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Technical Paper

Effects of positive or negative dwell times of split injection on diesel spray development and mixture formation processes

2020-01-24
2019-32-0596
An investigation on the effect of dwell time of split injection on a diesel spray evolution and mixture formation process was carried out. A commercial 7-hole injector were used in the experiment to eliminate the possible discrepancies on the spray with single-hole research injector. Laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was implemented for the measurement of the temporal evolution of fuel evaporation and mixture concentration. The diesel surrogate fuel consists of n-tridecane and 2.5% of 1-methylnaphthalene in volume basis was used. The total amount of fuel injected was initially fixed to 5.0 mg/hole. A split ratio of 9: 1 in mass basis was selected according to the results obtained from a previous study. The dwell time was varied from 120 µs to a negative value of −50 µs. The effects of negative dwell time was not ideal for lean mixture formation when compared to zero or positive dwell time conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of ratio and dwell of split injection on fuel spray and mixture formation process under evaporating, non-reacting condition

2019-12-19
2019-01-2323
The effects of split injections of a diesel spray was evaluated in a constant volume chamber under evaporating, non-reacting condition. Laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was utilized for the mixture concentration measurement, using a diesel surrogate fuel consists of n-tridecane and 2.5% of 1-methylnaphthalene in volume basis. While fixing the total injected fuel mass of 5.0 mg/hole, the effects of split ratio in mass basis and the dwell time (or injection interval) were investigated. Among the split ratios conducted in the current study (3,7, 5:5 and 7:3), the split ratio of 7:3 was the optimum for lean mixture formation regarding the overall distribution of the equivalence ratio at end-of-injection (EOI) timing. The air entrainment wave at the EOI timing of the first injection allowed the fuel at the vicinity of the nozzle to become leaner at a faster rate.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Flat-Wall Impinging Spray Flame and Its Heat Transfer under Diesel Engine-Like Condition: Effects of Injection Pressure, Nozzle Hole Diameter and Impingement Distance

2019-12-19
2019-01-2183
Substantial amount of fuel energy input is lost by heat transfer through combustion chamber walls in the internal combustion engines. Thus, these heat losses account for reduced thermal efficiency, in that spray-wall impingement plays a crucial role in Direct Injection diesel engines. The objective of this study is to investigate the mechanism of the heat transfer from the spray/flame to the impinging wall under small diesel engine-like condition and how the spray characteristics are affected with regards to effect of injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter and impingement distance. The experiment results showed that injection pressure was predominant factor on spray-wall heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Internal Fuel Flow, Near-Field and Far-Field Spray Evolution, and Mixture Formation Characteristics of Diesel Injectors - A Comparison between Multi- and Single-Hole Injectors

2019-04-02
2019-01-0273
A comparison of spray characteristics was conducted between single- and multi-hole injectors. A commercial software (AVL FIRE) was used to investigate the internal flow inside the sac volume, as well as the initial spray behavior at 1 mm downstream of the nozzle exit. Microscopic imaging was applied to observe the spray dispersion angle (spray cone angle) at the vicinity of the nozzle. Laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was implemented for measuring the mixture concentration. Three injection quantities, namely 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/hole, were selected to observe the differences between transient and quasi-steady spray. The vapor penetration at the initial stage of the injection was greater for single-hole than that of multi-hole injector due to faster fuel pressure build-up process inside the sac volume.
Technical Paper

Split Injection Spray Development, Mixture Formation, and Combustion Processes in a Diesel Engine Piston Cavity: Rig Test and Real Engine Results

2018-09-10
2018-01-1698
The objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) strategies with split injection on soot emission characteristics. The split injection conditions included three injection intervals (1.1 ms, 1.3 ms, and 1.5 ms) and three injection quantity fraction ratios (Q1/Q2 = 10.0/14.6 mm3/st, 15.2/9.4 mm3/st, and 20.0/4.6 mm3/st). The results in real engine tests showed that shorter injection intervals, and the 1st injection quantity contributes to reduced soot emissions. A rig test with high-pressure and high-temperature constant-volume vessel (CVV) and a two-dimensional (2D) model piston cavity were used to determine correlations between injection conditions and soot emissions. During the rig test, fuel was injected into the CVV by a single-hole nozzle under split injection strategies. The injection strategies include the same injection intervals and quantity fraction ratios as in the real engine test.
Technical Paper

