Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Journal Article

A Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element Model of Drilling Titanium and Aluminium Alloys

2016-09-27
2016-01-2126
Despite the increasing use of carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites, titanium and aluminium alloys still constitute a significant proportion of modern civil aircraft structures, which are primarily assembled via mechanical joining techniques. Drilling of fastening holes is therefore a critical operation, which has to meet stringent geometric tolerance and integrity criteria. The paper details the development of a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model for drilling aerospace grade aluminium (AA7010-T7451 and AA2024-T351) and titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys. The FE simulation employed a Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) technique. The cutting tool was modelled according to a Lagrangian formulation in which the mesh follows the material displacement while the workpiece was represented by a non-translating and material deformation independent Eulerian mesh.
Technical Paper

Influence of Coolant Temperature on Cold Start Performance of Diesel Passenger Car in Cold Environment

2016-02-01
2016-28-0142
Diesel engines are the versatile power source and is widely used in passenger car and commercial vehicle applications. Environmental temperature conditions, fuel quality, fuel injection strategies and lubricant have influence on cold start performance of the diesel engines. Strategies to overcome the cold start problem at very low ambient temperature include preheating of intake air, coolant, cylinder block. The present research work investigates the effect of coolant temperatures on passenger car diesel engine’s performance and exhaust emission characteristics during the cold start at cold ambient temperature conditions. The engine is soaked in the -7°C environment for 6 hours. The engine coolant is preheated to the desired coolant temperatures of 10 and 20°C by an external heater and the start ability tests were performed.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst during Cold Start at L ow Temperature Conditions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2712
Cold start is a critical operating condition for diesel engines because of the pollutant emissions produced by the unstable combustion and non-performance of after-treatment at lower temperatures. In this research investigation, a light-duty turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system was tested on a transient engine testing bed to study the starting process in terms of engine performance and emissions. The engine (including engine coolant, engine oil and fuel) was soaked in a cold cell at −7°C for at least 8 hours before starting the test. The engine operating parameters such as engine speed, air/fuel ratio, and EGR rate were recorded during the tests. Pollutant emissions (Hydrocarbon (HC), NOx, and particles both in mode of nucleation and accumulation) were measured before and after the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). The results show that conversion efficiency of NOx was higher during acceleration period at −7°C start than the case of 20°C start.
Technical Paper

A Study of Methodology for the Investigation of Engine Transient Performance

2014-10-13
2014-01-2714
Automotive engines especially turbocharged diesel engines produce higher level of emissions during transient operation than in steady state. In order to improve understanding of the engine transients and develop advanced technologies to reduce the transient emissions, the engine researchers require accurate data acquisition and appropriate post-processing techniques which are capable of dealing with noise and synchronization issues. Four alternative automated methods namely FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), low-pass, linear and zero-phase filters were implemented on in-cylinder pressure. The data of each individual cycle was compared and analyzed for the suitability of combustion diagnostic. FFT filtering was the best suited method since it eliminated most pressure fluctuation and provided smooth rate of heat release profiles for each cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Heavy Naphtha for High Efficiency and Low Emissions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2678
A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with heavy naphtha is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from 0.5MPa to 0.9MPa. Commercial diesel is also tested with the single injection for reference. The combustion and emissions characteristics of the heavy naphtha are investigated by sweeping the first (−200 ∼ −20 deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−5 ∼ 15 deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 50/50. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the naphtha MPCI can reduce NOx, soot emissions and particle number simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency. A low pressure rise rate can be achieved due to the two-stage combustion character of the MPCI mode but with the penalty of high HC and CO emissions, especially at 0.5MPa IMEP.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Self-Stabilization Feature of HCCI Combustion

2014-10-13
2014-01-2663
The combustion timing, work output and in-cylinder peak pressure for HCCI engines often converge to a stable equilibrium point, which implies that the HCCI combustion may have a self-stabilization feature. It is thought that this behavior is due to the competing residual-induced heating and dilution of the reactant gas. As one of the most important features of HCCI combustion, the self-stabilization behavior can give great guidance to people for designing controller for HCCI engine control. The self-stabilization features of HCCI combustion had been observed by many researchers and mentioned in some publications. However, there is no report to experimentally analyze this phenomenon individually. Due to the fuel injection normally ending during the NVO process and the spark plug is turned off for HCCI engines, there is no direct control approach between the Intake Valve Close (IVC) and the start of combustion.
Technical Paper

