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Technical Paper

Development of a Research-Oriented Cylinder Head with Modular Injector Mounting and Access for Multiple In-Cylinder Diagnostics

2017-09-04
2017-24-0044
Alternative fuel injection systems and advanced in-cylinder diagnostics are two important tools for engine development; however, the rapid and simultaneous achievement of these goals is often limited by the space available in the cylinder head. Here, a research-oriented cylinder head is developed for use on a single cylinder 2-litre engine, and permits three simultaneous in-cylinder combustion diagnostic tools (cylinder pressure measurement, infrared absorption, and 2-color pyrometry). In addition, a modular injector mounting system enables the use of a variety of direct fuel injectors for both gaseous and liquid fuels. The purpose of this research-oriented cylinder head is to improve the connection between thermodynamic and optical engine studies for a wide variety of combustion strategies by facilitating the application of multiple in-cylinder diagnostics.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Strategies on Emissions from a Pilot-Ignited Direct-Injection Natural-Gas Engine- Part I: Late Post Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0774
High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly non-premixed combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I will investigates the effect of late post injection (LPI) and Part II will study the effect of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas late post-injections (LPI) was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder,15 liter HPDI engine. The post injection contains 10-25% of total fuel mass, and occurs after the main combustion event.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Strategies on Emissions from a Pilot-Ignited Direct-Injection Natural-Gas Engine- Part II: Slightly Premixed Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0763
High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly mixing-controlled combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I investigated the effect of late post injection (LPI); the current paper (Part-II) reports on the effects of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. In SPC operation, the diesel injection is delayed, allowing more premixing of the natural gas prior to ignition. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas slightly premixed combustion was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder, 15 liter HPDI engine.
Technical Paper

Application of an In-Cylinder Local Infrared Absorption Fuel Concentration Sensor in a Diesel-Ignited Dual-Fuel Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2310
As global energy demands continue to be met with ever evolving and stricter emissions requirements, natural gas (NG) has become a highly researched alternative to conventional fossil fuels in many industrial sectors. Transportation is one such field that can utilize the benefits of NG as a primary fuel for use in internal combustion engines (ICEs). In the context of heavy-duty on-highway transportation applications, diesel-ignited dual-fuel (DIDF) combustion of NG has been identified as a commercially viable alternative technology. Previous investigations of DIDF have examined the various trends present across the spectrum of DIDF operating space. However, in-cylinder processes are still not well understood and this investigation aims to further understanding in this area. An in-cylinder, local infrared absorption fuel concentration sensor is used to examine in-cylinder processes by comparison with previous optical and thermodynamic studies.
Technical Paper

Fast Exhaust Nephelometer (FEN): A New Instrument for Measuring Cycle-Resolved Engine Particulate Emission

