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Technical Paper

Effects of the Engine Cooling System Design on Fuel Consumption - a Numerical Assessment

2021-03-26
2020-36-0182
One of the biggest challenges for mobility engineers today is the reduction of fuel consumption while keeping or even improving the automobiles propulsion system performance. A great part of the current powertrain components is developed to work at high engine loads and extreme environmental conditions, among which the engine cooling system, for example. As the overall vehicle efficiency depends directly on the thermal system design, it is important to make a careful investigation of the external ambient to develop this system on the best possible way, seeking to minimize the negative impacts at normal driving situations, which represents the most of the vehicle's life cycle. In this regard, the present paper reports a numerical study about the impacts of different cooling system hardware configurations on the fuel consumption of a turbocharged flex-fuel engine.
Technical Paper

Modification of the Internal Flows of Thermal Propulsion Systems Using Local Aerodynamic Inserts

2020-09-15
2020-01-2039
Modern thermal propulsion systems (TPS) as part of hybrid powertrains are becoming increasingly complex. They have an increased number of components in comparison to traditionally powered vehicles leading to increased demand in packaging requirements. Many of the components in these systems relate to achieving efficiency gains, weight saving and pollutant reduction. This includes turbochargers and diesel or gasoline particulate filters for example and these are known to be very sensitive to inlet boundary conditions. When overcoming packaging requirements, sub-optimal flow distributions throughout the TPS can easily occur. Moreover, the individual components are often designed in isolation assuming relatively flat and artificially quiescent inlet flow conditions in comparison to those they are actually presented with. Thus, some of the efficiency benefits are lost through reduced component aerodynamic efficiency.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel and Lubricant on Engine Vibration

2020-04-14
2020-01-1015
Vibration problems in internal combustion engines produce premature wear on the internal components of the engine, which contributes both to reduce the lifespan of the engine itself as well as cause discomfort to the occupants of the vehicle. Thus, since it is impossible to totally eliminate vibrations from engines, it is important to understand the sources of vibration production and control them to acceptable levels. The general objective of this paper is to measure the vibration in the areas that undergo greater efforts due to the processes of combustion and mechanical forces. These areas are the fixed bearings located to the extremes of the crankshaft. The specified objective of this study is to correlate these levels of crankshaft engine vibration relative to the fuel used, ethanol and gasoline, and assess the influence of lubricant oils on the vibration levels as a function of the viscosity of the lubricant.
Technical Paper

Does the Interaction between Vehicle Headlamps and Roadway Lighting Affect Visibility? A Study of Pedestrian and Object Contrast

2020-04-14
2020-01-0569
Vehicle headlamps and roadway lighting are the major sources of illumination at night. These sources affect contrast - defined as the luminance difference of an object from its background - which drives visibility at night. However, the combined effect of vehicle headlamps and intersection lighting on object contrast has not been reported previously. In this study, the interactive effects of vehicle headlamps and overhead lighting on object contrast were explored based on earlier work that examined drivers’ visibility under three intersection lighting designs (illuminated approach, illuminated box, and illuminated approach + box). The goals of this study were to: 1) quantify object luminance and contrast as a function of a vehicle’s headlamps and its distance to an intersection using the three lighting designs; and, 2) to assess whether contrast influences visual performance and perceived visibility in a highly dynamic intersection environment.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effects of Rubber Compounds on Tire Performance on Ice

2020-04-14
2020-01-1228
Mechanical and thermal properties of the rubber compounds of a tire play an important role in the overall performance of the tire when it is in contact with the terrain. Although there are many studies conducted on the properties of the rubber compounds of the tire to improve some of the tire characteristics such as the wear of the tread, there is a limited number of studies that focused on the performance of the tire when it is in contact with ice. This study is a part of a more comprehensive project looking into tire-ice performance and modeling. A significant part of this study is the experimental investigation of the effect of rubber compounds on tire performance in contact with ice. For this, four tires have been selected for testing. Three of them are completely identical in all tire parameters (such as tire dimensions), except for the rubber compounds. Several tests were conducted for the chosen tires in three modes: free rolling, braking, and traction.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Analysis of a Spark Ignition Engine Operating with Hydrogen Injection in a Pre-Combustion Chamber