Thermal Performance of Diesel Aftertreatment: Material and Insulation CFD Analysis

2014-10-13
2014-01-2818
Recent developments in diesel engines lead to increased fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust gas temperature. Therefore more energy efficient aftertreatment systems are required to comply with tight emission regulations. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics package was used to investigate the thermal behaviour of a diesel aftertreatment system. A parametric study was carried out to identify the most influential pipework material and insulation characteristics in terms of thermal performance. In the case of the aftertreatment pipework and canning material effect, an array of different potential materials was selected and their effects on the emission conversion efficiency of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) were numerically investigated over a driving cycle. Results indicate that although the pipework material's volumetric heat capacity was decreased by a factor of four, the total emission reduction was only considerable during the cold start.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Different Blends of Diesel and Gasoline (Dieseline) in a CI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2686
Combustion behaviour and emissions characteristics of different blending ratios of diesel and gasoline fuels (Dieseline) were investigated in a light-duty 4-cylinder compression-ignition (CI) engine operating on partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode. Experiments show that increasing volatility and reducing cetane number of fuels can help promote PPCI and consequently reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions reduction depends on the engine load. Three different blends, 0% (G0), 20% (G20) and 50% (G50) of gasoline mixed with diesel by volume, were studied and results were compared to the diesel-baseline with the same combustion phasing for all experiments. Engine speed was fixed at 1800rpm, while the engine load was varied from 1.38 to 7.85 bar BMEP with the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) application.
Journal Article

Low Ambient Temperature Effects on a Modern Turbocharged Diesel engine running in a Driving Cycle

2014-10-13
2014-01-2713
Engine transient operation has attracted a lot of attention from researchers due to its high frequency of occurrence during daily vehicle operation. More emissions are expected compared to steady state operating conditions as a result of the turbo-lag problem. Ambient temperature has significant influences on engine transients especially at engine start. The effects of ambient temperature on engine-out emissions under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) are investigated in this study. The transient engine scenarios were carried out on a modern 3.0 L, V6 turbocharged common rail diesel engine fuelled with winter diesel in a cold cell within the different ambient temperature ranging between +20 °C and −7 °C. The engine with fuel, coolant, combustion air and lubricating oil were soaked and maintained at the desired test temperatures during the transient scenarios.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Characteristics of DISI Injector Deposits Using Advanced Analytical Methods

2014-10-13
2014-01-2722
There is an increasing recognition of injector deposit (ID) formation in fuel injection equipment as direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technologies advance to meet increasingly stringent emission legislation and fuel economy requirements. While it is known that the phenomena of ID in DISI engines can be influenced by changes in fuel composition, including increasing usage of aliphatic alcohols and additive chemistries to enhance fuel performance, there is however still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the physical and chemical structure of these deposits, and the mechanisms of deposit formation. In this study, a mechanical cracking sample preparation technique was developed to assess the deposits across DISI injectors fuelled with gasoline and blends of 85% ethanol (E85).
Technical Paper

Prediction of Wear Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes Using Nonlinear Identification

2014-04-01
2014-01-0947
Aluminum metal matrix composites reinforced with particulates have attracted much attention in the automotive industry, due to their improved wear resistance in comparison to aluminum alloys, in recent years. The wear behavior is the critical factor influencing the product life and performance in engineering components. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the most promising candidates of reinforcements used to improve mechanical strength such as wear in metal matrix composites (MMCs). However, in industrial applications, wear tests are relatively expensive and prolonged. As a result, for several years, research has been increasingly concentrated on development of wear prediction models. In this study, prediction of wear behavior of aluminum (Al) matrix (MMCs) reinforced with different amounts (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) of CNTs was investigated. A nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) model structure was chosen for the modeling.
Journal Article