2016-10-17
2016-01-2329
Soot emissions from direct-injection engines are sensitive to the fuel-air mixing process, and may vary between combustion cycles due to turbulence and injector variability. Conventional exhaust emissions measurements cannot resolve inter- or intra-cycle variations in particle emissions, which can be important during transient engine operations where a few cycles can disproportionately affect the total exhaust soot. The Fast Exhaust Nephelometer (FEN) is introduced here to use light scattering to measure particulate matter concentration and size near the exhaust port of an engine with a time resolution of better than one millisecond. The FEN operates at atmospheric pressure, sampling near the engine exhaust port and uses a laser diode to illuminate a small measurement volume. The scattered light is focused on two amplified photodiodes.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas Partially Stratified Charge Combustion: Extended Analysis of Experimental Validation and Study of Turbulence Impact on Flame Propagation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0596
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) numerical study of the Partially Stratified Charge (PSC) combustion process is here proposed, carried out with the open Source code OpenFOAM, in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber (CVCC). The solver has already been validated in previous papers versus experimental data under a limited range of operating conditions. The operating conditions domain for the model validation is extended in this paper, mostly by varying equivalence ratio, to better highlight the influence of turbulence on flame front propagation. Effects of grid sizing are also shown, to better emphasize the trade-off between the level of accuracy of turbulent vortex description, and their impact on the kinematics of flame propagation. Results show the validity of the approach that is evident by comparing numerical and experimental data.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Paired-Nozzle Jets in a Pilot-Ignited Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0807
This paper examines the combustion and emissions produced using a prototype fuel injector nozzle for pilot-ignited direct-injection natural gas engines. In the new geometry, 7 individual equally-spaced gas injection holes were replaced by 7 pairs of closely-aligned holes (“paired-hole nozzle”). The paired-hole nozzle was intended to reduce particulate formation by increasing air entrainment due to jet interaction. Tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine at different speeds and loads, and over a range of fuel injection and air handling conditions. Emissions were compared to those resulting from a reference injector with equally spaced holes (“single-hole nozzle”). Contrary to expectations, the CO and PM emissions were 3 to 10 times higher when using the paired-hole nozzles. Despite the large differences in emissions, the relative change in emissions in response to parametric changes was remarkably similar for single-hole and paired-hole nozzles.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fueling Control Parameters on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Diesel-Ignited Methane Dual-Fuel Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0792
Diesel-ignited dual-fuel (DIDF) combustion of natural gas (NG) is a promising strategy to progress the application of NG as a commercially viable compression ignition engine fuel. Port injection of gaseous NG applied in tandem with direct injection of liquid diesel fuel as an ignition source permits a high level of control over cylinder charge preparation, and therefore combustion. Across the broad spectrum of possible combustion conditions in DIDF operation, different fundamental mechanisms are expected to dominate the fuel conversion process. Previous investigations have advanced the understanding of which combustion mechanisms are likely present under certain sets of conditions, permitting the successful modeling of DIDF combustion for particular operating modes. A broader understanding of the transitions between different combustion modes across the spectrum of DIDF warrants further effort.
Technical Paper

Partially Stratified Charge Natural Gas Combustion: The Impact of Uncertainties on LES Modeling

2015-09-06
2015-24-2409
The aim of this work is to carry out statistical analyses on simulated results obtained from large eddy simulations (LES) to characterize spark-ignited combustion process in a partially premixed natural gas mixture in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC). Inhomogeneity in fuel concentration was introduced through a fuel jet comprising up to 0.6 per cent of the total fuel mass, in the vicinity of the spark ignition gap. The numerical data were validated against experimental measurements, in particular, in terms of jet penetration and spread, flame front propagation and overall pressure trace. Perturbations in key flow parameters, namely inlet velocity, initial velocity field, and turbulent kinetic energy, were also introduced to evaluate their influence on the combustion event. A total of 12 simulations were conducted.
Technical Paper

Application of Fuel Momentum Measurement Device for Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0915
In direct-injection engines, combustion and emission formation is strongly affected by injection quality. Injection quality is related to mass-flow rate shape, momentum rate shape, stability of pulses as well as mechanical and hydraulic delays associated with fuel injection. Finding these injector characteristics aids the interpretation of engine experiments and design of new injection strategies. The goal of this study is to investigate the rate of momentum for the single and post injections for high-pressure direct-injection natural gas injectors. The momentum measurement method has been used before to study momentum rate of injection for single and split injections for diesel sprays. In this paper, a method of momentum measurement for gas injections is developed in order to present transient momentum rate shape during injection timing. In this method, a gas jet impinges perpendicularly on a pressure transducer surface.
Technical Paper

Conditional Source-Term Estimation for the Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Combustion in Homogeneous-Charge SI Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2568
Conditional source-term estimation (CSE) is a novel chemical closure method for the simulation of turbulent combustion. It is less restrictive than flamelet-based models since no assumption is made regarding the combustion regime of the flame; moreover, it is computationally cheaper than conventional conditional moment closure (CMC) models. To date, CSE has only been applied for simulating canonical laboratory flames such as steady Bunsen burner flames. Industry-relevant problems pose the challenge of accurately modelling a transient ignition process in addition to involving complex domaingeometries. In this work, CSE is used to model combustion in a homogeneous-charge natural gas fuelled SI engine. The single cylinder Ricardo Hydra research engine studied here has a relatively simple chamber geometry which is represented by an axisymmetric mesh; moving-mesh simulations are conducted using the open-source computational fluid dynamics software, OpenFOAM.
Journal Article

