustion System of a HD Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with DME Considering Current and Future Emission Standards

2018-04-03
2018-01-0247
A genetic algorithm (GA) optimization methodology is applied to the design of the combustion system of a heavy-duty (HD) Diesel engine fueled with dimethyl ether (DME). The study has two objectives, the optimization of a conventional diffusion-controlled combustion system aiming to achieve US2010 targets and the optimization of a stoichiometric combustion system coupled with a three way catalyst (TWC) to further control NOx emissions and achieve US2030 emission standards. These optimizations include the key combustion system related hardware, bowl geometry and injection nozzle design as input factors, together with the most relevant air management and injection settings. The GA was linked to the KIVA CFD code and an automated grid generation tool to perform a single-objective optimization. The target of the optimizations is to improve net indicated efficiency (NIE) while keeping NOx emissions, peak pressure and pressure rise rate under their corresponding target levels.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Vortex Center Location Algorithms for Particle Image Velocimetry Data in an Optical Light-Duty Compression Ignition Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0209
Ever decreasing permitted emission levels and the necessity of more efficient engines demand a better understanding of in-cylinder phenomena. In swirl-supported compression ignition (CI) engines, mean in-cylinder flow structures formed during the intake stroke deeply influence mixture preparation prior to combustion, heat transfer and pollutant oxidation all of which could potentially improve engine performance. Therefore, the ability to characterize these mean flow structures is relevant for achieving performance improvements. CI mean flow structure is mainly described by a precessing vortex. The location of the vortex center is key for the characterization of the flow structure. Consequently, this work aims at evaluating algorithms that allow for the location of the vortex center both, in ensemble-averaged velocity fields and in instantaneous velocity fields.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Engine Combustion Network ‘Spray B’ in a Light Duty Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0220
Engine Combustion Network promotes fundamental investigations on a number of different spray configurations with the goal of providing experimental results under highly controlled conditions for CFD validation. Most of the available experiments up to now have been obtained in spray vessels, which miss some of the interactions governing spray evolution in the combustion chamber of an engine, such as the jet wall interaction and the transient conditions in the combustion chamber. The main aim of the present research is to compare the results obtained with a three-hole, 90 μm injector, known as ECN’s Spray B, in these constant-volume vessels and more recent Heavy-Duty engines with those obtained in a Light Duty Single Cylinder Optical Engine, under inert and reactive conditions, using n-dodecane. In-cylinder conditions during the injection were estimated by means of a 1-D and 0-D model simulation, accounting for heat transfer and in-cylinder mass evolution.
Technical Paper

Development of an Integrated Virtual Engine Model to Simulate New Standard Testing Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1413
The combination of more strict regulation for pollutant and CO2 emissions and the new testing cycles, covering a wider range of transient conditions, makes very interesting the development of predictive tools for engine design and pre-calibration. This paper describes a new integrated Virtual Engine Model (VEMOD) that has been developed as a standalone tool to simulate new standard testing cycles. The VEMOD is based on a wave-action model that carries out the thermo-and fluid dynamics calculation of the gas in each part of the engine. In the model, the engine is represented by means of 1D ducts, while the volumes, such as cylinders and reservoirs, are considered as 0D elements. Different sub-models are included in the VEMOD to take into account all the relevant phenomena. Thus, the combustion process is calculated by the Apparent Combustion Time (ACT) 1D model, responsible for the prediction of the rate of heat release and NOx formation.
Technical Paper

Soot Characterization of Diesel/Gasoline Blends Injected through a Single Injection System in CI engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0048
In the past few years’ various studies have shown how the application of a highly premixed dual fuel combustion for CI engines leads a strong reduction for both pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. In particular a drastic soot and NOx reduction were achieved. In spite of the most common strategy for dual fueling has been represented by using two different injection systems, various authors are considering the advantages of using a single injection system to directly inject blends in the chamber. In this scenario, a characterization of the behavior of such dual-fuel blend spray became necessary, both in terms of inert and reactive ambient conditions. In this work, a light extinction imaging (LEI) has been performed in order to obtain two-dimensional soot distribution information within a spray flame of different diesel/gasoline commercial fuel blends. All the measurements were conducted in an optically accessible two-stroke engine equipped with a single-hole injector.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Spray Evaporation and Mixing Using Blends of Commercial Gasoline and Diesel Fuels in Engine-Like Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0843
Recent studies have shown that the use of highly premixed dual fuel combustion reduces pollutant emissions and fuel consumption in CI engines. The most common strategy for dual fueling is to use two injection systems. Port fuel injection for low reactivity fuel and direct injection for high reactivity fuel. This strategy implies some severe shortcomings for its real implementation in passenger cars such as the use of two fuel tanks. In this sense, the use of a single injection system for dual fueling could solve this drawback trying to maintain pollutant and efficiency benefits. Nonetheless, when single injection system is used, the spray characteristics become an essential issue. In this work the fundamental characteristics of dual-fuel sprays with a single injection system under non-evaporating engine-like conditions are presented.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Injection into a Non-Quiescent Chamber