2020-01-13
2019-36-0121
Due to the large negative impact of combustion gas emissions on air quality and the more stringent environmental legislation, research on internal combustion engines (ICE) are being developed to reduce emissions of pollutant gases to the atmosphere. One of the research fronts is the use of lean mixtures with the pre-chamber ignition system (PCIS). This system consists of a pre-chamber (PC) connected to the main chamber by one or more interconnecting holes. A spark plug initiates combustion of the mixture present in the pre-chamber, which is propagated as gas jet into the main chamber, igniting the lean mixture present therein. The gas jets have high thermal and kinetic energy, which promote faster combustion duration, making the system less prone to knock and with lower cyclic variability of the IMEP, enabling the lean limit extension. The pre-chamber system can be assisted with a supplementary liquid or gaseous fuel injection, enabling the charge stratification.
Technical Paper

Effects of operation temperature on exhaust emissions in a spark ignition system using pre-chamber stratified system

2020-01-13
2019-36-0130
Atmospheric pollution is the major public health issue in many cities around the world. Internal combustion engines (ICE) and industries are common sources of pollutants that aggravate this situation. Aiming to overcome this problem, increasingly restrictive legislation on combustion pollutant emissions has been formulated and new technologies are being developed to ensure compliance with such restrictions. In this scenario, the lean mixtures appear as a possible alternative, but also bring some inconveniences such as combustion instabilities. Pre-chamber ignition systems (PCIS) enable a more stable combustion process due to high kinetic, thermal and chemical energy of the gases from the pre-chamber (PC), which pass through nozzles and begin the combustion process of the air-fuel mixture contained in the main combustion chamber (MC). However, some challenges still have to be overcome in the development of these systems, one of the main ones being hydrocarbon (HC) emissions.
Technical Paper

The impacts of Diesel cycle engines on the operating costs of the Cessna 172 Skyhawk and JT-A aircraft.

2020-01-13
2019-36-0321
Diesel engines have been used on the aeronautical market for a long time. Despite this fact, there are few studies showing the potential cost savings of using this type of technology. In this way, the goal of this paper is to find out whether or not it is advantageous to use an Otto or Diesel cycle engine on general aviation light aircraft. It is well known that both of them have pros and cons, however, the possibility of using Jet A-1 (kerosene) as fuel gives the Diesel engine a clear advantage in a market like Brazil, where the price of the regular piston fuel (AvGas) keeps rising to astonishing values. Throughout this paper, a detailed study of the fixed and variable costs of two similar aircraft, both Cessnas 172 equipped with Otto and Diesel cycle engines is conducted, comparing fuel consumption, performance levels, and other factors.
Technical Paper

Analysis of ethanol spray behavior into a Single Cylinder Optical Research Engine

2020-01-13
2019-36-0223
The work focuses on studying ethanol spray behavior injected directly inside a spark ignited internal combustion engine in the compression stroke. An experimental procedure for measuring spray penetration and spray overall cone angle produced by a multi-hole direct injector was developed by means of computational codes written in Matlab environment for working with images of spray injections and to acquire calculated results in an automatic way. The shadowgraph technique with back continuous illumination associated with a high speed recording image process was used in a single cylinder optical research engine for acquiring images of Brazilian ethanol fuel injected at 120° before the top dead center of compression stroke. The process of spray injections occurred with engine speeds of 1000 rpm, 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm. The results showed that spray penetrations decrease and spray cone angle increase when the engine speed is raised.
Technical Paper