Effect of SPS Process Parameters on the Densification Behaviour of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia

2014-04-01
2014-01-0835
Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) doped with Yttria exhibits superplastic behaviour, corrosion resistance and excellent ion conducting properties [1] at moderate temperatures and thus it can be used as an electroceramic to measure the pH of high temperature water used in fuel cells. Several fabrication processes are available for preparation of zirconia ceramics. This research focused on the study of using Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process to prepare Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) ceramic. 8 mol% YSZ was subjected to varying SPS sintering conditions. Samples were sintered by changing the heating cycle, dwell time, sintering pressure and cooling cycle. Subsequently, these parameters were related to the densification characteristics of the as-sintered YSZ. The results of specific gravity measurements and microstructure evaluation suggest that stepped heating followed by a slow cooling results in YSZ with highest relative density (99.9%).
Technical Paper

Soot Emission Reduction from Post Injection Strategies in a High Pressure Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0114
Compression ignition engines, including those that use natural gas as the major fuel, produce emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM). Westport Inc. has developed the pilot-ignited high-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) natural gas engine system. Although HPDI engines produce less soot than comparable conventional diesel engines, further reductions in engine-out soot emissions is desired. In diesel engines, multiple injections can help reduce both NOx and PM. The effect of post injections on HPDI engines was not studied previously. The present research shows that late injection of a second gas pulse can significantly reduce PM and CO from HPDI engines without significantly increasing NOx or fuel consumption. In-cylinder pressure measurements were used to characterize the heat release resulting from the multiple injections. Experiments showed that most close-coupled split injection strategies provided no significant emissions benefit and less stable operation.
Technical Paper

The Squish-Jet Combustion Chamber for Ultra-Lean Burn Natural Gas Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0112
Operators of natural gas engines, used for both mobile and stationary applications, are increasingly looking at running these engines under very lean air-fuel ratios in order to reduce exhaust emissions and increase thermal efficiency. Lean operation of homogeneous-charge spark-ignited engines reduces peak combustion temperatures, thereby reducing NOx emissions. Lean operation is normally restricted, however, by the “lean-limit” of combustion, as measured by the air-fuel ratio above which ignition is impossible, or combustion is incomplete. Operation under lean conditions also reduces the mixture burning rate, which can lead to increased spark advance and lower thermal efficiency. In order to increase the burning rate under ultra-lean air-fuel ratios a new “Squish-Jet” combustion chamber concept has been developed.
Technical Paper

Flow Characteristics of a Gas-Blast Fuel Injector for Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1857
Natural gas has a high auto-ignition temperature, therefore natural gas engines use sparks, hot surfaces or separate diesel pilot injects to promote ignition. For example, the high-pressure direction-injection (HPDI) system, available commercially for heavy-duty truck engines, uses a small diesel injection just prior to the main gas injection. A new type of HPDI injector has been developed that injections diesel and gas simultaneously through the same holes. In this paper the operation and flow characteristics of this “co-injector” will be discussed. An injection visualization chamber (IVC) was developed for optical characterization of injections into a chamber at pressures up to 80 bar. A fuel supply system was constructed for precise control of injector fueling and injection timing. Diesel and natural gas are replaced by VISCOR ® and nitrogen to study non-reacting flows.
Journal Article

