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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Diesel-Spray-Orientated Piston Bowls on Natural Gas and Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0311
Low combustion efficiency and high hydrocarbon emissions at low load are key issues of natural gas and diesel dual fuel engines. For better engine performance, two diesel-spray-orientated (DSO) bowls were developed based on the existing diesel injector of a heavy-duty diesel engine with the purpose of placing more combustible natural gas/air mixture around the diesel spray jets. A bulge-ring was designed at the rim of the piston bowl to enhance the in-cylinder flame propagation. Numerical simulations were conducted for a whole engine cycle by using STAR-CD 4.22 at engine speed of 1200 r/min and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 0.6 MPa. ECFM-3Z combustion model with built-in soot emissions model was employed. In this paper, natural gas was considered as a mixture of 95% methane and 5% ethanol. Simulation results of the original piston bowl agreed well with the experimental data, including in-cylinder pressure and heat released rate, as well as soot and methane emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of a split-injection strategy on the atomisation rate using a high pressure gasoline DI injector

2020-04-14
2020-01-0322
The Gasoline direct-injection (G-DI) engine can emit high levels of particulate matter and unburned Hydrocarbons when operating under stratified charge combustion mode. Injecting late in the compression stroke means the fuel has insufficient time to atomise and evaporate. This could cause fuel film accumulation on the piston surface and combustion liner. Locally fuel rich diffusion combustion could also result in the formation of soot particles. Employing a split-injection strategy can help tackle these issues. The first injection is initiated early in the intake stroke and helps form a global homogeneous charge in the cylinder. The second injection during the compression stroke ensures a fuel-rich charge in the vicinity of the spark plug. Many studies have established the crucial role that a split-injection strategy plays in the stratified charge operation of G-DI engines.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of Gasoline Auxiliary Fueled Turbulent Jet Igniter at Different Speeds in Single Cylinder Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0105
Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) is a pre-chamber ignition system for an otherwise standard gasoline spark ignition engine. TJI works by injecting chemically active turbulent jets to initiate combustion in a premixed fuel/air mixture. The main advantage of TJI is its ability to ignite and burn, completely, very lean fuel/air mixtures in the main chamber charge. This occurs with a very fast burn rate due to the widely distributed ignition sites that consume the main charge rapidly. Rapid combustion of lean mixtures leads to lower exhaust emissions due to more complete combustion at a lower temperature. For this research, the effectiveness of the Mahle TJI system on combustion stability, lean limit and emissions in a single cylinder spark engine fueled with gasoline at different speeds was investigated. The combustion and heat release process was analyzed and the exhaust emissions were measured.
Technical Paper

Axial Flow Turbine Concept for Conventional and e-Turbocharging

2019-09-09
2019-24-0185
Engine downsizing has established itself as one of the most successful strategies to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions in the automotive field. To this regard, a major role is played by turbocharging, which allows an increase in engine power density, so reducing engine size and weight. However, the need for turbocharging imposes some issues to be solved. In the attempt of mitigating turbo lag and poor low-end torque, many solutions have been presented in the open literature so far, such as: low inertia turbine wheels and variable geometry turbines; or even more complex concepts such as twin turbo and electrically assisted turbochargers. None of them appears as definitive, though. As a possible way of reducing turbine rotor inertia, and so the turbo lag, also the change of turbine layout has been investigated, and it revealed itself to be a viable option, leading to the use of mixed-flow turbines.
Technical Paper

Analyzing the Limitations of the Rider and Electric Motorcycle at the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb Race

2019-04-02
2019-01-1125
This paper describes a post-race analysis of team KOMMIT EVT’s electric motorcycle data collected during the 2016 Pikes Peak International Hill Climb (PPIHC). The motorcycle consumed approximately 4 kWh of battery energy with an average and maximum speed of 107 km/h and 149 km/h, respectively. It was the second fastest electric motorcycle with a finishing time of 11:10.480. Data was logged of the motorcycle’s speed, acceleration, motor speed, power, currents, voltages, temperatures, throttle position, GPS position, rider’s heart rate and the ambient environment (air temperature, pressure and humidity). The data was used to understand the following factors that may have prevented a faster time: physical fitness of the rider, thermal limits of the motor and controller, available battery energy and the sprocket ratio between the motor and rear wheel.
Technical Paper

Dilution Boundary Expansion Mechanism of SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Based on Micro Flame Ignition Strategy

2019-04-02
2019-01-0954
In decade years, Spark Ignition-Controlled Auto Ignition (SI-CAI) hybrid combustion, also called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) has shown its high-efficiency and low emissions advantages. However, high dilution causes the problem of unstable initial ignition and flame propagation, which leads to high cyclic variation of heat release and IMEP. The instability of SI-CAI hybrid combustion limits its dilution degree and its ability to improve the thermal efficiency. In order to solve instability problems and expand the dilution boundary of hybrid combustion, micro flame ignition (MFI) strategy is applied in gasoline hybrid combustion engines. Small amount of Dimethyl Ether (DME) chosen as the ignition fuel is injected into cylinder to form micro flame kernel, which can stabilize the ignition combustion process.
Technical Paper