High Speed Imaging Study on the Spray Characteristics of Dieseline at Elevated Temperatures and Back Pressures

2014-04-01
2014-01-1415
Dieseline combustion as a concept combines the advantages of gasoline and diesel by offline or online blending the two fuels. Dieseline has become an attractive new compression ignition combustion concept in recent years and furthermore an approach to a full-boiling-range fuel. High speed imaging with near-parallel backlit light was used to investigate the spray characteristics of dieseline and pure fuels with a common rail diesel injection system in a constant volume vessel. The results were acquired at different blend ratios, and at different temperatures and back pressures at an injection pressure of 100MPa. The penetrations and the evaporation states were compared with those of gasoline and diesel. The spray profile was analyzed in both area and shape with statistical methods. The effect of gasoline percentage on the evaporation in the fuel spray was evaluated.
Journal Article

An Assessment of the Influence of Gas Turbine Lubricant Thermal Oxidation Test Method Parameters Towards the Development of a New Engine Representative Laboratory Test Method

2013-12-20
2013-01-9004
In the development of a more accurate laboratory scale method, the ability to replicate the thermal oxidative degradation mechanisms seen in gas turbine lubricants, is an essential requirement. This work describes an investigation into the influence of key reaction parameters and the equipment set up upon extent and mechanism of oil degradation. The air flow rate through the equipment was found to be critical to both degradation rate and extent of volatilization loss from the system. As these volatile species can participate in further reactions, it is important that the extent to which they are allowed to leave the test system is matched, where possible, to the conditions in the gas turbine. The presence of metal specimens was shown to have a small influence on the rate of degradation of the lubricant. Loss of metal from the copper and silver specimens due to the mild corrosive effect of the lubricant was seen.
Technical Paper

Impacts of Low-Level 2-Methylfuran Content in Gasoline on DISI Engine Combustion Behavior and Emissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1317
Research studies show that 2-methylfuran (MF) is a promising gasoline alternative regarding its positive effect on engine performance and emissions. Before using pure MF in spark ignition engines, it is more likely to be used in a low-level blended form in gasoline. An experimental research study was carried out to investigate the impacts of low-level MF content in gasoline (volumetric 10% MF in blend) on direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine combustion behavior and emissions. The tests were conducted on a single-cylinder spray-guided DISI research engine at an engine speed of 1500 rpm under stoichiometric conditions. The engine loads of 3.5 ~ 8.5 bar IMEP were tested and gasoline-optimized spark timing was used. Furthermore, the effects of spark timing, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and valve overlap on NOx emissions were tested.
Technical Paper

GDI Engine Performance and Emissions with Reformed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (REGR)

2013-04-08
2013-01-0537
Exhaust Gas Fuel Reforming has potential to be used for on-board generation of hydrogen rich gas, reformate, and to act as an energy recovery system allowing the capture of waste exhaust heat. High exhaust gas temperature drives endothermic reforming reactions that convert hydrocarbon fuel into gaseous fuel when combined with exhaust gas over a catalyst - the result is an increase in overall fuel energy that is proportional to waste energy capture. The paper demonstrates how the combustion of reformate in a direct injection gasoline (GDI) engine via Reformed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (REGR) can be beneficial to engine performance and emissions. Bottled reformate was inducted into a single cylinder GDI engine at a range of engine loads to compare REGR to conventional EGR. The reformate composition was selected to approximate reformate produced by exhaust gas fuel reforming at typical gasoline engine exhaust temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Optical Study of DMF and Ethanol Combustion Under Dual-Injection Strategy

2012-04-16
2012-01-1237
The new fuel, 2, 5-dimenthylfuran, known as DMF, captured worldwide attention since the discovery of its new production method. As a potential bio-fuel, DMF is competitive to gasoline in many areas, such as energy density, combustion efficiency and emissions. However, little work has been performed on its unconventional combustion mode. In this work, high speed imaging and thermal investigation are carried out to study DMF and gasoline dual-injection on a single cylinder, direct injection spark ignition optical engine. This dual-injection strategy combines direct injection (DI) and port fuel injection (PFI) simultaneously which means two different fuels can blend in the cylinder with any ratio. It provides a flexible way to use bio-fuels with gasoline. DMF DI with gasoline PFI and ethanol DI with gasoline PFI are studied under different injection proportions (by volume) and IMEPs.
Journal Article

