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Technical Paper

Damping Effects Introduced by a Nonlinear Vibration Absorber in Automotive Drivelines at Idle Engine Speeds

Legislation on vehicle emissions and the requirements for fuel efficiency are currently the key development driving factors in the automotive industry. Research activities to comply with these targets point to engine downsizing and new boosting technologies, which have adverse effects on the NVH performance, durability and component life. As a consequence of engine downsizing, substantial torsional oscillations are generated due to high combustion pressures. Meanwhile, to attenuate torsional vibrations, the manufacturers have implemented absorbers that are tuned to certain frequency ranges, including clutch dampers, Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) and centrifugal pendulum dampers. These devices add mass/inertia to the system, potentially introducing negative effects on other vehicle attributes, such as weight, driving performance and gear shiftability.
Journal Article

Modeling of a Reversible Air Conditioning-Heat Pump System for Electric Vehicles

This paper presents a simulation model for a reversible air conditioning and heat pump system for electric vehicles. The system contains a variable speed compressor, three microchannel heat exchangers, an accumulator, and two electronic expansion valves. Heat exchangers are solved by discretizing into cells. Compressor and accumulator models are developed by fitting data with physical insights. Expansion valves are modeled by isenthalpic processes. System performance is calculated by connecting all parts in the same way as the physical system and solved iteratively. The model is reasonably validated against experimental data from a separate experimental study. Future improvement is needed to take into account maldistribution in outdoor heat exchanger working as an evaporator in HP mode. Charge retention in components also requires further study.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of Phase Separation in Vertical Headers of Microchannel HEs

This paper presents the experimental analysis of separation in vertical headers based on flow visualization. Two-phase separation phenomena inside the header is observed and quantified. Driving forces are analyzed to study the mechanisms for two-phase flow motion and flow regimes. Main tube of the header is made of clear PVC for visualization study. R-134a is used as the fluid of interest and the mass flux from the inlet pass is 55 kg/m2s - 195 kg/m2s. Potential ways to improve two-phase separation are discussed. A model is built to show how separation brings potential benefits to MAC heat exchangers by arranging the flow path.
Technical Paper

Refrigerant-Oil Flow at the Compressor Discharge

Automotive air conditioning compressor produces an annular-mist flow consisting of gas-phase refrigerant flow with oil film and oil droplets. This paper reports a method to calculate the oil retention and oil circulation ratio based on oil film thickness, wave speed, oil droplet size, oil droplet speed, and mass flow rate. Oil flow parameters are measured by high-speed camera capture and video processing in a non-invasive way. The estimated oil retention and oil circulation ratio results are compared quantitatively with the measurements from system experiments under different compressor outlet gas superficial velocity. The agreement between video result and sampling measurement shows that this method can be applied in other annular-mist flow analysis. It is also shown that most of the oil exists in film from the mass point of view while oil droplets contributes more to the oil mass flow rate because they travel in a much higher speed.
Technical Paper

Vortex Tube Heat Booster to Improve Performance of Heat Driven Cooling Cycles for Automotive Applications

Increasing energy costs justify research on how to improve utilization of low-grade energy that is abundantly available as waste heat from many thermodynamic processes such as internal combustion engine cycles. One option is to directly generate cooling through absorption/adsorption or vapor jet ejector cycles. As in the case of power generation cycles, cooling cycle efficiencies would increase if the heat input were available at higher temperature. This paper assesses the feasibility of a novel idea that uses a vortex tube to increase the available temperature levels of low-grade heat sources. The desired temperature increase is achieved by sending a stream of vapor that was heated by the waste heat source through a vortex tube, which further elevates the temperature used in a heat driven ejector cooling cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of an Air Conditioning-Heat Pump System for Electric Vehicles

This paper presents the experimentally obtained performance characteristics of an air conditioning-heat pump system that uses heat exchangers from a commercially available Nissan Leaf EV. It was found that refrigerant charge needed for cooling operation was larger than that for heating function with the test setup. The effects of: a). indoor air flow rate, b). outdoor air flow rate, and c). compressor speed on heating capacity and energy efficiency were explored and presented. Appropriate opening size of expansion valve that controlled subcooling for better energy efficiency was discussed and results were presented. Expansion valve opening size also strongly affected charge migration. Warm-up tests at different ambient conditions showed the necessity of a secondary heater to be reserved for very low ambient temperature.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Microchannel Evaporator Design on the Performance of Two-Phase Ejector Automotive Air Conditioning Cycles