The Application of Controlled Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engines -The Challenges and Solutions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0949
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to simultaneously reduce the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline engines. However, narrow operating region in loads and speeds is one of the challenges for the commercial application of CAI combustion to gasoline engines. Therefore, the extension of loads and speeds is an important prerequisite for the commercial application of CAI combustion. The effect of intake charge boosting, charge stratification and spark-assisted ignition on the operating range in CAI mode was reviewed. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion is one form to achieve CAI combustion under the conditions of highly diluted mixture caused by the flame in the stratified mixture with the help of spark plug.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Stoichiometric Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0960
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), can improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. However, the difficulty in combustion phasing control and violent combustion at high loads limit the commercial application of CAI combustion. To overcome these problems, stratified mixture, which is rich around the central spark plug and lean around the cylinder wall, is formed through port fuel injection and direct injection of gasoline. In this condition, rich mixture is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition, while the unburned lean mixture auto-ignites due to the increased in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, i.e., stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Intake Pressure and Split Injection on Lean Combustion Characteristics of a Poppet-Valve Two-Stroke Direct Injection Gasoline Engine at High Loads

2018-09-10
2018-01-1723
Poppet-valve two-stroke gasoline engines can increase the specific power of their four-stroke counterparts with the same displacement and hence decrease fuel consumption. However, knock may occur at high loads. Therefore, the combustion with stratified lean mixture was proposed to decrease knock tendency and improve combustion stability in a poppet-valve two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine. The effect of intake pressure and split injection on fuel distribution, combustion and knock intensity in lean mixture conditions at high loads was simulated with a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic software. Simulation results show that with the increase of intake pressure, the average fuel-air equivalent ratio in the cylinder decreases when the second injection ratio was fixed at 70% at a given amount of fuel in a cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of the Direct Injection Dimethyl Ether Enabled Micro-Flame Ignited (MFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1247
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to improve gasoline engines’ efficiency and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. Two of the primary obstacles for applying CAI combustion are the control of combustion phasing and the maximum heat release rate. To solve these problems, dimethyl ether (DME) was directly injected into the cylinder to generate multi-point micro-flame through compression in order to manage the entire heat release of gasoline in the cylinder through port fuel injection, which is known as micro-flame ignited (MFI) hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Study of Flame Speed and Knocking Combustion of Gasoline, Ethanol and Hydrous Ethanol (10% Water) at Different Air/Fuel Ratios with Port-Fuel Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-0655
In this paper, an experimental study was performed to investigate characteristics of flame propagation and knocking combustion of hydrous (10% water content) and anhydrous ethanol at different air/fuel ratios in comparison to RON95 gasoline. Experiments were conducted in a full bore overhead optical access single cylinder port-fuel injection spark-ignition engine. High speed images of total chemiluminescence and OH* emission was recorded together with the in-cylinder pressure, from which the heat release data were derived. The results show that under the stoichiometric condition anhydrous ethanol and wet ethanol with 10% water (E90W10) generated higher IMEP with at an ignition timing slightly retarded from MBT than the gasoline fuel for a fixed throttle position. Under rich and stoichiometric conditions, the knock limited spark timing occurred at 35 CA BTDC whereas both ethanol and E90W10 were free from knocking combustion at the same operating condition.
Technical Paper

Influence of Biodiesel Blending on Particulate Matter (PM) Oxidation Characteristics

2017-03-28
2017-01-0932
The use of diesel particulate filter [DPF] has become a standard in modern diesel engine after treatment technology. However pressure drop develops across the filter as PM accumulates and this requires quick periodic burn-out without incurring thermal runaway temperatures that could compromise DPF integrity during operation. Adequate understanding of soot oxidation is needed for design and manufacture of efficient filter traps for the engine system. In this study, we have examined the impact of blending biodiesel on oxidation of PM generated from a high speed direct injection [HSDI] diesel engine, which was operated with 20% [B20] and 40% [B40] blends of two biodiesel fuels. The PM samples were collected from the engine exhaust using a Pall Tissuquartz filter, the oxidation characteristics of the samples were carried out using thermogravimetric analyzer [TGA]. The biodiesel oxidation data obtained from pure petrodiesel was compared against the fuel blends.
Technical Paper

Experimental Comparison between Stratified Flame Ignition and Micro Flame Ignition in a Gasoline SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0737
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), has been the subject of extensive research because of their ability to providing simultaneous reduction in fuel consumption and NOx emissions in a gasoline engine. However, due to its limited operation range, combustion mode switching between CAI and spark ignition (SI) combustion is essential to cover the overall operational range of a gasoline engine for passenger car applications. Previous research has shown that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion has the potential to control the ignition timing and heat release process during both steady state and transient operations. However, it was found that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is often characterized with large cycle-to-cycle variations, due to the flame instability at high dilution conditions.
Technical Paper