2017-03-28
2017-01-0850
Visualization of single-hole nozzles into quiescent ambient has been used extensively in the literature to characterize spray mixing and combustion. However in-cylinder flow may have some meaningful impact on the spray evolution. In the present work, visualization of direct diesel injection spray under both non-reacting and reacting operating conditions was conducted in an optically accessible two-stroke engine equipped with a single-hole injector. Two different high-speed imaging techniques, Schlieren and UV-Light Absorption, were applied here to quantify vapor penetration for non-reacting spray. Meanwhile, Mie-scattering was used to measure the liquid length. As for reacting conditions, Schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence were simultaneously applied to obtain the spray tip penetration and flame lift-off length under the same TDC density and temperature. Additionally, PIV was used to characterize in-cylinder flow motion.
Journal Article

Study of Air Flow Interaction with Pilot Injections in a Diesel Engine by Means of PIV Measurements

2017-03-28
2017-01-0617
With ever-demanding emission legislations in Compression Ignition (CI) engines, new premixed combustion strategies have been developed in recent years seeking both, emissions and performance improvements. Since it has been shown that in-cylinder air flow affects the combustion process, and hence the overall engine performance, the study of swirling structures and its interaction with fuel injection are of great interest. In this regard, possible Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) distribution changes after fuel injection may be a key parameter for achieving performance improvements by reducing in-cylinder heat transfer. Consequently, this paper aims to gain an insight into spray-swirl interaction through the analysis of in-cylinder velocity fields measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) when PCCI conditions are proposed. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder optical Diesel engine with bowl-in-piston geometry.
Journal Article

A Combination of Swirl Ratio and Injection Strategy to Increase Engine Efficiency

2017-03-28
2017-01-0722
Growing awareness about CO2 emissions and their environmental implications are leading to an increase in the importance of thermal efficiency as criteria to design internal combustion engines (ICE). Heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls contributes to a decrease in the indicated efficiency. A strategy explored in this study to mitigate this efficiency loss is to promote low swirl conditions in the combustion chamber by using low swirl ratios. A decrease in swirl ratio leads to a reduction in heat transfer, but unfortunately, it can also lead to worsening of combustion development and a decrease in the gross indicated efficiency. Moreover, pumping work plays also an important role due to the effect of reduced intake restriction to generate the swirl motion. Current research evaluates the effect of a dedicated injection strategy to enhance combustion process when low swirl is used.
Technical Paper

Soot Model Calibration Based on Laser Extinction Measurements

2016-04-05
2016-01-0590
In this work a detailed soot model based on stationary flamelets is used to simulate soot emissions of a reactive Diesel spray. In order to represent soot formation and oxidation processes properly, a calibration of the soot reaction rates has to be performed. This model calibration is usually performed on basis of engine out soot measurements. Contrary to this, in this work the soot model is calibrated on local soot concentrations along the spray axis obtained from laser extinction chamber measurements. The measurements are performed with B7 certification Diesel and a series production multihole injector to obtain engine similar boundary conditions. In order to ensure that the flow and mixture field is captured well by the CFD-simulation, the simulated liquid penetration lengths and flame lift-off lengths are compared to chamber measurements.
Journal Article

Combustion Recession after End of Injection in Diesel Sprays

2015-04-14
2015-01-0797
This work contributes to the understanding of physical mechanisms that control flashback, or more appropriately combustion recession, in diesel sprays. A large dataset, comprising many fuels, injection pressures, ambient temperatures, ambient oxygen concentrations, ambient densities, and nozzle diameters is used to explore experimental trends for the behavior of combustion recession. Then, a reduced-order model, capable of modeling non-reacting and reacting conditions, is used to help interpret the experimental trends. Finally, the reduced-order model is used to predict how a controlled ramp-down rate-of-injection can enhance the likelihood of combustion recession for conditions that would not normally exhibit combustion recession. In general, fuel, ambient conditions, and the end-of-injection transient determine the success or failure of combustion recession.
Journal Article

Experimental Characterization of the Thermodynamic Properties of Diesel Fuels Over a Wide Range of Pressures and Temperatures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0951
The influence of pressure and temperature on some of the important thermodynamic properties of diesel fuels has been assessed for a set of fuels. The study focuses on the experimental determination of the speed of sound, density and compressibility (via the bulk modulus) of these fuels by means of a method that is thoroughly described in this paper. The setup makes use of a common-rail injection system in order to transmit a pressure wave through a high-pressure line and measure the time it takes for the wave to travel a given distance. Measurements have been performed in a wide range of pressures (from atmospheric pressure up to 200 MPa) and temperatures (from 303 to 353 K), in order to generate a fuel properties database for modelers on the field of injection systems for diesel engines to incorporate to their simulations.
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