Much attention has been given in recent years to the use of two-phase ejectors and particularly to the performance of the standard ejector cycle with a liquid-vapor separator. However, this cycle may not be the best choice for automotive applications due to the large size required by an efficient separator as well as the cycle's performance at conditions of lower ejector potential. A limited amount of recent research has focused on alternate two-phase ejector cycles that may be better suited for automotive applications. One of these cycles, using the ejector to allow for evaporation at two different temperatures and eliminating the need for a separator, will be the subject of investigation in this paper. Previous investigations of this cycle have been mainly theoretical or experimental; this paper aims to provide a numerical analysis of the effect of evaporator design on the performance of the ejector cycles.
Technical Paper

Model Accuracy of Variable Fidelity Vapor Cycle System Simulations

As the cost and complexity of modern aircraft systems advance, emphasis has been placed on model-based design as a means for cost effective subsystem optimization. The success of the model-based design process is contingent on accurate prediction of the system response prior to hardware fabrication, but the level of fidelity necessary to achieve this objective is often called into question. Identifying the key benefits and limitations of model fidelity along with the key parameters that drive model accuracy will help improve the model-based design process enabling low cost, optimized solutions for current and future programs. In this effort, the accuracy and capability of a vapor cycle system (VCS) model were considered from a model fidelity and parameter accuracy standpoint. A range of model fidelity was evaluated in terms of accuracy, capability, simulation speed, and development time.
Technical Paper

Temperature Control of Water with Heating, Cooling and Mixing in a Process with Recycle Loop

A hot and cold water mixing process with a steam condenser and a chilled water heat exchanger is set up for an engine EGR fouling test. The test rig has water recycled in the loop of a pump, heat exchangers, a three-way mixing valve, and a test EGR unit. The target unit temperature is controlled by a heating, cooling and mixing process with individual valves regulating the flow-rate of saturated steam, chilled water and mixing ratio. The challenges in control design are the dead-time, interaction, nonlinearity and multivariable characteristics of heat exchangers, plus the flow recycle in the system. A systems method is applied to extract a simple linear model for control design. The method avoids the nonlinearity and interaction among different temperatures at inlet, outlet and flow-rate. The test data proves the effectiveness of systems analysis and modeling methodology. As a result, the first-order linear model facilitates the controller design.
Technical Paper

Comparison of CO2 and R134a Two-Phase Ejector Performance for Use in Automotive Air Conditioning Applications

Two-phase ejectors are devices capable of recovering the expansion power that is lost by the throttling process in air conditioning cycles, resulting in improved system performance. High-pressure fluids such as CO2 have received the majority of attention in two-phase ejector studies in recent years due to the fluid's high throttling loss and high potential for improvement. However, low-pressure working fluids such as R134a, commonly used in automotive applications, have received considerably less attention owing to their lower recovery potential. While the two fluids have very different properties, both offer the potential for noticeable COP improvement with ejector cycles. Thus, understanding the operation and performance of ejectors with both fluids can be important to the design of ejector air conditioning cycles. This paper compares available experimental data for the performance of two-phase ejectors using CO2 and R134a.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Impact on R134a Distribution and Microchannel Heat Exchanger Performance

Lubricant in compressor usually flows out with refrigerant. Thus, it is evitable for lubricant to be present in the heat exchanger, which significantly affects the heat exchanger performance. This paper is to investigate the effects of PAG oil on R134a distribution in the microchannel heat exchanger (MCHX) with vertical headers and to provide a tool to model R134a (with oil) distribution and its effects on MCHX capacity. The flow configuration in MCHX under the heat pump mode of the reversible system is mimicked in the experimental facility: refrigerant-oil mixture is fed into the test header from the bottom pass and exits through the top pass. It is found that a small amount of oil (OCR=0.5%) worsen the distribution. But further increasing OCR to 2.5% and 4.7%, the distribution becomes better.
Journal Article

An Experimentally Validated Model for Predicting Refrigerant and Lubricant Inventory in MAC Heat Exchangers