Injection Strategy to Enhance Mixture Formation and Combustion of Fuel Spray in Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0241
Increasing the injection pressure and splitting the injection stage are the major approaches for a diesel engine to facilitate the fuel-air mixture formation process, which determines the subsequent combustion and emission formation. In this study, the free spray was injected by a single-hole nozzle with a hole-diameter of 0.111 mm. The impinging spray, formed by a two-dimensional (2D) piston cavity having the same shape as a small-bore diesel engine, was also investigated. The injection process was performed by both with and without pre-injection. The main injection was carried out either as a single main injection with injection pressure of 100 MPa (Pre + S100) or a split main injection with 160 MPa defined by the mass fraction ratio of 3:1 (Pre + D160_3-1). The tracer Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was adopted to observe the spray mixture formation process. The ignition delay/location and the soot formation in the spray flame were analyzed by the two-color method.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hole Diameter and Injection Pressure on Fuel Spray and Its Evaporation Characteristics of Multi-Hole Nozzle for Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2305
The performance of a diesel engine largely depends on the spray behavior and mixture formation. Nozzle configurations and operating conditions are important factors that influence spray development. Using numerical and experimental methods, this study focused on the spray development of multi-hole nozzles under non-evaporating and evaporating conditions to compare the influence of nozzle hole diameter and injection pressure on spray characteristics. High-speed video observation was employed to study the properties of spray development under the non-evaporating condition, while the Laser Absorption Scattering technique was used in the observation and quantitative analysis of evaporating spray characteristics in the evaporating condition. In addition, computational fluid dynamics study results published previously [1] were correlated with the current experimental results to provide more detailed explanations about the mechanism of the characteristics of spray behavior.
Technical Paper

Hole Geometrical Effect on Internal Flow, Fuel Atomization and Spray Evaporation of Multi-Hole Nozzle for Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0860
With the aim of improving engine performance, recent trend of fuel injection nozzle design followed by engineers and researchers is focusing on more efficient fuel break up, atomization, and fuel evaporation. Therefore, it is crucial to characterize the effect of nozzle geometric design on fuel internal flow dynamics and the consequent fuel-air mixture properties. In this study, the internal flow and spray characteristics generated by the practical multi-hole (10 holes) nozzles with different nozzle hole length and hole diameter were investigated in conjunction with a series of computational and experimental methods. Specifically, the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial code was used to predict the internal flow variation inside different nozzle configurations, and the high-speed video observation method was applied to visualize the spray evolution processes under non-evaporating conditions.
Journal Article

Characterization of Internal Flow and Spray Behaviors of Hole-Type Nozzle under Tiny and Normal Injection Quantity Conditions for Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0862
The tiny and normal injection quantity instances usually happen under the multi-injection strategy condition to restrain the uncontrollability of the ignition timing of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion concept. Meanwhile, instead of the traditional and fundamental single-hole diesel injector, the axisymmetric multi-hole injectors are usually applied to couple with the combustion chamber under most practical operating conditions. In the current paper, the internal flow and spray characteristics generated by single-hole and multi-hole (10 holes) nozzles under normal (2 mm3/hole) and tiny (0.3 mm3/hole) injection quantity conditions were investigated in conjunction with a series of experimental and computational methods. High-speed video observation was conducted at 10000 and 100000 fps under the condition of 120 MPa rail pressure, 1.5 MPa ambient pressure, room temperature, and nitrogen environment to visualize different spray properties.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Spray with Temporally-Splitting High-Pressure Injection

2015-11-17
2015-32-0825
The effect of temporally-splitting high pressure injection on Diesel spray combustion and soot formation processes was studied by using the high-speed video camera. The spray was injected by the single-hole nozzle with a hole diameter of 0.11mm into the high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel. The free spray and the spray impingement on the two dimensional (2D) piston cavity wall were examined. Injection pressures of 100 and 160 MPa for the single injection and 160 MPa for the split injection were selected. The flame structure and soot formation process were examined by using the two-color pyrometry. The soot generated in the flame under the split injection under 160 MPa becomes higher than that of the single injection under 160 MPa.
Technical Paper