A Two-Step Combustion Model of Iso-Octane for 3D CFD Combustion Simulation in SI Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0201
The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for three-dimensional (3D) combustion analysis coupled with detailed chemistry in engine development is hindered by its expensive computational cost. Chemistry computation may occupy as much as 90% of the total computational cost. In the present paper, a new two-step iso-octane combustion model was developed for spark-ignited (SI) engine to maximize computational efficiency while maintaining acceptable accuracy. Starting from the model constants of an existing global combustion model, the new model was developed using an approach based on sensitivity analysis to approximate the results of a reference skeletal mechanism. The present model involves only five species and two reactions and utilizes only one uniform set of model constants. The validation of the new model was performed using shock tube and real SI engine cases.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Increase Level of Vibration in an Internal Combustion Engine due to the Degradation of the Lubricating Oil

2019-04-02
2019-01-0780
When analyzing vibrations in internal combustion engines, it is noticed that the greatest sources of vibrations are generated by combustion and mechanical forces. These forces occur over a wide frequency range and are transmitted to the outer surface of the engine through several paths, such as through the piston mechanism, connecting rod, crankshaft and engine block. As a result of the action of these forces, the external surfaces of the engine are subjected to vibrations of various amplitudes. Vibration problems in internal combustion engines are common due to the wide variety of parts and components that make up such engines. The crankshaft undergoes transverse, longitudinal and torsional vibrations due to the dynamics of the stresses sustained mainly during the combustion phase of the engine.
Technical Paper

Unconventional Truck Chassis Design with Multi-Functional Cross Members

2019-04-02
2019-01-0839
An unconventional conceptual design of truck chassis with multi-functional cross-members is proposed, and an optimization framework is developed to optimize its structure to minimize mass while satisfying stiffness and modal frequency constraints. The side rails are C-sectional channels of variable height and were divided into six sections, each with different thickness distribution for the flanges and the web. The gearbox cross-member and the intermediate cross-members are compressed-air cylinders, and hence they act as multi-functional components. The dimensions and thickness of the side rails and the air-tank cross members are defined by a set of parameters which are considered as design variables in the optimization problem. The structure consists of three additional fixed cross-members which are modeled using beam elements. The limits of the design variables are decided while considering manufacturing limits.
Journal Article

Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1023
Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions.
Technical Paper

Has Electronic Stability Control Reduced Rollover Crashes?

2019-04-02
2019-01-1022
Vehicle rollovers are one of the more severe crash modes in the US - accounting for 32% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities annually. One design enhancement to help prevent rollovers is Electronic Stability Control (ESC) which can reduce loss of control and thus has great promise to enhance vehicle safety. The objectives of this research were (1) to estimate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing the number of rollover crashes and (2) to identify cases in which ESC did not prevent the rollover to potentially advance additional ESC development. All passenger vehicles and light trucks and vans that experienced a rollover from 2006 to 2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) were analyzed. Each rollover was assigned a crash scenario based on the crash type, pre-crash maneuver, and pre-crash events.
Technical Paper

Combustion analysis in a SI engine with homogeneous and stratified pre-chamber system

2018-09-03
2018-36-0112
Extensive studies of pre-chamber ignition systems in internal combustion engines have proven its effectiveness in reduction of fuel consumption and improvement in several combustion parameters. Considering the different types of pre-chamber configurations, this paper aims to compare the combustion in a SI engine with both homogeneous and stratified pre-chamber ignition systems. To achieve this objective a system with the ability to control the hydrogen injection in the pre-chamber was built. This system was installed in a multi-cylinder Ford Sigma 1.6L engine and tested in a dynamometric room. Tests consisted in imposing a constant rotation and IMEP to test three conditions: standard spark ignition, pre-chamber ignition system without fuel injection (homogenous) and with hydrogen injection (stratified). It was possible to identify that with the use of pre-chamber ignition system there is a reduction in specific fuel consumption and in the combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Combustion influence of a pre-chamber ignition system in a SI commercial engine