The paper presents a semi-empirical model to predict refrigerant and lubricant inventory in both evaporator and condenser of an automotive air conditioning (MAC) system. In the model, heat exchanger is discretized into small volumes. Temperature, pressure and mass inventory are calculated by applying heat transfer, pressure drop and void fraction correlations to these volumes respectively. Refrigerant and lubricant are treated as a zeotropic mixture with a temperature glide. As refrigerant evaporates or condenses, thermophysical properties are evaluated accordingly with the change of lubricant concentration. Experimental data is used to validate the model. As a result, refrigerant and lubricant mass is predicted within 20% in the evaporator. However, in the condenser, lubricant mass was consistently under-predicted while refrigerant mass was predicted within 15% error. Moreover, the lubricant under-prediction becomes more significant at higher Oil Circulation Ratio (OCR).
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Modeling Toolbox for Air Vehicle Vapor Cycle Systems

Modern air vehicles face increasing internal heat loads that must be appropriately understood in design and managed in operation. This paper examines one solution to creating more efficient and effective thermal management systems (TMSs): vapor cycle systems (VCSs). VCSs are increasingly being investigated by aerospace government and industry as a means to provide much greater efficiency in moving thermal energy from one physical location to another. In this work, we develop the AFRL (Air Force Research Laboratory) Transient Thermal Modeling and Optimization (ATTMO) toolbox: a modeling and simulation tool based in Matlab/Simulink that is suitable for understanding, predicting, and designing a VCS. The ATTMO toolbox also provides capability for understanding the VCS as part of a larger air vehicle system. The toolbox is presented in a modular fashion whereby the individual components are presented along with the framework for interconnecting them.
Technical Paper

An Application of Traction Vectoring to a Formula SAE Car

The Formula SAE competition is intended to encourage technical development consistent with safety. This paper describes an application of an automated “fiddle brake”, or traction vectoring system to a Formula SAE car. The expected performance advantages of the system over cars equipped with mechanical limited slip differentials is discussed. Test results are included using only a limited slip differential, the limited slip differential plus the new system, and finally the new system and an open differential. The power requirements of the system are discussed. A discussion of some other traction vectoring designs is included.
Technical Paper

Costs and Benefits of Head up Displays: An Attention Perspective and a Meta Analysis

This paper reports a meta analysis of all studies located in the literature that have compared head up versus head down display of equivalent information, as these displays support both tracking (e.g., flight path control) and discrete event detection. The data clearly indicate a HUD advantage for most tasks, except tracking during cruise flight and event detection during final approach. The latter HUD cost however is observed only when events to be detected are entirely unexpected, reflecting a form of cognitive tunneling. The meta-analysis also reveals an advantage for conformal over non-conformal HUD imagery.
Technical Paper

A Global Model for Steady State and Transient S.I. Engine Heat Transfer Studies

A global, systems-level model which characterizes the thermal behavior of internal combustion engines is described in this paper. Based on resistor-capacitor thermal networks, either steady-state or transient thermal simulations can be performed. A two-zone, quasi-dimensional spark-ignition engine simulation is used to determine in-cylinder gas temperature and convection coefficients. Engine heat fluxes and component temperatures can subsequently be predicted from specification of general engine dimensions, materials, and operating conditions. Emphasis has been placed on minimizing the number of model inputs and keeping them as simple as possible to make the model practical and useful as an early design tool. The success of the global model depends on properly scaling the general engine inputs to accurately model engine heat flow paths across families of engine designs. The development and validation of suitable, scalable submodels is described in detail in this paper.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Advanced Steering Control with Computer Simulation

Using neural networks, an algorithm has been developed to steer a wheel loader vehicle. Mathematical functions have been used in the past in an attempt to model a human in their operation of many types of vehicles. Since such functions can typically only be derived for situations in which the problem domain is thoroughly understood, research continues in an effort to develop a complete “operator model”. Neural Network algorithms were utilized in an attempt to determine the feasibility of accurately modeling the operator of a wheel loader construction vehicle. These algorithms were also used to determine how the control of different vehicle functions might be automated on a wheel loader.
Technical Paper

The Mechanism of Surface Ignition in Internal Combustion Engines

A theoretical model for the determination of surface ignition has been established on the basis of thermal and chemical properties of deposits as related to heat transfer rates in an internal combustion engine. It is used in conjunction with fuel ignition temperature and ignition delay, as obtained using an adiabatic compression machine. The model, in conjunction with the experimental data, has the flexibility of determining the effects of various parameters which are prevalent in surface ignition. The fuels most prone to surface ignition were benzene, diisobutylene, toluene, and isooctane, in that order. The results agree favorably with those obtained by other experimenters using actual engines.