Spray and Flame Behaviors of Ethanol-Gasoline Blend Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1950
Different ethanol-gasoline blended fuels, namely the E0 (100% gasoline), E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline mixed in volume basis) and E100 (100% ethanol) were injected by a valve-covered-orifice (VCO) hole-type nozzle in a condition simulating the near top dead center (TDC). Two typical injection pressures of 10 and 20MPa were adopted to clarify the spray and flame behaviors. The correlation of the upstream unburned fuel and the flame propagation was analyzed by the high-speed imaging of shadowgraph. Moreover, the effects of ignition timing and location on the flame propagation were discussed based on the imaging of OH* chemiluminescence.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Nozzle Internal Flow and Near-Field Spray of Multi-Hole Injectors for Diesel Engines

2015-09-01
2015-01-1920
The combustion process, emission formation and the resulting engine performance in a diesel engine are well known to be governed mainly by spray behaviors and the consequent mixture formation quality. One of the most important factors that affect the spray development is the nozzle configuration. Originally, single-hole diesel injector is usually applied in fundamental research to provide insights into the spray characteristics. However, the spray emerging from a realistic multi-hole injector approaches the practical engine operation situation better. Meanwhile, previous research has shown that the reduced nozzle hole diameter is effective for preparing more uniform mixture. In the current paper, a study about the effects of nozzle configuration and hole diameter on the internal flow and spray properties was conducted in conjunction with a series of experimental and computational methods.
Journal Article

Small Injection Amount Fuel Spray Characteristics Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0124
Spray characteristics under very small injection amount injected by the hole-type nozzle for a D.I. Diesel engine were investigated using the spray test rig consisting a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel with optical accesses and a common rail injection system. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was used to visualize the liquid and vapor phase distributions in the evaporating spray. In the very small injection amount condition of the evaporating and free (no wall impingement) spray, the both spray tip penetration and spray angle are larger than those of the non-evaporating free spray. This tendency contradicts the previous observation of the diesel spray with large injection amount and the quasi steady state momentum theory. In the case of the spray impinging on a 2-dimensional piston cavity wall, the spray tip penetration of the evaporating spray is larger than that of the non-evaporating spray.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Spray Flame under Flat Wall Impinging Condition --LAS, OH* Chemiluminescence and Two Color Pyrometry Results

2014-10-13
2014-01-2636
The effect of spray/wall interaction on diesel spray flame characteristics was investigated by applying LAS (Laser Absorption-Scattering) technique, OH* chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry in a constant volume vessel. To insure the precision of this investigation, following necessary verification experiments were carried out: (1) OH* chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry were synchronously employed to analyze the influence of soot incandescence on OH* chemiluminescence signal intensity; and (2) frontal view and side view OH* images of a linearly arranged three holes injector were concentrated on to investigate the effect of soot on optical intensity attenuation under line-of-sight image recording condition. And then the effect of impinging distance (30,40,50,60 mm and free) on diesel spray and combustion behaviors were studied. The results reveal that the impinging distance plays a significant role in mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Studies of Spray Combustion Processes of Palm Oil Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels using Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms

2014-04-01
2014-01-1143
Spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel (PO) and conventional diesel fuels were simulated using the CONVERGE CFD code. Thermochemical and reaction kinetic data (115 species and 460 reactions) by Luo et al. (2012) and Lu et al. (2009) (68 species and 283 reactions) were implemented in the CONVERGE CFD to simulate the spray and combustion processes of the two fuels. Tetradecane (C14H30) and n- heptane (C7H16) were used as surrogates for diesel. For the palm biodiesel, the mixture of methyl decanoate (C11H20O2), methyl-9-decenoate (C11H19O2) and n-heptane was used as surrogate. The palm biodiesel surrogates were combined in proportions based on the previous GC-MS results for the five major biodiesel components namely methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate.
Journal Article

Effect of Spray/Wall Interaction on Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation in Two-Dimensional Piston Cavity