Cyclically Resolved Flame and Flow Imaging in an SI Engine Operating with Future Ethanol Fuels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0655
This work was concerned with study of the in-cylinder flow field and flame development in a spark ignition research engine equipped with Bowditch piston optical access. High-speed natural light (chemiluminescence) imaging and simultaneous in-cylinder pressure data measurement and analysis were used to understand the fundamentals of flame propagation for a variety of ethanol fuels blended with either gasoline or iso-octane. PIV was undertaken on the same engine in a motoring operation at a horizontal imaging plane close to TDC (10 mm below the fire face) throughout the compression stroke (30°,40°,90° and 180°bTDC) for a low load engine operating condition at 1500rpm/0.5 bar inlet plenum pressure. Up to 1500 cycles were considered to determine the ensemble average flow-field and turbulent kinetic energy. Finally, comparisons were made between the flame and flow experiments to understand the apparent interactions.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Studies of High Injection Pressure Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion in a Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1819
Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is an advanced combustion concept to simultaneously reduce the NOx and soot emissions whilst retaining high engine efficiencies. In order to have a better understanding of gasoline PPC operation in terms of mixture formation, combustion and emissions characteristics, the investigation was carried out at 1200 bar injection pressure using the combination of thermodynamic and optical diagnostic analysis in a single cylinder common rail fuel injection engine with optical access. The PPC operation was achieved with a combination of high dilution and higher intake charge temperature at part-load condition using primary reference fuel (PRF). Split injections of two fuel distribution strategies (50:50 and 70:30) were studied.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on DME Assisted Gasoline CAI/HCCI Combustion with Intake Re-Breathing Valve Strategy

2015-09-01
2015-01-1818
In order to investigate feasibility of DME (Di-methyl ether) assisted gasoline CAI (controlled-auto ignition) combustion, direct DME injection is employed to act as the ignition source to trigger the auto-ignition combustion of premixed gasoline/air mixture with high temperature exhaust gas. Intake re-breathing valve strategy is adopted to obtain internal exhaust recirculation (EGR) that regulates heat release rate and ignitability of the premixed gasoline and air mixture. The effects of intake re-breathing valve timing and 2nd DME injection timing of different split injection ratios were investigated and discussed in terms of combustion characteristics, emission and efficiencies. The analyses showed that re-breathing intake valve timing had a large effect on the operation range of CAI combustion due to EGR and intake temperature variation.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Methane Slip Using Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1798
An experimental study has been carried out with the end goal of minimizing engine-out methane emissions with Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion (PMPC) in a natural gas-diesel Dual-Fuel™ engine. The test engine used is a heavy-duty single cylinder engine with high pressure common rail diesel injection as well as port fuel injection of natural gas. Multiple variables were examined, including injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentages, and rail pressure for diesel, conventional Dual-Fuel, and PMPC Dual-Fuel combustion modes. The responses investigated were pressure rise rate, engine-out emissions, heat release and indicated specific fuel consumption. PMPC reduces methane slip when compared to conventional Dual-Fuel and improves emissions and fuel efficiency at the expense of higher cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Valve Timings on Lean Boost CAI Operation in a Two-stroke Poppet Valve DI Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1794
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. In order to take advantage of the inherent ability to retain a large and varied amount of residual at part-load condition and its potential to achieve extreme engine downsizing of a poppet valve engine running in the 2-stroke cycle, a single cylinder 4-valves camless direct injection gasoline engine has been developed and employed to investigate the CAI combustion process in the 2-stroke cycle mode. The CAI combustion is initiated by trapped residual gases from the adjustable scavenging process enabled by the variable intake and exhaust valve timings. In addition, the boosted intake air is used to provide the in-cylinder air/fuel mixture for maximum combustion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Performance, Efficiency and Emissions between Gasoline and E85 in a Two-Stroke Poppet Valve Engine with Lean Boost CAI Operation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0827
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Most research on CAI/HCCI combustion operations have been carried out in 4-stroke gasoline engines, despite it was originally employed to improve the part-load combustion and emission in the two-stroke gasoline engine. However, conventional ported two-stroke engines suffer from durability and high emissions. In order to take advantage of the high power density of the two-stroke cycle operation and avoid the difficulties of the ported engine, systematic research and development works have been carried out on the two-stroke cycle operation in a 4-valves gasoline engine. CAI combustion was achieved over a large range of operating conditions when the relative air/fuel ratio (lambda) was kept at one as measured by an exhaust lambda sensor.
Journal Article

Analysis of Diesel Engine In-Cylinder Air-Fuel Mixing with Homogeneity Factor: Combined Effects of Pilot Injection Strategies and Air Motion

2014-10-01
2014-01-9052
With a view to understanding the air-fuel mixing behavior and the effects of the mixture quality on the emissions formation and engine performance, a new quantitative factor of the in-cylinder air-fuel homogeneity named Homogeneity Factor (HF) has been developed. Its characteristics under various injection conditions and air swirl motions within the cylinder have been investigated with CFD simulation. The results have shown that air-fuel homogeneity is essentially affected by the spatial and temporal fuel distribution within the combustion chamber. Higher injection pressure, longer dwell time and increased pilot fuel quantities can contribute to better mixing quality resulting in increased HF and optimum engine performance with low fuel consumption and soot emissions. With regard to the in-cylinder air motion, increasing swirl ratio enhances the air-fuel mixing quality which has been reflected in the variation of the HF.
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