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Journal Article

A Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element Model of Drilling Titanium and Aluminium Alloys

Despite the increasing use of carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites, titanium and aluminium alloys still constitute a significant proportion of modern civil aircraft structures, which are primarily assembled via mechanical joining techniques. Drilling of fastening holes is therefore a critical operation, which has to meet stringent geometric tolerance and integrity criteria. The paper details the development of a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model for drilling aerospace grade aluminium (AA7010-T7451 and AA2024-T351) and titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys. The FE simulation employed a Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) technique. The cutting tool was modelled according to a Lagrangian formulation in which the mesh follows the material displacement while the workpiece was represented by a non-translating and material deformation independent Eulerian mesh.
Technical Paper

Thermal Performance of Diesel Aftertreatment: Material and Insulation CFD Analysis

Recent developments in diesel engines lead to increased fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust gas temperature. Therefore more energy efficient aftertreatment systems are required to comply with tight emission regulations. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics package was used to investigate the thermal behaviour of a diesel aftertreatment system. A parametric study was carried out to identify the most influential pipework material and insulation characteristics in terms of thermal performance. In the case of the aftertreatment pipework and canning material effect, an array of different potential materials was selected and their effects on the emission conversion efficiency of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) were numerically investigated over a driving cycle. Results indicate that although the pipework material's volumetric heat capacity was decreased by a factor of four, the total emission reduction was only considerable during the cold start.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Characteristics of DISI Injector Deposits Using Advanced Analytical Methods

There is an increasing recognition of injector deposit (ID) formation in fuel injection equipment as direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technologies advance to meet increasingly stringent emission legislation and fuel economy requirements. While it is known that the phenomena of ID in DISI engines can be influenced by changes in fuel composition, including increasing usage of aliphatic alcohols and additive chemistries to enhance fuel performance, there is however still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the physical and chemical structure of these deposits, and the mechanisms of deposit formation. In this study, a mechanical cracking sample preparation technique was developed to assess the deposits across DISI injectors fuelled with gasoline and blends of 85% ethanol (E85).
Technical Paper

Prediction of Wear Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes Using Nonlinear Identification

Aluminum metal matrix composites reinforced with particulates have attracted much attention in the automotive industry, due to their improved wear resistance in comparison to aluminum alloys, in recent years. The wear behavior is the critical factor influencing the product life and performance in engineering components. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the most promising candidates of reinforcements used to improve mechanical strength such as wear in metal matrix composites (MMCs). However, in industrial applications, wear tests are relatively expensive and prolonged. As a result, for several years, research has been increasingly concentrated on development of wear prediction models. In this study, prediction of wear behavior of aluminum (Al) matrix (MMCs) reinforced with different amounts (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) of CNTs was investigated. A nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) model structure was chosen for the modeling.
Journal Article

An Assessment of the Influence of Gas Turbine Lubricant Thermal Oxidation Test Method Parameters Towards the Development of a New Engine Representative Laboratory Test Method

In the development of a more accurate laboratory scale method, the ability to replicate the thermal oxidative degradation mechanisms seen in gas turbine lubricants, is an essential requirement. This work describes an investigation into the influence of key reaction parameters and the equipment set up upon extent and mechanism of oil degradation. The air flow rate through the equipment was found to be critical to both degradation rate and extent of volatilization loss from the system. As these volatile species can participate in further reactions, it is important that the extent to which they are allowed to leave the test system is matched, where possible, to the conditions in the gas turbine. The presence of metal specimens was shown to have a small influence on the rate of degradation of the lubricant. Loss of metal from the copper and silver specimens due to the mild corrosive effect of the lubricant was seen.
Technical Paper

Split-Injection Strategies under Full-Load Using DMF, A New Biofuel Candidate, Compared to Ethanol in a GDI Engine

It is well known that direct injection (DI) is a technology enabler for stratified combustion in spark-ignition (SI) engines. At full load or wide-open throttle (WOT), partial charge stratification can suppress knock, enabling greater spark advance and increased torque. Such split-injection or double-pulse injection strategies are employed when using gasoline in DI (GDI). However, as the use of biofuels is set to increase, is this mode still beneficial? In the current study, the authors attempt to answer this question using two gasoline-alternative biofuels: firstly, ethanol; the widely used gasoline-alternative biofuel and secondly, 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF); the new biofuel candidate. These results have been benchmarked against gasoline in a single-cylinder, spray-guided DISI research engine at WOT (λ = 1 and 1500 rpm). Firstly, single-pulse start of injection (SOI) timing sweeps were conducted with each fuel to find the highest volumetric efficiency and IMEP.
Technical Paper

Microkinetic Modelling for Propane Oxidation in Channel Flows of a Silver-Based Automotive Catalytic Converter

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate chemical reactions and transport phenomena occurring in a single channel of a honeycomb-type automotive catalytic converter under lean burn combustion. Microkinetic analysis is adopted to develop a detailed elementary reaction mechanism for propane oxidation on a silver catalyst. Activation energies are calculated based on the theory of the Unity Bond Index-Quadratic Exponential Potential (UBI-QEP) method. The order-of-magnitude of the pre-exponential factors is obtained from Transition State Theory (TST). Sensitivity analysis is applied to identify the important elementary steps and refine the pre-exponential factors of these reactions. These pre-exponential factors depend on inlet temperatures and propane concentration; therefore optimised pre-exponential factors are written in polynomial forms. The results of numerical simulations are validated by comparison with experimental data.
Journal Article