Dual-Injection as a Knock Mitigation Strategy Using Pure Ethanol and Methanol

2012-04-16
2012-01-1152
For spark ignition (SI) engines, the optimum spark timing is crucial for maximum efficiency. However, as the spark timing is advanced, so the propensity to knock increases, thus compromising efficiency. One method to suppress knock is to use high octane fuel additives. However, the blend ratio of these additives cannot be varied on demand. Therefore, with the advent of aggressive downsizing, new knock mitigation techniques are required. Fortuitously, there are two well-known lower alcohols which exhibit attractive knock mitigation properties: ethanol and methanol. Both not only have high octane ratings, but also result in greater charge-cooling than with gasoline. In the current work, the authors have exploited these attractive properties with the dual-injection, or the dual-fuel concept (gasoline in PFI and fuel additive in DI) using pure ethanol and methanol.
Journal Article

Effects of Combustion Phasing, Injection Timing, Relative Air-Fuel Ratio and Variable Valve Timing on SI Engine Performance and Emissions using 2,5-Dimethylfuran

2012-04-16
2012-01-1285
Ethanol has long been regarded as the optimal gasoline-alternative biofuel for spark-ignition (SI) engines. It is used widely in Latin and North America and is increasingly accepted as an attractive option across Europe. Nevertheless, its low energy density requires a high rate of manufacture; in areas which are deficient of arable land, such rates might prove problematic. Therefore, fuels with higher calorific values, such as butanol or 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) deserve consideration; a similar yield to ethanol, in theory, would require much less land. This report addresses the suitability of DMF, to meet the needs as a biofuel substitute for gasoline in SI engines, using ethanol as the biofuel benchmark. Specific attention is given to the sensitivity of DMF to various engine control parameters: combustion phasing (ignition timing), injection timing, relative air-fuel ratio and valve timing (intake and exhaust).
Technical Paper

Split-Injection Strategies under Full-Load Using DMF, A New Biofuel Candidate, Compared to Ethanol in a GDI Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0403
It is well known that direct injection (DI) is a technology enabler for stratified combustion in spark-ignition (SI) engines. At full load or wide-open throttle (WOT), partial charge stratification can suppress knock, enabling greater spark advance and increased torque. Such split-injection or double-pulse injection strategies are employed when using gasoline in DI (GDI). However, as the use of biofuels is set to increase, is this mode still beneficial? In the current study, the authors attempt to answer this question using two gasoline-alternative biofuels: firstly, ethanol; the widely used gasoline-alternative biofuel and secondly, 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF); the new biofuel candidate. These results have been benchmarked against gasoline in a single-cylinder, spray-guided DISI research engine at WOT (λ = 1 and 1500 rpm). Firstly, single-pulse start of injection (SOI) timing sweeps were conducted with each fuel to find the highest volumetric efficiency and IMEP.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a PPCI Engine Fuelled with Dieseline

2012-04-16
2012-01-1138
In this paper blends of diesel and gasoline (dieseline) fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) combustion and the comparison to conventional diesel combustion is investigated. The tests are carried out using a light duty four cylinder Euro IV diesel engine. The engine condition is maintained at 1800 rpm, 52 Nm (equivalent IMEP around 4.3 bar). Different injection timings and different amounts of EGR are used to achieve the PPCI combustion. The results show that compared to the conventional diesel combustion, the smoke and NOx emissions can be reduced by more than 95% simultaneously with dieseline fuelled PPCI combustion. The particle number total concentration can be reduced by 90% as well as the mean diameter (from 54 nm for conventional diesel to 16 nm for G50 fuelled PPCI). The penalty is a slightly increased noise level and lower indicated efficiency, which is decreased from 40% to 38.5%.
X