Multiple Injection Strategy in a Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine with Entrained Diesel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1954
A new fuel injector prototype for heavy-duty engines has been developed to use direct-injection natural gas with small amounts of entrained diesel as an ignition promoter. This “co-injection” is quite different from other dual-fuel engine systems, where diesel and gas are introduced separately. Reliable compression-ignition can be attained, but two injections per engine cycle are needed to minimize engine knock. In the present paper the interactions between diesel injection mass, combustion timing, engine load, and engine speed are investigated experimentally in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine. For the tests with this injector, ignition delay ranged from 1.2–4.0 ms (of which injector delay accounts for ~0.9 ms). Shorter ignition delays occurred at higher diesel injection masses and advanced combustion timing. At ignition delays shorter than 2.0 ms, knock intensity decreased with increasing ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Autoignition and Emission Characteristics of Gaseous Fuel Direct Injection Compression Ignition Combustion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0131
An experimental investigation of the autoignition and emission characteristics of transient turbulent gaseous fuel jets in heated and compressed air was conducted in a shock tube facility. Experiments were performed at an initial pressure of 30 bar with initial oxidizer temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1400 K, injection pressures ranging from 60 to 150 bar, and injection durations ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 ms. Methane and 90.0% methane/10.0% ethane blend were used as fuel. Under the operating conditions studied, increasing temperature resulted in a significant decrease in autoignition delay time. Increasing the injection pressure decreased ignition delay as well. The downstream location of the ignition kernel relative to the jet penetration distance was found to be in the range, 0.4
Technical Paper

Auto-ignition of Transient Turbulent Gaseous Fuel Jets at High Pressure

2006-10-16
2006-01-3432
An experimental investigation of the autoignition of transient gaseous fuel jets in heated and compressed air is conducted in a shock tube facility. Experiments are performed at an initial pressure of 30 bar with initial oxidizer temperatures ranging from 1150 K to 1400 K, injection pressures ranging from 60 bar to 150 bar, and with injector tip orifice diameters of 0.275 mm and 1.1 mm. Under the operating conditions studied, increasing temperature results in a significant decrease in autoignition delay time, td. The smaller orifice results in an increase in ignition delay time and variability, as compared with the larger orifice. For initial temperatures below about 1250K, ignition is rarely achieved with the smaller orifice, whereas ignition is always achieved with the larger orifice down to 1150 K. Under the conditions studied, increasing the injection pressure decreases ignition delay, a result dynamically consistent with larger orifice size decreasing ignition delay time.
Technical Paper

Effect of Impinging Airflow on the Near Nozzle Characteristics of a Gasoline Spray from a Pressure-Swirl Atomiser

2006-10-16
2006-01-3343
The effects of impinging airflow on the near nozzle characteristics of an inwardly opening, high pressure-swirl atomiser are investigated in an optically-accessed, steady-state flow rig designed to emulate the intake flow of a typical, side-injected, 4-valve gasoline direct-injection combustion system. The results indicate that the impinging airflow has a relatively minor effect on the initial break-up of the fuel spray. However, the secondary break-up of the spray, i.e. the break-up of liquid ligaments, the spatial distribution of droplets within the spray and the location of the spray within the cylinder are significantly affected by the impinging air.
Technical Paper

Direct-Injected Hydrogen-Methane Mixtures in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0653
A diesel pilot-ignited, high-pressure direct-injection of natural gas heavy-duty single-cylinder engine was fuelled with both natural gas and blends of 10% and 23% by volume hydrogen in methane. A single operating condition (6 bar GIMEP, 0.5 ϕ, 800 RPM, 40%EGR) was selected, and the combustion phasing was varied from advanced (mid-point of combustion at top-dead-center) to late (mid-point of combustion at 15°ATDC). Replacing the natural gas with hydrogen/methane blend fuels was found to have a significant influence on engine emissions and on combustion stability. The use of 10%hydrogen was found to slightly reduce PM, CO, and tHC emissions, while improving combustion stability. 23%hydrogen was found to substantially reduce CO and tHC emissions, while slightly increasing NOx. The greatest reductions in CO and tHC, along with a significant reduction in PM, were observed at the latest combustion timings, where combustion stability was lowest.
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