Interrogating the surface: the effect of blended diesel fuels on lubricity

The lubricating properties of two sustainable alternative diesels blended with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) were investigated. The candidate fuels were a biodiesel consisting of fatty acid methyl esters derived from rapeseed (RME) and gas-to-liquid (GTL). Lubricity tests were conducted on a high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). The mating specimen surfaces were analysed using optical microscopy and profilometery for wear scar diameters and profiles respectively. Microscopic surface topography and deposit composition was evaluated using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Like all modern zero sulphur diesel fuel (ZSD), GTL fuels need a lubricity agent to meet modern lubricity specifications. It has been proven that GTL responds well to typical lubricity additives in the marketplace.
Journal Article

Materials Testing for Finite Element Tire Model

The use of accurate tire material properties is a major requirement for conducting a successful tire analysis using finite element method (FEM). Obtaining these material properties however poses a major challenge for tire modelers and researchers due to the complex nature of tire material and associated proprietary protections of constituent material properties by tire manufactures. In view of this limitation, a simple and effective procedure for generating tire materials data used in tire finite element analysis (FEA) is presented in this paper. All the tire test specimens were extracted from a tire product based on special considerations such as specimen dimension and shape, test standard, precondition of specimen and test condition for cords. The required material properties of tire rubber component, including hyperelasticity and viscoelasticity were obtained using simple uni-axial tension test.
Technical Paper

Fabrication of Alumina Composite Microengine Parts using Softlithography

In this work, a detailed process for manufacturing 3D alumina composite microengine pistons is presented. A novel moulding process is developed for shaping alumina composites into accurate micrometer-sized parts with a combination of softlithography micromoulding techniques and colloidal ceramic powder process. Ultrathick SU-8 UV-lithography is used for making master moulds followed by mirror duplication of PDMS softmoulds. A preceramic coating resin (PCR) was used as the binder instead of the traditionally organic binders and the PCR turns into an additive to the composite after the sintering process. The sedimentation of Al2O3/acetone suspensions has been characterized with varying poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a dispersant. Optimized PCR and curing conditions have been investigated in the soft moulding process, and prove successful in achieving dense and uniform microcomponents.
Journal Article

The Effect of Exhaust Throttling on HCCI - Alternative Way to Control EGR and In-Cylinder Flow

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has emerged as a promising technology for reduction of exhaust emissions and improvement of fuel economy of internal combustion engines. There are generally two proposed methods of realizing the HCCI operation. The first is through the control of gas temperature in the cylinder and the second is through the control of chemical reactivity of the fuel and air mixture. EGR trapping, i.e., recycling a large quantity of hot burned gases by using special valve-train events (e.g. negative valve overlap), seems to be practical for many engine configurations and can be combined with any of the other HCCI enabling technologies. While this method has been widely researched, it is understood that the operating window of the HCCI engine with negative valve overlap is constrained, and the upper and lower load boundaries are greatly affected by the in-cylinder temperature.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Trapping for Natural Gas HCCI

With the high auto ignition temperature of natural gas, various approaches such as high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating are required for auto ignition. Another approach utilizes the trapping of internal residual gas (as used before in gasoline controlled auto ignition engines), to lower the thermal requirements for the auto ignition process in natural gas. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the degree of internal trapping of exhaust gas supplemented by intake charge heating. Special valve strategies were used to control the internal retention of exhaust gas. Significant differences in the degree of valve overlap were necessary when compared to gasoline operation at the same speeds and loads, resulting in lower amounts of residual gas observed. The dilution effect of residual gas trapping is hence reduced, resulting in higher NOx emissions for the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio operation as compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Enzyme-Enhanced Membranes for Gas Separation

Membranes are highly desirable for separating gases in life-support applications. They are small, light, efficient, selective and require little operational or physical maintenance. Facilitated transport membranes have particularly high flux and selectivity. We created enzyme-based facilitated transport membranes using isozymes and mutants as immobilized arrays alone and in conjunction with polymeric membranes. The enzyme operates efficiently at the low CO2 concentrations encountered in respiratory gases and can bring CO2 to near ambient levels. CO2 flux is greatly enhanced and selectivities for CO2 over O2 of 200:1 or greater are possible. The enzymes are robust and stable for long periods under a variety of storage and use conditions.
Technical Paper

Exhaust-Gas Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels

This paper presents the findings of theoretical and practical studies of an exhaust-gas reforming process, as applied to hydrocarbon fuels. It is shown that hydrogen-containing gaseous reformed fuels can be produced by the interaction of hot combustion products and an n-heptane feedstock in a small-scale catalytic reforming reactor. Predicted and observed reformed fuel chemical compositions were found to correlate well at the lower reactor space velocities tested, where chemical equilibrium conditions can be closely approached. Under these conditions, respective hydrogen and carbon monoxide yields of around 32 and 20 volume per cent were obtained. Under certain conditions, it was found that carbon solids were deposited on the reforming catalyst. Measures taken to avoid this problem included changes in the reforming oxidant to fuel ratio, and the addition of excess steam to the oxidant composition.