2018-09-03
2018-36-0115
Environmental policies and fuel costs have driven the development of new technologies for internal combustion engines. In this sense, the use of mixtures with small portions of fuel allows lower fuel consumption and pollutants emissions, emerging as a promising strategy. Despite the advantages, lean burn requires a larger energy source to provide satisfactory flame propagation speed and consequently a stable combustion. The use of pre-chamber ignition systems (PCIS) has been used in SI engines to assist the start of combustion of lean mixtures, in which a supplementary fuel system can stratify the amount of either liquid or gaseous fuels supplied to the pre-chamber. In this context, this paper aims to evaluate combustion characteristics of a commercial engine with the use of stratified PCIS operating with impoverished mixtures of ethanol-air in main-chamber and hydrogen assistance in pre-chamber.
Technical Paper

EcoRouting Strategy Using Variable Acceleration Rate Synthesis Methodology

2018-04-16
2018-01-5005
This paper focuses on the analysis of an EcoRouting system with minimum and maximum number of conditional stops. The effect on energy consumption with the presence and absence of road-grade information along a route is also studied. An EcoRouting system has been developed that takes in map information and converts it to a graph of nodes containing route information such as speed limits, stop lights, stop signs and road grade. A variable acceleration rate synthesis methodology is also introduced in this paper that takes into consideration distance, acceleration, cruise speed and jerk rate as inputs to simulate driver behavior on a given route. A simulation study is conducted in the town of Blacksburg, Virginia, USA to analyze the effects of EcoRouting in different driving conditions and to examine the effects of road grade and stop lights on energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Estimating Benefits of LDW Systems Applied to Cross-Centerline Crashes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0512
Objective: Opposite-direction crashes can be extremely severe because opposing vehicles often have high relative speeds. The most common opposite direction crash scenario occurs when a driver departs their lane driving over the centerline and impacts a vehicle traveling in the opposite direction. This cross-centerline crash mode accounts for only 4% of all non-junction non-interchange crashes but 25% of serious injury crashes of the same type. One potential solution to this problem is the Lane Departure Warning (LDW) system which can monitor the position of the vehicle and provide a warning to the driver if they detect the vehicle is moving out of the lane. The objective of this study was to determine the potential benefits of deploying LDW systems fleet-wide for avoidance of cross-centerline crashes. Methods: In order to estimate the potential benefits of LDW for reduction of cross-centerline crashes, a comprehensive crash simulation model was developed.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Estimates of Near Side Crash Injury Risk in Best Performing Passenger Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0548
The goal of this paper is to estimate near-side injury risk in vehicles with the best side impact performance in the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). The longer-term goal is to predict the incidence of crashes and injury outcomes in the U.S. in a future fleet of the 2025-time frame after current active and passive safety countermeasures are fully implemented. Our assumption was that, by 2025, all new vehicles will have side impact passive safety performance equivalent to current U.S. NCAP five star ratings. The analysis was based on real-world crashes extracted from case years 2010-2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) in which front-row occupants of late-model vehicles (Model Year 2011+) were exposed to a near-side crash.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Tire-Road Contact Forces: A Comparison between Artificial Neural Network and Observed Theory Approaches

2018-04-03
2018-01-0562
One of the principal goals of modern vehicle control systems is to ensure passenger safety during dangerous maneuvers. Their effectiveness relies on providing appropriate parameter inputs. Tire-road contact forces are among the most important because they provide helpful information that could be used to mitigate vehicle instabilities. Unfortunately, measuring these forces requires expensive instrumentation and is not suitable for commercial vehicles. Thus, accurately estimating them is a crucial task. In this work, two estimation approaches are compared, an observer method and a neural network learning technique. Both predict the lateral and longitudinal tire-road contact forces. The observer approach takes into account system nonlinearities and estimates the stochastic states by using an extended Kalman filter technique to perform data fusion based on the popular bicycle model.
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