2013-10-15
2013-32-9021
The effects of spray/wall interaction on diesel combustion and soot formation in a two-dimensional piston cavity were studied with a high speed color video camera in a constant volume combustion vessel. The two-dimensional piston cavity was applied to generate the impinging spray flame. In the cavity, the flat surface which plays a role as the cylinder head has a 13.5 degree angle with the injector axis and the impinging point was located 30 mm away from the nozzle tip. Three injection pressures of 100, 150, and 200 MPa and a single hole diesel injector (hole diameter: 0.133mm) were selected. The flame structure and combustion process were examined by using the color luminosity images. Two-color pyrometry was used to measure the line-of sight soot temperature and concentration by using the R and B channels of the color images. The soot mass generated by impinging spray flame is higher than that of the free spray flame.
Technical Paper

Cross-Flow Effect on Behavior of Fuel Spray Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for D.I. Gasoline Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2553
Spray characteristics are of great importance to achieve fuel economy and low emissions for a D.I. gasoline engine. In this study, the characteristics of the fuel spray as well as its interaction with a cross-flow were investigated. The fuel was injected by a VCO injector into an optically accessible rectangular wind tunnel under the normal temperature and pressure, in which the direction of the injection was perpendicular to the direction of the cross-flow. The velocity of the cross-flow varied from 0 to 10 m/s while the injection pressure was 5 and 10 MPa. With using the high speed video camera and the PIV system, the spray profile, velocity distribution and the penetration distance were measured. The lower penetration distance can be obtained with the lower injection pressure and the increased velocity of the cross-flow, however the injected fuel expands along the direction of the cross-flow, which indicates that spray atomization and mixing of fuel and air are enhanced.
Journal Article

Fuel Spray Evaporation and Mixture Formation Processes of Ethanol/Gasoline Blend Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0018
Ethanol is regarded as the promising alternative fuel for gasoline to meet the strict low emission standard for spark ignition engines. In this study, the spray mixture formation process for different ethanol blended fuels, including E0 (gasoline), E85 (85% volume of ethanol and 15% volume of gasoline) and E100 (ethanol), has been evaluated using hole-type nozzle by the measurement of Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique in a constant volume vessel. Based on the principle of LAS, the quantitative vapor and liquid phase distribution from different ethanol blended fuel can be obtained by the light extinction regime. Aiming to analyze the effect of mixture formation and evaporation for different components of blended fuel or pure gasoline and ethanol, the vapor distribution of gasoline was determined by using p-xylene, which had similar physical properties to gasoline, especially higher boiling temperature components, and higher absorption for ultraviolet.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on Mixture Formation and Ignition Processes of Spray Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine

2011-11-08
2011-32-0523
The purpose of this study is to investigate the spray characteristics and ignition stability of gasoline sprays injected from a hole-type nozzle. Using a single-hole VCO (Valve-Covered-Orifice) nozzle, the spray characteristics were studied with LAS (Laser Absorption Scattering) technique, and then flame propagation and ignition stability were investigated inside a high temperature high pressure constant volume vessel using a high speed video camera. The spatial ignition stability of the spray at different locations was tested by adjusting the position of the electrodes. By adjusting the ignition timings, the stable ignition windows for 3 determined locations where the ignition stability was high at a fixed ignition timing were studied. The flame propagation process was examined using high speed shadowgraph method. Experimental results show that when the ignition points are located on the spray axis, the ignition probability is low.
Technical Paper

Effects of Nozzle Hole Diameter and Injection Pressure on Flame Lift-Off and Soot Formation in D.I. Diesel Combustion

2011-08-30
2011-01-1813
Previous research has shown that the reduced nozzle hole diameter and elevated injection pressure are effective for preparing a uniform fuel-air mixture in a direct injection (D.I.) Diesel engine. A micro-hole nozzle with a hole diameter of 0.08 mm and an ultra-high injection pressure of 300 MPa have been employed to investigate the mixture formation process under various conditions. The aim of the current work is to clarify the effect of nozzle hole diameter and injection pressure on flame lift-off and soot formation processes. The free sprays from the micro-hole and conventional nozzles were investigated at a high-temperature, high-pressure constant volume vessel. A high-speed video camera system was employed to record the non-vaporizing sprays and combustion. The direct photography of OH chemiluminescence was used to provide information about the high temperature combustion process and to measure the flame lift-off length.
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